Famous people on Germany's street names


Friedrich Schiller

Friedrich Schiller 1989 Johann Christoph Friedrich von Schiller was a German polymath and poet, playwright, historian, philosopher, physician, lawyer. Schiller is considered by most Germans to be Germany's most important classical playwright.

Johann Sebastian Bach

Johann Sebastian Bach 1989 Johann Sebastian Bach was a German composer and musician of the late Baroque period. He is known for his prolific authorship of music across a variety of instruments and forms, including; orchestral music such as the Brandenburg Concertos; solo instrumental works such as the cello suites and sonatas and partitas for solo violin; keyboard works such as the Goldberg Variations and The Well-Tempered Clavier; organ works such as the Schubler Chorales and the Toccata and Fugue in D minor; and choral works such as the St Matthew Passion and the Mass in B minor. Since the 19th-century Bach Revival, he has been generally regarded as one of the greatest composers in the history of Western music.

Johann Wolfgang von Goethe

Johann Wolfgang von Goethe 1907 Johann Wolfgang von Goethe was a German polymath and writer, who is widely regarded as the greatest and most influential writer in the German language. His work has had a profound and wide-ranging influence on Western literary, political, and philosophical thought from the late 18th century to the present day. Goethe was a German poet, playwright, novelist, scientist, statesman, theatre director, and critic. His works include plays, poetry and aesthetic criticism, as well as treatises on botany, anatomy, and color.

Friedrich Ludwig Jahn

Friedrich Ludwig Jahn 1873 Johann Friedrich Ludwig Christoph Jahn was a German gymnastics educator and nationalist whose writing is credited with the founding of the German gymnastics (Turner) movement as well as influencing the German Campaign of 1813, during which a coalition of German states effectively ended the occupation by Napoleon's First French Empire. His admirers know him as "Turnvater Jahn", roughly meaning "Father of Gymnastics Jahn". Jahn invented the parallel bars, rings, high bar, the pommel horse and the vault horse.

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart 1349 Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was a prolific and influential composer of the Classical period. Despite his short life, his rapid pace of composition resulted in more than 800 works representing virtually every Western classical genre of his time. Many of these compositions are acknowledged as pinnacles of the symphonic, concertante, chamber, operatic, and choral repertoire. Mozart is widely regarded as being one of the greatest composers in the history of Western music, with his music admired for its "melodic beauty, its formal elegance and its richness of harmony and texture".

Friedrich Wilhelm Raiffeisen

Friedrich Wilhelm Raiffeisen 1259 Friedrich Wilhelm Raiffeisen was a German mayor and cooperative pioneer. Several credit union systems and cooperative banks have been named after Raiffeisen, who pioneered rural credit unions.

Ludwig van Beethoven

Ludwig van Beethoven 1193 Ludwig van Beethoven was a German composer and pianist. He is one of the most revered figures in the history of Western music; his works rank among the most performed of the classical music repertoire and span the transition from the Classical period to the Romantic era in classical music. Beethoven's career has conventionally been divided into early, middle, and late periods. His early period, during which he forged his craft, is typically considered to have lasted until 1802. From 1802 to around 1812, his middle period showed an individual development from the styles of Joseph Haydn and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, and is sometimes characterized as heroic. During this time, he began to grow increasingly deaf. In his late period, from 1812 to 1827, he extended his innovations in musical form and expression.

Ludwig Uhland

Ludwig Uhland 1110 Johann Ludwig Uhland was a German poet, philologist, literary historian, lawyer and politician.     

Gotthold Ephraim Lessing

Gotthold Ephraim Lessing 1048 Gotthold Ephraim Lessing was a German philosopher, dramatist, publicist and art critic, and a representative of the Enlightenment era. His plays and theoretical writings substantially influenced the development of German literature. He is widely considered by theatre historians to be the first dramaturg in his role at Abel Seyler's Hamburg National Theatre.

Franz Schubert

Franz Schubert 944 Franz Peter Schubert was an Austrian composer of the late Classical and early Romantic eras. Despite his short life, Schubert left behind a vast oeuvre, including more than 600 secular vocal works, seven complete symphonies, sacred music, operas, incidental music, and a large body of piano and chamber music. His major works include the art songs "Erlkönig", "Gretchen am Spinnrade", "Ave Maria"; the Trout Quintet, the unfinished Symphony No. 8 in B minor, the "Great" Symphony No. 9 in C major, the String Quartet No. 14 Death and the Maiden, a String Quintet, the two sets of Impromptus for solo piano, the three last piano sonatas, the Fantasia in F minor for piano four hands, the opera Fierrabras, the incidental music to the play Rosamunde, and the song cycles Die schöne Müllerin, Winterreise and Schwanengesang.

Joseph Freiherr von Eichendorff

Joseph Freiherr von Eichendorff 909 Joseph Freiherr von Eichendorff was a German poet, novelist, playwright, literary critic, translator, and anthologist. Eichendorff was one of the major writers and critics of Romanticism. Ever since their publication and up to the present day, some of his works have been very popular in German-speaking Europe.

Mary, mother of Jesus

Mary, mother of Jesus 899 Mary was a first-century Jewish woman of Nazareth, the wife of Joseph and the mother of Jesus. She is a central figure of Christianity, venerated under various titles such as virgin or queen, many of them mentioned in the Litany of Loreto. The Eastern and Oriental Orthodox, Church of the East, Catholic, Anglican, and Lutheran churches believe that Mary, as mother of Jesus, is the Mother of God. Other Protestant views on Mary vary, with some holding her to have lesser status.

Richard Wagner

Richard Wagner 883 Wilhelm Richard Wagner was a German composer, theatre director, polemicist, and conductor who is chiefly known for his operas. Unlike most opera composers, Wagner wrote both the libretto and the music for each of his stage works. Initially establishing his reputation as a composer of works in the romantic vein of Carl Maria von Weber and Giacomo Meyerbeer, Wagner revolutionised opera through his concept of the Gesamtkunstwerk, by which he sought to synthesise the poetic, visual, musical and dramatic arts, with music subsidiary to drama. He described this vision in a series of essays published between 1849 and 1852. Wagner realised these ideas most fully in the first half of the four-opera cycle Der Ring des Nibelungen.

Heinrich Heine

Heinrich Heine 874 Christian Johann Heinrich Heine was a German poet, writer and literary critic. He is best known outside Germany for his early lyric poetry, which was set to music in the form of Lieder by composers such as Robert Schumann and Franz Schubert. Heine's later verse and prose are distinguished by their satirical wit and irony. He is considered a member of the Young Germany movement. His radical political views led to many of his works being banned by German authorities—which, however, only added to his fame. He spent the last 25 years of his life as an expatriate in Paris.

Hermann Löns

Hermann Löns 799 Hermann Löns was a German journalist and writer. He is most famous as "The Poet of the Heath" for his novels and poems celebrating the people and landscape of the North German moors, particularly the Lüneburg Heath in Lower Saxony. Löns is well known in Germany for his famous folksongs. He was also a hunter, naturalist and conservationist. Despite being well over the normal recruitment age, Löns enlisted and was killed in World War I and his purported remains were later used by the German government for celebratory purposes.

Adolph Kolping

Adolph Kolping 740 Adolph Kolping was a German Catholic priest and the founder of the Kolping Association. He led the movement for providing and promoting social support for workers in industrialized cities while also working to promote the dignities of workers in accordance with the social magisterium of the faith. He was called Gesellenvater.

Wilhelm II

Wilhelm II 737 Wilhelm II was the last German Emperor and King of Prussia from 1888 until his abdication in 1918, which marked the end of the German Empire and the House of Hohenzollern's 300-year reign in Prussia and 500-year reign in Brandenburg.

Martin Luther

Martin Luther 720 Martin Luther was a German priest, theologian, author, hymnwriter, professor, and Augustinian friar. Luther was the seminal figure of the Protestant Reformation, and his theological beliefs form the basis of Lutheranism. He is regarded as one of the most influential figures in Western and Christian history.

Rudolf Diesel

Rudolf Diesel 710 Rudolf Christian Karl Diesel was a German inventor and mechanical engineer who is famous for having invented the Diesel engine, which burns Diesel fuel; both are named after him.

Immanuel Kant

Immanuel Kant 670 Immanuel Kant was a German philosopher and one of the central Enlightenment thinkers. Born in Königsberg, Kant's comprehensive and systematic works in epistemology, metaphysics, ethics, and aesthetics have made him one of the most influential and controversial figures in modern Western philosophy, being called the "father of modern ethics", the "father of modern aesthetics", and for bringing together rationalism and empiricism earned the title of "father of modern philosophy".

Joseph Haydn

Joseph Haydn 661 Franz Joseph Haydn was an Austrian composer of the Classical period. He was instrumental in the development of chamber music such as the string quartet and piano trio. His contributions to musical form have led him to be called "Father of the Symphony" and "Father of the String quartet".

Werner von Siemens

Werner von Siemens 658 Ernst Werner Siemens was a German electrical engineer, inventor and industrialist. Siemens's name has been adopted as the SI unit of electrical conductance, the siemens. He founded the electrical and telecommunications conglomerate Siemens and invented the electric tram, trolley bus, electric locomotive and electric elevator.

Eduard Mörike

Eduard Mörike 658 Eduard Friedrich Mörike was a German Lutheran pastor who was also a Romantic poet and writer of novellas and novels. Many of his poems were set to music and became established folk songs, while others were used by composers Hugo Wolf and Ignaz Lachner in their symphonic works.

Heinrich von Brühl

Heinrich von Brühl 647 Heinrich, Count von Brühl, was a Polish-Saxon statesman at the court of Saxony and the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and a member of the powerful German von Brühl family. The incumbency of this ambitious politician coincided with the decline of both states. Brühl was a skillful diplomat and cunning strategist, who managed to attain control over of Saxony and Poland, partly by controlling its king, Augustus III, who ultimately could only be accessed through Brühl himself.

Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi

Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi 645 Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi was a Swiss pedagogue and educational reformer who exemplified Romanticism in his approach.

Friedrich Ebert

Friedrich Ebert 644 Friedrich Ebert was a German politician of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) and the first president of Germany from 1919 until his death in office in 1925.

Robert Koch

Robert Koch 608 Heinrich Hermann Robert Koch was a German physician and microbiologist. As the discoverer of the specific causative agents of deadly infectious diseases including tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax, he is regarded as one of the main founders of modern bacteriology. As such he is popularly nicknamed the father of microbiology, and as the father of medical bacteriology. His discovery of the anthrax bacterium in 1876 is considered as the birth of modern bacteriology. Koch used his discoveries to establish that germs "could cause a specific disease" and directly provided proofs for the germ theory of diseases, therefore creating the scientific basis of public health, saving millions of lives. For his life's work Koch is seen as one of the founders of modern medicine.

Friedrich Hölderlin

Friedrich Hölderlin 597 Johann Christian Friedrich Hölderlin was a German poet and philosopher. Described by Norbert von Hellingrath as "the most German of Germans", Hölderlin was a key figure of German Romanticism. Particularly due to his early association with and philosophical influence on Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel and Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling, he was also an important thinker in the development of German Idealism.

Gottlieb Daimler

Gottlieb Daimler 590 Gottlieb Wilhelm Daimler was a German engineer, industrial designer and industrialist born in Schorndorf, in what is now Germany. He was a pioneer of internal-combustion engines and automobile development. He invented the high-speed liquid petroleum-fueled engine.

Johannes Gutenberg

Johannes Gutenberg 587 Johannes Gensfleisch zur Laden zum Gutenberg was a German inventor and craftsman who introduced letterpress printing to Europe with his movable-type printing press. Though movable type was already in use in East Asia, Gutenberg invented the printing press, which later spread across the world. His work led to an information revolution and the unprecedented mass-spread of literature throughout Europe. It had a profound impact on the development of the Renaissance, Reformation, and humanist movements.

Robert Bosch

Robert Bosch 583 Robert Bosch was a German industrialist, engineer and inventor, founder of Robert Bosch GmbH.       

Albert Schweitzer

Albert Schweitzer 583 Ludwig Philipp Albert Schweitzer was an Alsatian polymath. He was a theologian, organist, musicologist, writer, humanitarian, philosopher, and physician. A Lutheran minister, Schweitzer challenged both the secular view of the historical Jesus as depicted by the historical-critical method current at this time, as well as the traditional Christian view. His contributions to the interpretation of Pauline Christianity concern the role of Paul's mysticism of "being in Christ" as primary and the doctrine of justification by faith as secondary.

Ferdinand von Zeppelin

Ferdinand von Zeppelin 571 Count Ferdinand von Zeppelin was a German general and later inventor of the Zeppelin rigid airships. His name became synonymous with airships and dominated long-distance flight until the 1930s. He founded the company Luftschiffbau Zeppelin.

Johannes Brahms

Johannes Brahms 546 Johannes Brahms was a German composer, pianist, and conductor of the mid-Romantic period. Born in Hamburg into a Lutheran family, he spent much of his professional life in Vienna. He is sometimes grouped with Johann Sebastian Bach and Ludwig van Beethoven as one of the "Three Bs" of music, a comment originally made by the nineteenth-century conductor Hans von Bülow.

Gerhart Hauptmann

Gerhart Hauptmann 542 Gerhart Johann Robert Hauptmann was a German dramatist and novelist. He is counted among the most important promoters of literary naturalism, though he integrated other styles into his work as well. He received the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1912.

August Bebel

August Bebel 525 Ferdinand August Bebel was a German socialist politician, writer, and orator. He is best remembered as one of the founders of the Social Democratic Workers' Party of Germany (SDAP) in 1869, which in 1875 merged with the General German Workers' Association into the Socialist Workers' Party of Germany (SAPD). During the repression under the terms of the Anti-Socialist Laws, Bebel became the leading figure of the social democratic movement in Germany and from 1892 until his death served as chairman of the Social Democratic Party of Germany.

Hans and Sophie Scholl

Hans and Sophie Scholl 512 Hans and Sophie Scholl, often referred to in German as die Geschwister Scholl, were a brother and sister who were members of the White Rose, a student group in Munich that was active in the non-violent resistance movement in Nazi Germany, especially in distributing flyers against the war and the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler. In post-war Germany, Hans and Sophie Scholl are recognized as symbols of German resistance against the totalitarian Nazi regime.

Friedrich Silcher

Friedrich Silcher 503 Philipp Friedrich Silcher, was a German composer, mainly known for his lieder (songs), and an important Volkslied collector.

Otto von Bismarck

Otto von Bismarck 497 Otto, Prince of Bismarck, Count of Bismarck-Schönhausen, Duke of Lauenburg was a Prussian and later German statesman and diplomat. Bismarck's Realpolitik and powerful rule led to him being called the Iron Chancellor.

Max Weber

Max Weber 490 Maximilian Karl Emil Weber was a German sociologist, historian, jurist, and political economist who was one of the central figures in the development of sociology and the social sciences more generally. His ideas continue to influence social theory and research.


Hubertus 486 Hubertus or Hubert was a Christian saint who became the first bishop of Liège in 708 A.D. He is the patron saint of hunters, mathematicians, opticians and metalworkers. Known as the "Apostle of the Ardennes", he was called upon, until the early 20th century, to cure rabies through the use of the traditional Saint Hubert's Key.

Max Bruch

Max Bruch 484 Max Bruch was a German Romantic composer, violinist, teacher, and conductor who wrote more than 200 works, including three violin concertos, the first of which has become a staple of the violin repertoire.

George Frideric Handel

George Frideric Handel 478 George Frideric Handel was a German-British Baroque composer well known for his operas, oratorios, anthems, concerti grossi, and organ concertos. Handel received his training in Halle and worked as a composer in Hamburg and Italy before settling in London in 1712, where he spent the bulk of his career and became a naturalised British subject in 1727. He was strongly influenced both by the middle-German polyphonic choral tradition and by composers of the Italian Baroque. In turn, Handel's music forms one of the peaks of the "high baroque" style, bringing Italian opera to its highest development, creating the genres of English oratorio and organ concerto, and introducing a new style into English church music. He is consistently recognized as one of the greatest composers of his age.

Albrecht Dürer

Albrecht Dürer 468 Albrecht Dürer, sometimes spelled in English as Durer, was a German painter, printmaker, and theorist of the German Renaissance. Born in Nuremberg, Dürer established his reputation and influence across Europe in his twenties due to his high-quality woodcut prints. He was in contact with the major Italian artists of his time, including Raphael, Giovanni Bellini, and Leonardo da Vinci, and from 1512 was patronized by Emperor Maximilian I.

Carl Benz

Carl Benz 459 Carl Friedrich Benz was a German engine designer and automotive engineer. His Benz Patent Motorcar from 1885 is considered the first practical modern automobile and first car put into series production. He received a patent for the motorcar in 1886, the same year he first publicly drove the Benz Patent-Motorwagen.

Ludwig II of Bavaria

Ludwig II of Bavaria 448 Ludwig II, also called the Swan King or the Fairy Tale King, was King of Bavaria from 1864 until his death in 1886. He also held the titles of Count Palatine of the Rhine, Duke of Bavaria, Duke of Franconia, and Duke in Swabia. Outside Germany, he is at times called "the Mad King" or "Mad King Ludwig".

Max Planck

Max Planck 444 Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck was a German theoretical physicist whose discovery of energy quanta won him the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1918.

Heinrich von Kleist

Heinrich von Kleist 442 Bernd Heinrich Wilhelm von Kleist was a German poet, dramatist, novelist, short story writer and journalist. His best known works are the theatre plays Das Käthchen von Heilbronn, The Broken Jug, Amphitryon and Penthesilea, and the novellas Michael Kohlhaas and The Marquise of O. Kleist died by suicide together with a close female friend who was terminally ill.

Saint George

Saint George 437 Saint George, also George of Lydda, was an early Christian martyr who is venerated as a saint in Christianity. According to tradition, he was a soldier in the Roman army. Of Cappadocian Greek origin, he became a member of the Praetorian Guard for Roman emperor Diocletian, but was sentenced to death for refusing to recant his Christian faith. He became one of the most venerated saints, heroes and megalomartyrs in Christianity, and he has been especially venerated as a military saint since the Crusades. He is respected by Christians, Druze, as well as some Muslims as a martyr of monotheistic faith.

Wilhelm Röntgen

Wilhelm Röntgen 437 Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen was a German mechanical engineer and physicist, who, on 8 November 1895, produced and detected electromagnetic radiation in a wavelength range known as X-rays or Röntgen rays, an achievement that earned him the inaugural Nobel Prize in Physics in 1901. In honour of Röntgen's accomplishments, in 2004 the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) named element 111, roentgenium, a radioactive element with multiple unstable isotopes, after him. The unit of measurement roentgen was also named after him.

Eugen Fischer

Eugen Fischer 435 Eugen Fischer was a German professor of medicine, anthropology, and eugenics, and a member of the Nazi Party. He served as director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Anthropology, Human Heredity, and Eugenics, and also served as rector of the Frederick William University of Berlin.

Theodor Storm

Theodor Storm 431 Hans Theodor Woldsen Storm, commonly known as Theodor Storm, was a German-Frisian writer and poet. He is considered to be one of the most important figures of German realism.

Albert Einstein

Albert Einstein 421 Albert Einstein was a German-born theoretical physicist who is widely held to be one of the greatest and most influential scientists of all time. Best known for developing the theory of relativity, Einstein also made important contributions to quantum mechanics, and was thus a central figure in the revolutionary reshaping of the scientific understanding of nature that modern physics accomplished in the first decades of the twentieth century. His mass–energy equivalence formula E = mc2, which arises from relativity theory, has been called "the world's most famous equation". He received the 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics "for his services to theoretical physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect", a pivotal step in the development of quantum theory. His work is also known for its influence on the philosophy of science. In a 1999 poll of 130 leading physicists worldwide by the British journal Physics World, Einstein was ranked the greatest physicist of all time. His intellectual achievements and originality have made the word Einstein broadly synonymous with genius.

Alexander von Humboldt

Alexander von Humboldt 410 Friedrich Wilhelm Heinrich Alexander von Humboldt was a German polymath, geographer, naturalist, explorer, and proponent of Romantic philosophy and science. He was the younger brother of the Prussian minister, philosopher, and linguist Wilhelm von Humboldt (1767–1835). Humboldt's quantitative work on botanical geography laid the foundation for the field of biogeography, while his advocacy of long-term systematic geophysical measurement pioneered modern geomagnetic and meteorological monitoring.

Johann Gottfried Herder

Johann Gottfried Herder 409 Johann Gottfried von Herder was a German philosopher, theologian, poet, and literary critic. He is associated with the Enlightenment, Sturm und Drang, and Weimar Classicism. He was a Romantic philosopher and poet who argued that true German culture was to be discovered among the common people. He also stated that it was through folk songs, folk poetry, and folk dances that the true spirit of the nation was popularized. He is credited with establishing or advancing a number of important disciplines: hermeneutics, linguistics, anthropology, and "a secular philosophy of history."

Konrad Adenauer

Konrad Adenauer 407 Konrad Hermann Joseph Adenauer was a German statesman who served as the first chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany from 1949 to 1963. From 1946 to 1966, he was the first leader of the Christian Democratic Union (CDU), a new founded Christian-democratic party, which became the dominant force in the country under his leadership.

Fritz Reuter

Fritz Reuter 407 Fritz Reuter was a novelist from Northern Germany who was a prominent contributor to Low German literature.

Otto Hahn

Otto Hahn 406 Otto Hahn was a German chemist who was a pioneer in the fields of radioactivity and radiochemistry. He is referred to as the father of nuclear chemistry and father of nuclear fission. Hahn and Lise Meitner discovered radioactive isotopes of radium, thorium, protactinium and uranium. He also discovered the phenomena of atomic recoil and nuclear isomerism, and pioneered rubidium–strontium dating. In 1938, Hahn, Meitner and Fritz Strassmann discovered nuclear fission, for which Hahn alone, was awarded the 1944 Nobel Prize for Chemistry. Nuclear fission was the basis for nuclear reactors and nuclear weapons.

Theodor Heuss

Theodor Heuss 405 Theodor Heuss was a German liberal politician who served as the first president of West Germany from 1949 to 1959. His cordial nature – something of a contrast to the stern character of chancellor Konrad Adenauer – largely contributed to the stabilization of democracy in West Germany during the Wirtschaftswunder years. Before beginning his career as a politician, Heuss had been a political journalist.

Justus von Liebig

Justus von Liebig 396 Justus Freiherr von Liebig was a German scientist who made major contributions to agricultural and biological chemistry, and is considered one of the principal founders of organic chemistry. As a professor at the University of Giessen, he devised the modern laboratory-oriented teaching method, and for such innovations, he is regarded as one of the greatest chemistry teachers of all time. He has been described as the "father of the fertilizer industry" for his emphasis on nitrogen and trace minerals as essential plant nutrients, and his popularization of the law of the minimum, which described how plant growth relied on the scarcest nutrient resource, rather than the total amount of resources available. He also developed a manufacturing process for beef extracts, and with his consent a company, called Liebig Extract of Meat Company, was founded to exploit the concept; it later introduced the Oxo brand beef bouillon cube. He popularized an earlier invention for condensing vapors, which came to be known as the Liebig condenser.

Anton Bruckner

Anton Bruckner 392 Josef Anton Bruckner was an Austrian composer and organist best known for his symphonies and sacred music, which includes Masses, Te Deum and motets. The symphonies are considered emblematic of the final stage of Austro-German Romanticism because of their rich harmonic language, strongly polyphonic character, and considerable length. Bruckner's compositions helped to define contemporary musical radicalism, owing to their dissonances, unprepared modulations, and roving harmonies.

Alfred Adler

Alfred Adler 391 Alfred Adler was an Austrian medical doctor, psychotherapist, and founder of the school of individual psychology. His emphasis on the importance of feelings of belonging, relationships within the family, and birth order set him apart from Freud and others in their common circle. He proposed that contributing to others was how the individual feels a sense of worth and belonging in the family and society. His earlier work focused on inferiority, coining the term inferiority complex, an isolating element which he argued plays a key role in personality development. Alfred Adler considered a human being as an individual whole, and therefore he called his school of psychology "Individual Psychology".

Karl Marx

Karl Marx 379 Karl Marx was a German-born philosopher, economist, political theorist, historian, sociologist, journalist, and revolutionary socialist. His best-known works are the 1848 pamphlet The Communist Manifesto and the three-volume Das Kapital (1867–1894); the latter employs his critical approach of historical materialism in an analysis of capitalism and is the culmination of his intellectual efforts. Marx's ideas and theories and their subsequent development, collectively known as Marxism, have exerted enormous influence on modern intellectual, economic and political history.

Theodor Fontane

Theodor Fontane 372 Theodor Fontane was a German novelist and poet, regarded by many as the most important 19th-century German-language realist author. Fontane is known as a writer of realism, not only because he was conscientious about the factual accuracy of details in fictional scenes, but also because he depicted his characters in terms of what they said or did and refrained from overtly imputing motives to them. He published the first of his novels, for which he is best known today, only at age 58 after a career as a journalist. His novels delve into topics that were more or less taboo for discussion in the polite society of Fontane's day, including marital infidelity, class differences, urban vs. rural differences, abandonment of children, and suicide. His novels sold well during his lifetime and several have been adapted for film or audio works. His characters range from lower-middle class to Prussian nobility.

Wilhelm Busch

Wilhelm Busch 354 Heinrich Christian Wilhelm Busch was a German humorist, poet, illustrator, and painter. He published wildly innovative illustrated tales that remain influential to this day.

Gottfried Keller

Gottfried Keller 348 Gottfried Keller was a Swiss poet and writer of German literature. Best known for his novel Green Henry and his cycle of novellas called Seldwyla Folks, he became one of the most popular narrators of literary realism in the late 19th century.

Heinrich Gerber (civil engineer)

Heinrich Gerber (civil engineer) 342 Heinrich Gerber was a German civil engineer and inventor of the Gerber girder. He received several patents for his systems for building bridges.

Käthe Kollwitz

Käthe Kollwitz 342 Käthe Kollwitz was a German artist who worked with painting, printmaking and sculpture. Her most famous art cycles, including The Weavers and The Peasant War, depict the effects of poverty, hunger and war on the working class. Despite the realism of her early works, her art is now more closely associated with Expressionism. Kollwitz was the first woman not only to be elected to the Prussian Academy of Arts but also to receive honorary professor status.

Wilhelm Hauff

Wilhelm Hauff 342 Wilhelm Hauff was a German poet and novelist.                                                       

Rudolf Breitscheid

Rudolf Breitscheid 337 Rudolf Breitscheid was a German politician and leading member of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) during the Weimar Republic. Once leader of the liberal Democratic Union, he joined the SPD in 1912. He defected to the Independent Social Democratic Party of Germany (USPD) in 1917 due to his opposition to the First World War, and rejoined the SPD in 1922. He served as a senior member of and foreign policy spokesman for the SPD Reichstag group during the Weimar Republic, and was a member of the German delegation to the League of Nations. After the Nazi rise to power, he was among the members of the Reichstag who voted against the Enabling Act of 1933, and soon after fled to France to avoid persecution. He was arrested and handed to the Gestapo in 1941, and died in Buchenwald concentration camp in 1944.

Paul von Hindenburg

Paul von Hindenburg 332 Paul Ludwig Hans Anton von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg was a German field marshal and statesman who led the Imperial German Army during World War I. He later became president of Germany from 1925 until his death. During his presidency, he played a key role in the Nazi seizure of power in January 1933 when, under pressure from his advisers, he appointed Adolf Hitler as chancellor of Germany.

Ernst Thälmann

Ernst Thälmann 328 Ernst Johannes Fritz Thälmann was a German communist politician, and leader of the Communist Party of Germany (KPD) from 1925 to 1933.

Adalbert Stifter

Adalbert Stifter 325 Adalbert Stifter was an Bohemian-Austrian writer, poet, painter, and pedagogue. He was notable for the vivid natural landscapes depicted in his writing and has long been popular in the German-speaking world, while remaining almost entirely unknown to English readers.

Friedrich Fröbel

Friedrich Fröbel 324 Friedrich Wilhelm August Fröbel or Froebel was a German pedagogue, a student of Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi, who laid the foundation for modern education based on the recognition that children have unique needs and capabilities. He created the concept of the kindergarten and coined the word, which soon entered the English language as well. He also developed the educational toys known as Froebel gifts.

Adolphus Busch

Adolphus Busch 324 Adolphus Busch was the German-born co-founder of Anheuser-Busch with his father-in-law, Eberhard Anheuser. He introduced numerous innovations, building the success of the company in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. He became a philanthropist, using some of his wealth for education and humanitarian needs. His great-great-grandson, August Busch IV, is a former CEO of Anheuser-Busch.

Albert Lortzing

Albert Lortzing 317 Gustav Albert Lortzing was a German composer, librettist, actor and singer. He is considered to be the main representative of the German Spieloper, a form similar to the French opéra comique, which grew out of the Singspiel.

Johannes Kepler

Johannes Kepler 315 Johannes Kepler was a German astronomer, mathematician, astrologer, natural philosopher and writer on music. He is a key figure in the 17th-century Scientific Revolution, best known for his laws of planetary motion, and his books Astronomia nova, Harmonice Mundi, and Epitome Astronomiae Copernicanae, influencing among others Isaac Newton, providing one of the foundations for his theory of universal gravitation. The variety and impact of his work made Kepler one of the founders and fathers of modern astronomy, the scientific method, natural and modern science. He has been described as the "father of science fiction" for his novel Somnium.

Heinrich Friedrich Karl vom und zum Stein

Heinrich Friedrich Karl vom und zum Stein 305 Heinrich Friedrich Karl vom und zum Stein, commonly known as Baron vom Stein, was a Prussian statesman who introduced the Prussian reforms, which paved the way for the unification of Germany. He promoted the abolition of serfdom, with indemnification to territorial lords; subjection of the nobles to manorial imposts; and the establishment of a modern municipal system.

Ernst Moritz Arndt

Ernst Moritz Arndt 303 Ernst Moritz Arndt was a German nationalist historian, writer and poet. Early in his life, he fought for the abolition of serfdom, later against Napoleonic dominance over Germany. Arndt had to flee to Sweden for some time due to his anti-French positions. He is one of the main founders of German nationalism during the Napoleonic wars and the 19th century movement for German unification. After the Carlsbad Decrees, the forces of the restoration counted him as a demagogue.

Wilhelm Emmanuel von Ketteler

Wilhelm Emmanuel von Ketteler 303 Baron Wilhelm Emmanuel von Ketteler was a German theologian and politician who served as Bishop of Mainz. His social teachings became influential during the papacy of Leo XIII and his encyclical Rerum novarum.

Joseph Victor von Scheffel

Joseph Victor von Scheffel 294 Joseph Victor von Scheffel was a German poet and novelist.                                         

Franz Liszt

Franz Liszt 282 Franz Liszt was a Hungarian composer, virtuoso pianist, conductor and teacher of the Romantic period. With a diverse body of work spanning more than six decades, he is considered to be one of the most prolific and influential composers of his era, and his piano works continue to be widely performed and recorded.

Saint Joseph

Saint Joseph 270 Joseph was a 1st-century Jewish man of Nazareth who, according to the canonical Gospels, was married to Mary, the mother of Jesus, and was the legal father of Jesus.

Thomas Mann

Thomas Mann 267 Paul Thomas Mann was a German novelist, short story writer, social critic, philanthropist, essayist, and the 1929 Nobel Prize in Literature laureate. His highly symbolic and ironic epic novels and novellas are noted for their insight into the psychology of the artist and the intellectual. His analysis and critique of the European and German soul used modernized versions of German and Biblical stories, as well as the ideas of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Friedrich Nietzsche, and Arthur Schopenhauer.

Nicolaus Otto

Nicolaus Otto 266 Nicolaus August Otto was a German engineer who successfully developed the compressed charge internal combustion engine which ran on petroleum gas and led to the modern internal combustion engine. The Association of German Engineers (VDI) created DIN standard 1940 which says "Otto Engine: internal combustion engine in which the ignition of the compressed fuel-air mixture is initiated by a timed spark", which has been applied to all engines of this type since.

Otto Lilienthal

Otto Lilienthal 266 Karl Wilhelm Otto Lilienthal was a German pioneer of aviation who became known as the "flying man". He was the first person to make well-documented, repeated, successful flights with gliders, therefore making the idea of heavier-than-air aircraft a reality. Newspapers and magazines published photographs of Lilienthal gliding, favourably influencing public and scientific opinion about the possibility of flying machines becoming practical.

Walther Rathenau

Walther Rathenau 265 Walther Rathenau was a German industrialist, writer and politician who served as foreign minister of Germany from February to June 1922.

Friedrich von Bodelschwingh

Friedrich von Bodelschwingh 265 Friedrich "Fritz" von Bodelschwingh, also known as Friedrich von Bodelschwingh the Younger, was a German pastor, theologian and public health advocate. His father was Friedrich von Bodelschwingh the Elder, founder of the v. Bodelschwinghsche Anstalten Bethel charitable foundations.

Johann Gottlieb Fichte

Johann Gottlieb Fichte 263 Johann Gottlieb Fichte was a German philosopher who became a founding figure of the philosophical movement known as German idealism, which developed from the theoretical and ethical writings of Immanuel Kant. Recently, philosophers and scholars have begun to appreciate Fichte as an important philosopher in his own right due to his original insights into the nature of self-consciousness or self-awareness. Fichte was also the originator of thesis–antithesis–synthesis, an idea that is often erroneously attributed to Hegel. Like Descartes and Kant before him, Fichte was motivated by the problem of subjectivity and consciousness. Fichte also wrote works of political philosophy; he has a reputation as one of the fathers of German nationalism.

Helmuth von Moltke the Elder

Helmuth von Moltke the Elder 260 Helmuth Karl Bernhard Graf von Moltke was a Prussian field marshal. The chief of staff of the Prussian Army for thirty years, he is regarded as the creator of a new, more modern method of directing armies in the field and one of the finest military minds of his generation. He commanded troops in Europe and the Middle East, in the Second Schleswig War, Austro-Prussian War and Franco-Prussian War. He is described as embodying "Prussian military organization and tactical genius". He was fascinated with railways and pioneered their military use. He is often referred to as Moltke the Elder to distinguish him from his nephew Helmuth von Moltke the Younger, who commanded the German army at the outbreak of the First World War. He is notably the earliest-born human to have been audio-recorded, being born in the last year of the 18th century (1800). He made 4 recordings, 2 of which are preserved to this day, that were recorded in October 1889.

Karl Liebknecht

Karl Liebknecht 260 Karl Paul August Friedrich Liebknecht was a German socialist and anti-militarist. A member of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) beginning in 1900, he was one of its deputies in the Reichstag from 1912 to 1916, where he represented the left-revolutionary wing of the party. In 1916 he was expelled from the SPD's parliamentary group for his opposition to the Burgfriedenspolitik, the political truce between all parties in the Reichstag while the war lasted. He twice spent time in prison, first for writing an anti-militarism pamphlet in 1907 and then for his role in a 1916 antiwar demonstration. He was released from the second under a general amnesty three weeks before the end of the First World War.

Saint Barbara

Saint Barbara 260 Saint Barbara, known in the Eastern Orthodox Church as the Great Martyr Barbara, was an early Christian Greek saint and martyr.

Johann Peter Hebel

Johann Peter Hebel 259 Johann Peter Hebel was a German short story writer, dialectal poet, Lutheran theologian and pedagogue, most famous for a collection of Alemannic lyric poems and one of German tales.

Saint Anne

Saint Anne 259 According to apocrypha, as well as Christian and Islamic tradition, Saint Anne was the mother of Mary, the wife of Joachim and the maternal grandmother of Jesus. Mary's mother is not named in the Bible's canonical gospels. In writing, Anne's name and that of her husband Joachim come only from New Testament apocrypha, of which the Gospel of James seems to be the earliest that mentions them. The mother of Mary is mentioned but not named in the Quran.

Brothers Grimm

Brothers Grimm 255 The Brothers Grimm, Jacob (1785–1863) and Wilhelm (1786–1859), were German academics who together collected and published folklore. The brothers are among the best-known storytellers of folktales, popularizing stories such as "Cinderella", "The Frog Prince", "Hansel and Gretel", "Town Musicians of Bremen", "Little Red Riding Hood", "Rapunzel", "Rumpelstiltskin", "Sleeping Beauty", and "Snow White". Their first collection of folktales, Children's and Household Tales, began publication in 1812.

Paul Klee

Paul Klee 250 Paul Klee was a Swiss-born German artist. His highly individual style was influenced by movements in art that included expressionism, cubism, and surrealism. Klee was a natural draftsman who experimented with and eventually deeply explored color theory, writing about it extensively; his lectures Writings on Form and Design Theory, published in English as the Paul Klee Notebooks, are held to be as important for modern art as Leonardo da Vinci's A Treatise on Painting was for the Renaissance. He and his colleague, Russian painter Wassily Kandinsky, both taught at the Bauhaus school of art, design and architecture in Germany. His works reflect his dry humor and his sometimes childlike perspective, his personal moods and beliefs, and his musicality.

Max Reger

Max Reger 248 Johann Baptist Joseph Maximilian Reger was a German composer, pianist, organist, conductor, and academic teacher. He worked as a concert pianist, a musical director at the Leipzig University Church, a professor at the Royal Conservatory in Leipzig, and a music director at the court of Duke Georg II of Saxe-Meiningen.

Kurt Schumacher

Kurt Schumacher 247 Curt Ernst Carl Schumacher, better known as Kurt Schumacher, was a German politician and resistance fighter against the Nazis. He was chairman of the Social Democratic Party of Germany from 1946 and the first Leader of the Opposition in the West German Bundestag in 1949; he served in both positions until his death.

Heinrich Otto Wieland

Heinrich Otto Wieland 246 Heinrich Otto Wieland was a German chemist. He won the 1927 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his research into the bile acids.

Thomas Müntzer

Thomas Müntzer 246 Thomas Müntzer was a German preacher and theologian of the early Reformation whose opposition to both Martin Luther and the Roman Catholic Church led to his open defiance of late-feudal authority in central Germany. Müntzer was foremost amongst those reformers who took issue with Luther's compromises with feudal authority. He was a leader of the German peasant and plebeian uprising of 1525 commonly known as the German Peasants' War.

Adolf Damaschke

Adolf Damaschke 239 Adolf Wilhelm Ferdinand Damaschke was a German politician and economist (Nationalökonom).           

Anthony of Padua

Anthony of Padua 236 Anthony of Padua, OFM or Anthony of Lisbon was a Portuguese Catholic priest and friar of the Franciscan Order.

Nicolaus Copernicus

Nicolaus Copernicus 234 Nicolaus Copernicus was a Renaissance polymath, active as a mathematician, astronomer, and Catholic canon, who formulated a model of the universe that placed the Sun rather than Earth at its center. In all likelihood, Copernicus developed his model independently of Aristarchus of Samos, an ancient Greek astronomer who had formulated such a model some eighteen centuries earlier.

Hermann Hesse

Hermann Hesse 231 Hermann Karl Hesse was a German-Swiss poet, novelist, and painter. His best-known works include Demian, Steppenwolf, Siddhartha, and The Glass Bead Game, each of which explores an individual's search for authenticity, self-knowledge, and spirituality. In 1946, he received the Nobel Prize in Literature.

Rosa Luxemburg

Rosa Luxemburg 227 Rosa Luxemburg was a Polish and naturalised-German revolutionary socialist, orthodox Marxist, and anti-War activist during the First World War. She became a key figure of the revolutionary socialist movements of Poland and Germany during the late 19th and early 20th century, particularly the Spartacist uprising.

Dietrich Bonhoeffer

Dietrich Bonhoeffer 226 Dietrich Bonhoeffer was a German Lutheran pastor, theologian and anti-Nazi dissident who was a key founding member of the Confessing Church. His writings on Christianity's role in the secular world have become widely influential; his 1937 book The Cost of Discipleship is described as a modern classic. Apart from his theological writings, Bonhoeffer was known for his staunch resistance to the Nazi dictatorship, including vocal opposition to Adolf Hitler's euthanasia program and genocidal persecution of the Jews. He was arrested in April 1943 by the Gestapo and imprisoned at Tegel Prison for 1½ years. Later, he was transferred to Flossenbürg concentration camp.

Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel

Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel 226 Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel was a German philosopher and one of the most influential figures of German idealism and 19th-century philosophy. His influence extends across the entire range of contemporary philosophical topics, from metaphysical issues in epistemology and ontology, to political philosophy, the philosophy of history, philosophy of art, philosophy of religion, and the history of philosophy.

Carl von Linde

Carl von Linde 224 Carl Paul Gottfried von Linde was a German scientist, engineer, and businessman. He discovered a refrigeration cycle and invented the first industrial-scale air separation and gas liquefaction processes, which led to the first reliable and efficient compressed-ammonia refrigerator in 1876.

Elizabeth II

Elizabeth II 223 Elizabeth II was Queen of the United Kingdom and other Commonwealth realms from 6 February 1952 until her death in 2022. She was queen regnant of 32 sovereign states over the course of her lifetime and remained the monarch of 15 realms by the time of her death. Her reign of over 70 years is the longest of any British monarch, the longest of any female monarch, and the second longest verified reign of any monarch of a sovereign state in history.

Christian Friedrich Hebbel

Christian Friedrich Hebbel 215 Christian Friedrich Hebbel was a German poet and dramatist.                                         

Rudolf Virchow

Rudolf Virchow 213 Rudolf Ludwig Carl Virchow was a German physician, anthropologist, pathologist, prehistorian, biologist, writer, editor, and politician. He is known as "the father of modern pathology" and as the founder of social medicine, and to his colleagues, the "Pope of medicine".

Friedrich Engels

Friedrich Engels 212 Friedrich Engels was a German philosopher, political theorist, historian, journalist, and revolutionary socialist. He was also a businessman and Karl Marx's closest friend and collaborator.

Ulrich of Augsburg

Ulrich of Augsburg 211 Ulrich of Augsburg, sometimes spelled Uodalric or Odalrici, was Prince-Bishop of Augsburg in the Holy Roman Empire. He was the first saint to be canonized not by a local authority but by the pope.

Anne Frank

Anne Frank 209 Annelies Marie Frank was a German-born Jewish girl who kept a diary in which she documented life in hiding under Nazi persecution during the German occupation of the Netherlands. She is a celebrated diarist who described everyday life from her family hiding place in an Amsterdam attic. One of the most-discussed Jewish victims of the Holocaust, she gained fame posthumously with the 1947 publication of The Diary of a Young Girl, in which she documents her life in hiding from 1942 to 1944 — it is one of the world's best-known books and has been the basis for several plays and films.

Caesar von Hofacker

Caesar von Hofacker 208 Caesar von Hofacker was a German Luftwaffe Lieutenant Colonel and member of the 20 July plot against Adolf Hitler.

Marie Curie

Marie Curie 208 Maria Salomea Skłodowska-Curie, known simply as Marie Curie, was a Polish and naturalised-French physicist and chemist who conducted pioneering research on radioactivity. She was the first woman to win a Nobel Prize, the first person to win a Nobel Prize twice, and the only person to win a Nobel Prize in two scientific fields. Her husband, Pierre Curie, was a co-winner of her first Nobel Prize, making them the first-ever married couple to win the Nobel Prize and launching the Curie family legacy of five Nobel Prizes. She was, in 1906, the first woman to become a professor at the University of Paris.

Lise Meitner

Lise Meitner 208 Lise Meitner was an Austrian-Swedish physicist who was one of those responsible for the discovery of the element protactinium and nuclear fission. While working on radioactivity at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Chemistry in Berlin, she discovered the radioactive isotope protactinium-231 in 1917. In 1938, Meitner and her nephew, the physicist Otto Robert Frisch, discovered nuclear fission. She was praised by Albert Einstein as the "German Marie Curie".

Wilhelm Backhaus

Wilhelm Backhaus 206 Wilhelm Backhaus was a German pianist and pedagogue. He was particularly well known for his interpretations of Mozart, Beethoven, Schumann, Chopin and Brahms. He was also much admired as a chamber musician.

Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz

Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz 205 Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz was a German polymath active as a mathematician, philosopher, scientist and diplomat who invented calculus in addition to many other branches of mathematics and statistics. Leibniz has been called the "last universal genius" due to his knowledge and skills in different fields and because such people became less common during the Industrial Revolution and spread of specialized labor after his lifetime. He is a prominent figure in both the history of philosophy and the history of mathematics. He wrote works on philosophy, theology, ethics, politics, law, history, philology, games, music, and other studies. Leibniz also made major contributions to physics and technology, and anticipated notions that surfaced much later in probability theory, biology, medicine, geology, psychology, linguistics and computer science. In addition, he contributed to the field of library science by devising a cataloguing system whilst working at the Herzog August Library in Wolfenbüttel, Germany, that would have served as a guide for many of Europe's largest libraries. Leibniz's contributions to a wide range of subjects were scattered in various learned journals, in tens of thousands of letters and in unpublished manuscripts. He wrote in several languages, primarily in Latin, French and German.

Rainer Maria Rilke

Rainer Maria Rilke 204 René Karl Wilhelm Johann Josef Maria Rilke, known as Rainer Maria Rilke, was an Austrian poet and novelist. Acclaimed as an idiosyncratic and expressive poet, he is widely recognized as a significant writer in the German language. His work is viewed by critics and scholars as possessing undertones of mysticism, exploring themes of subjective experience and disbelief. His writings include one novel, several collections of poetry and several volumes of correspondence.

Bertolt Brecht

Bertolt Brecht 200 Eugen Berthold Friedrich Brecht, known professionally as Bertolt Brecht, was a German theatre practitioner, playwright, and poet. Coming of age during the Weimar Republic, he had his first successes as a playwright in Munich and moved to Berlin in 1924, where he wrote The Threepenny Opera with Elisabeth Hauptmann & Kurt Weill and began a life-long collaboration with the composer Hanns Eisler. Immersed in Marxist thought during this period, he wrote didactic Lehrstücke and became a leading theoretician of epic theatre and the Verfremdungseffekt.

Justinus Kerner

Justinus Kerner 195 Justinus Andreas Christian Kerner was a German poet, practicing physician, and medical writer. He gave the first detailed description of botulism.

Wilhelm Raabe

Wilhelm Raabe 193 Wilhelm Raabe was a German novelist. His early works were published under the pseudonym of Jakob Corvinus.

Hans Böckler

Hans Böckler 191 Hans Böckler was a German politician and trade union leader. He was the most influential re-founder of the unions in post-war Germany and became the first president of the German Trade Union Confederation.

Saint Sebastian

Saint Sebastian 189 Sebastian was an early Christian saint and martyr. According to traditional belief, he was killed during the Diocletianic Persecution of Christians. He was initially tied to a post or tree and shot with arrows, though this did not kill him. He was, according to tradition, rescued and healed by Irene of Rome, which became a popular subject in 17th-century painting. In all versions of the story, shortly after his recovery he went to Diocletian to warn him about his sins, and as a result was clubbed to death. He is venerated in the Catholic Church and the Orthodox Church.

Ludwig Thoma

Ludwig Thoma 188 Ludwig Thoma was a German author, publisher and editor, who gained popularity through his partially exaggerated description of everyday Bavarian life.

John the Baptist

John the Baptist 186 John the Baptist was a Jewish preacher active in the area of the Jordan River in the early 1st century AD. He is also known as Saint John the Forerunner in Eastern Orthodoxy, John the Immerser in some Baptist Christian traditions, Saint John by certain Catholic churches, and Prophet Yahya in Islam. He is sometimes alternatively referred to as John the Baptiser.

Saint Nicholas

Saint Nicholas 185 Saint Nicholas of Myra, also known as Nicholas of Bari, was an early Christian bishop of Greek descent from the maritime city of Patara in Anatolia during the time of the Roman Empire. Because of the many miracles attributed to his intercession, he is also known as Nicholas the Wonderworker. Saint Nicholas is the patron saint of sailors, merchants, archers, repentant thieves, children, brewers, pawnbrokers, toymakers, unmarried people, and students in various cities and countries around Europe. His reputation evolved among the pious, as was common for early Christian saints, and his legendary habit of secret gift-giving gave rise to the traditional model of Santa Claus through Sinterklaas.

Annette von Droste-Hülshoff

Annette von Droste-Hülshoff 184 Baroness Anna Elisabeth Franziska Adolphine Wilhelmine Louise Maria von Droste zu Hülshoff, known as Annette von Droste-Hülshoff, was a 19th-century German poet, novelist, and composer of Classical music. She was also the author of the novella Die Judenbuche.

Wilhelm Maybach

Wilhelm Maybach 182 Wilhelm Maybach was an early German engine designer and industrialist. During the 1890s he was hailed in France, then the world centre for car production, as the "King of Designers".

Hans Sachs

Hans Sachs 182 Hans Sachs was a German Meistersinger ("mastersinger"), poet, playwright, and shoemaker.           

Elsa Brändström

Elsa Brändström 182 Elsa Brändström was a Swedish nurse and philanthropist. She was known as the "Angel of Siberia".   

Emil von Behring

Emil von Behring 179 Emil von Behring, born Emil Adolf Behring, was a German physiologist who received the 1901 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, the first one awarded in that field, for his discovery of a diphtheria antitoxin. He was widely known as a "saviour of children", as diphtheria used to be a major cause of child death. His work with the disease, as well as tetanus, has come to bring him most of his fame and acknowledgment. He was honoured with Prussian nobility in 1901, henceforth being known by the surname "von Behring."

Matthias Grünewald

Matthias Grünewald 178 Matthias Grünewald was a German Renaissance painter of religious works who ignored Renaissance classicism to continue the style of late medieval Central European art into the 16th century. His first name is also given as Mathis and his surname as Gothart or Neithardt.

Gustav Stresemann

Gustav Stresemann 178 Gustav Ernst Stresemann was a German statesman who served as chancellor of Germany from August to November 1923, and as foreign minister from 1923 to 1929. His most notable achievement was the reconciliation between Germany and France, for which he and French Prime Minister Aristide Briand received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1926. During a period of political instability and fragile, short-lived governments, Stresemann was the most influential politician in most of the Weimar Republic's existence.

Sebastian Kneipp

Sebastian Kneipp 178 Sebastian Kneipp was a German Catholic priest and one of the forefathers of the naturopathic movement. He is most commonly associated with the "Kneipp Cure" form of hydrotherapy, the application of water through various methods, temperatures and pressures, which he claimed to have therapeutic or healing effects, thus building several hospitals in Bad Wörishofen.

Matthias Claudius

Matthias Claudius 176 Matthias Claudius was a German poet and journalist, otherwise known by the pen name of “Asmus”.     

Clemens August Graf von Galen

Clemens August Graf von Galen 175 Clemens Augustinus Emmanuel Joseph Pius Anthonius Hubertus Marie Graf von Galen, better known as Clemens August Graf von Galen, was a German count, Bishop of Münster, and cardinal of the Catholic Church. During World War II, Galen led Catholic protests against Nazi euthanasia and denounced Gestapo lawlessness and the persecution of the Church in Nazi Germany. He was appointed a cardinal by Pope Pius XII in 1946, shortly before his death, and was beatified by Pope Benedict XVI in 2005.

Peter Rosegger

Peter Rosegger 175 Peter Rosegger was an Austrian writer and poet from Krieglach in the province of Styria. He was a son of a mountain farmer and grew up in the woodlands and mountains of Alpl. Rosegger went on to become a most prolific poet and author as well as an insightful teacher and visionary.

Carl Zeiss

Carl Zeiss 174 Carl Zeiss was a German scientific instrument maker, optician and businessman. In 1846 he founded his workshop, which is still in business as Carl Zeiss AG. Zeiss gathered a group of gifted practical and theoretical opticians and glass makers to reshape most aspects of optical instrument production. His collaboration with Ernst Abbe revolutionized optical theory and practical design of microscopes. Their quest to extend these advances brought Otto Schott into the enterprises to revolutionize optical glass manufacture. The firm of Carl Zeiss grew to one of the largest and most respected optical firms in the world.

Willy Brandt

Willy Brandt 173 Willy Brandt was a German politician and statesman who was leader of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) from 1964 to 1987 and served as the chancellor of West Germany from 1969 to 1974. He was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1971 for his efforts to strengthen cooperation in western Europe through the EEC and to achieve reconciliation between West Germany and the countries of Eastern Europe. He was the first Social Democratic chancellor since 1930.

Bertha von Suttner

Bertha von Suttner 171 Bertha Sophie Felicitas Freifrau von Suttner was an Austro-Bohemian noblewoman, pacifist and novelist. In 1905, she became the second female Nobel laureate, the first woman to be awarded the Nobel Peace Prize, and the first Austrian and Czech laureate.

Friedrich List

Friedrich List 171 Daniel Friedrich List was a German economist and political theorist who developed the nationalist theory of political economy in both Europe and the United States. He was a forefather of the German historical school of economics and argued for the Zollverein from a nationalist standpoint. He advocated raising tariffs on imported goods while supporting free trade of domestic goods and stated the cost of a tariff should be seen as an investment in a nation's future productivity.

Carl Orff

Carl Orff 171 Carl Heinrich Maria Orff was a German composer and music educator, who composed the cantata Carmina Burana (1937). The concepts of his Schulwerk were influential for children's music education.

Lucas Cranach the Elder

Lucas Cranach the Elder 170 Lucas Cranach the Elder was a German Renaissance painter and printmaker in woodcut and engraving. He was court painter to the Electors of Saxony for most of his career, and is known for his portraits, both of German princes and those of the leaders of the Protestant Reformation, whose cause he embraced with enthusiasm. He was a close friend of Martin Luther. Cranach also painted religious subjects, first in the Catholic tradition, and later trying to find new ways of conveying Lutheran religious concerns in art. He continued throughout his career to paint nude subjects drawn from mythology and religion.

Michael (archangel)

Michael (archangel) 165 Michael, also called Saint Michael the Archangel, Archangel Michael and Saint Michael the Taxiarch is an archangel in Judaism, Christianity, Islam, and the Baha'i faith. The earliest surviving mentions of his name are in third- and second-century-BC Jewish works, often but not always apocalyptic, where he is the chief of the angels and archangels, and he is the guardian prince of Israel and is responsible for the care of Israel. Christianity conserved nearly all the Jewish traditions concerning him, and he is mentioned explicitly in Revelation 12:7–12, where he does battle with Satan, and in the Epistle of Jude, where the author denounces heretics by contrasting them with Michael.

Johann Hinrich Wichern

Johann Hinrich Wichern 163 Johann Hinrich Wichern was a founder of the Home Mission movement in Germany.                       

Clara Zetkin

Clara Zetkin 163 Clara Zetkin was a German Marxist theorist, communist activist, and advocate for women's rights.   

Ferdinand Freiligrath

Ferdinand Freiligrath 163 Ferdinand Freiligrath was a German poet, translator and liberal agitator, who is considered part of the Young Germany movement.

Nikolaus Lenau

Nikolaus Lenau 160 Nikolaus Lenau was the pen name of Nikolaus Franz Niembsch Edler von Strehlenau, a German-language Austrian poet.

Gottfried August Bürger

Gottfried August Bürger 158 Gottfried August Bürger was a German poet. His ballads were very popular in Germany. His most noted ballad, Lenore, found an audience beyond readers of the German language in an English and Russian adaptation and a French translation.


Rembrandt 156 Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn, usually simply known as Rembrandt, was a Dutch Golden Age painter, printmaker, and draughtsman. He is generally considered one of the greatest visual artists in the history of art. It is estimated Rembrandt produced a total of about three hundred paintings, three hundred etchings, and two thousand drawings.

Saint Lawrence

Saint Lawrence 152 Saint Lawrence or Laurence was one of the seven deacons of the city of Rome under Pope Sixtus II who were martyred in the persecution of the Christians that the Roman Emperor Valerian ordered in 258.

Erich Kästner

Erich Kästner 145 Emil Erich Kästner was a German writer, poet, screenwriter and satirist, known primarily for his humorous, socially astute poems and for children's books including Emil and the Detectives and The Parent Trap. He received the international Hans Christian Andersen Medal in 1960 for his autobiography Als ich ein kleiner Junge war. He was nominated for the Nobel Prize in Literature in six separate years.

Peter Paul Rubens

Peter Paul Rubens 144 Sir Peter Paul Rubens was a Flemish artist and diplomat. He is considered the most influential artist of the Flemish Baroque tradition. Rubens's highly charged compositions reference erudite aspects of classical and Christian history. His unique and immensely popular Baroque style emphasized movement, colour, and sensuality, which followed the immediate, dramatic artistic style promoted in the Counter-Reformation. Rubens was a painter producing altarpieces, portraits, landscapes, and history paintings of mythological and allegorical subjects. He was also a prolific designer of cartoons for the Flemish tapestry workshops and of frontispieces for the publishers in Antwerp.

Carl Friedrich Gauss

Carl Friedrich Gauss 144 Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss was a German mathematician, astronomer, geodesist, and physicist who contributed to many fields in mathematics and science. He ranks among history's most influential mathematicians and has been referred to as the "Prince of Mathematicians". He was director of the Göttingen Observatory and professor for astronomy for nearly half a century, from 1807 until his death in 1855.

Wilhelm Leuschner

Wilhelm Leuschner 143 Wilhelm Leuschner was a trade unionist and Social Democratic politician. An early opponent of Nazism, he organized underground resistance in the labour movement. As a result of their involvement in the assassination attempt on Hitler in 1944, Leuschner was executed.

Edith Stein

Edith Stein 140 Edith Stein, OCD was a German Jewish philosopher who converted to Catholicism and became a Discalced Carmelite nun. She is canonized as a martyr and saint of the Catholic Church; she is also one of six patron saints of Europe.

Augusta Victoria of Schleswig-Holstein

Augusta Victoria of Schleswig-Holstein 139 Augusta Viktoria of Schleswig-Holstein was the last German Empress and Queen of Prussia by marriage to Wilhelm II, German Emperor.

Carl Friedrich Goerdeler

Carl Friedrich Goerdeler 138 Carl Friedrich Goerdeler was a German conservative politician, monarchist, executive, economist, civil servant and opponent of the Nazi regime. He opposed some anti-Jewish policies while he held office and was opposed to the Holocaust.

Theodor Körner (author)

Theodor Körner (author) 136 Carl Theodor Körner was a German poet and soldier. After having lived for some time in Vienna, where he wrote some light comedies and other works for the Burgtheater, he became a soldier and joined the Lützow Free Corps in the German uprising against Napoleon. During this time, he displayed personal courage in many fights, and inspired his comrades by fiery patriotic lyrics he composed. One of these was the "Schwertlied", composed during a lull in fighting, only a few hours before his death, and "Lützow's wilde Jagd", each set to music by both Carl Maria von Weber and Franz Schubert. He was often called the "German Tyrtaeus".

Johann Philipp Reis

Johann Philipp Reis 135 Johann Philipp Reis was a self-taught German scientist and inventor. In 1861, he constructed the first make-and-break telephone, today called the Reis telephone. It was the first device to transmit a voice via electronic signals and for that the first modern telephone. Reis also coined the term.

Wendelin of Trier

Wendelin of Trier 135 Saint Wendelin of Trier was a hermit and abbot. Although not listed in the Roman Martyrology, his cultus is wide-spread in German-speaking areas. He is a patron of country folk and herdsmen. He is honored on October 22.

Heinrich Hertz

Heinrich Hertz 134 Heinrich Rudolf Hertz was a German physicist who first conclusively proved the existence of the electromagnetic waves predicted by James Clerk Maxwell's equations of electromagnetism. The unit of frequency, cycle per second, was named the "hertz" in his honor.

Alexander Pushkin

Alexander Pushkin 133 Alexander Sergeyevich Pushkin was a Russian poet, playwright, and novelist of the Romantic era. He is considered by many to be the greatest Russian poet, as well as the founder of modern Russian literature.

Martin of Tours

Martin of Tours 131 Martin of Tours, also known as Martin the Merciful, was the third bishop of Tours. He has become one of the most familiar and recognizable Christian saints in France, heralded as the patron saint of the Third Republic, and is patron saint of many communities and organizations across Europe. A native of Pannonia, he converted to Christianity at a young age. He served in the Roman cavalry in Gaul, but left military service at some point prior to 361, when he became a disciple of Hilary of Poitiers, establishing the monastery at Ligugé. He was consecrated as Bishop of Caesarodunum (Tours) in 371. As bishop, he was active in the suppression of the remnants of Gallo-Roman religion, but he opposed the violent persecution of the Priscillianist sect of ascetics.

Henry Dunant

Henry Dunant 131 Henry Dunant, also known as Henri Dunant, was a Swiss humanitarian, businessman, social activist, and co-founder of the Red Cross. His humanitarian efforts won him the first Nobel Peace Prize in 1901.

Andrew the Apostle

Andrew the Apostle 130 Andrew the Apostle, also called Saint Andrew, was an apostle of Jesus. According to the New Testament, he was a fisherman and one of the Twelve Apostles chosen by Jesus. The title First-Called stems from the Gospel of John, where Andrew, initially a disciple of John the Baptist, follows Jesus and, recognizing him as the Messiah, introduces his brother Simon Peter to him.

Ferdinand Porsche

Ferdinand Porsche 130 Ferdinand Porsche was a German-Bohemian automotive engineer and founder of the Porsche AG. He is best known for creating the first gasoline–electric hybrid vehicle (Lohner–Porsche), the Volkswagen Beetle, the Auto Union racing cars, the Mercedes-Benz SS/SSK, and several other important developments and Porsche automobiles.

Robert Bunsen

Robert Bunsen 130 Robert Wilhelm Eberhard Bunsen was a German chemist. He investigated emission spectra of heated elements, and discovered caesium and rubidium with the physicist Gustav Kirchhoff. The Bunsen–Kirchhoff Award for spectroscopy is named after Bunsen and Kirchhoff.

Paul Gerhardt

Paul Gerhardt 128 Paul Gerhardt was a German theologian, Lutheran minister and hymnodist.                             

Alfred Delp

Alfred Delp 127 Alfred Friedrich Delp was a German Jesuit priest and philosopher of the German Resistance. A member of the inner Kreisau Circle resistance group, he is considered a significant figure in Catholic resistance to Nazism. Falsely implicated in the failed 1944 July Plot to overthrow Adolf Hitler, Delp was arrested and sentenced to death. He was executed in 1945.

Heinrich Zille

Heinrich Zille 124 Rudolf Heinrich Zille was a German illustrator, caricaturist, lithographer and photographer.       

Adolph Menzel

Adolph Menzel 124 Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel was a German Realist artist noted for drawings, etchings, and paintings. Along with Caspar David Friedrich, he is considered one of the two most prominent German painters of the 19th century, and was the most successful artist of his era in Germany. First known as Adolph Menzel, he was knighted in 1898 and changed his name to Adolph von Menzel.

Klaus Groth

Klaus Groth 123 Klaus Groth was a Low German poet.                                                                 

Wilhelm Külz

Wilhelm Külz 121 Wilhelm Külz was a German liberal politician of the National Liberal Party, the German Democratic Party (DDP) and later the Liberal Democratic Party of Germany (LDPD). He held public office both in the German Empire and in the Weimar Republic. In 1926, he served as interior minister of Germany in the cabinets of chancellors Hans Luther and Wilhelm Marx.

Johann Strauss II

Johann Strauss II 121 Johann Baptist Strauss II, also known as Johann Strauss Jr., the Younger or the Son, was an Austrian composer of light music, particularly dance music and operettas as well as a violinist. He composed over 500 waltzes, polkas, quadrilles, and other types of dance music, as well as several operettas and a ballet. In his lifetime, he was known as "The Waltz King", and was largely responsible for the popularity of the waltz in Vienna during the 19th century. Some of Johann Strauss's most famous works include "The Blue Danube", "Kaiser-Walzer", "Tales from the Vienna Woods", "Frühlingsstimmen", and the "Tritsch-Tratsch-Polka". Among his operettas, Die Fledermaus and Der Zigeunerbaron are the best known.

August Borsig

August Borsig 120 Johann Karl Friedrich August Borsig was a German businessman who founded the Borsig-Werke factory. 

Ferdinand Sauerbruch

Ferdinand Sauerbruch 120 Ernst Ferdinand Sauerbruch was a German surgeon. His major work was on the use of negative-pressure chambers for surgery.

Emil Nolde

Emil Nolde 120 Emil Nolde was a German-Danish painter and printmaker. He was one of the first Expressionists, a member of Die Brücke, and was one of the first oil painting and watercolor painters of the early 20th century to explore color. He is known for his brushwork and expressive choice of colors. Golden yellows and deep reds appear frequently in his work, giving a luminous quality to otherwise somber tones. His watercolors include vivid, brooding storm-scapes and brilliant florals.

Philip Melanchthon

Philip Melanchthon 119 Philip Melanchthon was a German Lutheran reformer, collaborator with Martin Luther, the first systematic theologian of the Protestant Reformation, an intellectual leader of the Lutheran Reformation, and influential designer of educational systems.

Ludwig Richter

Ludwig Richter 119 Adrian Ludwig Richter was a German painter and etcher, who was strongly influenced by Erhard and Chodowiecki. He was a representative of both Romanticism and Biedermeier styles.

Sebastian Münster

Sebastian Münster 118 Sebastian Münster was a German cartographer and cosmographer. He also was a Christian Hebraist scholar who taught as a professor at the University of Basel. His well-known work, the highly accurate world map, Cosmographia, sold well and went through 24 editions. Its influence was widely spread by a production of woodcuts created of it by a variety of artists.

Gorch Fock (author)

Gorch Fock (author) 117 Johann Wilhelm Kinau, better known by his pseudonym Gorch Fock, was a German author. Other pseudonyms he used were Jakob Holst and Giorgio Focco.

Joseph von Fraunhofer

Joseph von Fraunhofer 115 Joseph Ritter von Fraunhofer was a German physicist and optical lens manufacturer. He made optical glass, an achromatic telescope, and objective lenses. He developed diffraction grating and also invented the spectroscope. In 1814, he discovered and studied the dark absorption lines in the spectrum of the sun now known as Fraunhofer lines.

Georg Büchner

Georg Büchner 114 Karl Georg Büchner was a German dramatist and writer of poetry and prose, considered part of the Young Germany movement. He was also a revolutionary and the brother of physician and philosopher Ludwig Büchner. His literary achievements, though few in number, are generally held in great esteem in Germany and it is widely believed that, had it not been for his early death, he might have joined such central German literary figures as Johann Wolfgang von Goethe and Friedrich Schiller at the summit of their profession.

Franz Lehár

Franz Lehár 112 Franz Lehár was an Austro-Hungarian composer. He is mainly known for his operettas, of which the most successful and best known is The Merry Widow.

Gustav Schwab

Gustav Schwab 112 Gustav Benjamin Schwab was a German writer, pastor and publisher.                                   

Franz Brentano

Franz Brentano 110 Franz Clemens Honoratus Hermann Josef Brentano was a German philosopher and psychologist. His 1874 Psychology from an Empirical Standpoint, considered his magnum opus, is credited with having reintroduced the medieval scholastic concept of intentionality into contemporary philosophy.

Julius Leber

Julius Leber 110 Julius Leber was a German politician of the SPD and a member of the German resistance against the Nazi regime.

Ricarda Huch

Ricarda Huch 109 Ricarda Huch was a pioneering German intellectual. Trained as a historian, and the author of many works of European history, she also wrote novels, poems, and a play. Asteroid 879 Ricarda is named in her honour.

Maximilian Kolbe

Maximilian Kolbe 108 Maximilian Maria Kolbe was a Polish Catholic priest and Conventual Franciscan friar who volunteered to die in place of a man named Franciszek Gajowniczek in the German death camp of Auschwitz, located in German-occupied Poland during World War II. He had been active in promoting the veneration of the Immaculate Virgin Mary, founding and supervising the monastery of Niepokalanów near Warsaw, operating an amateur-radio station (SP3RN), and founding or running several other organizations and publications.

Hedwig of Silesia

Hedwig of Silesia 106 Hedwig of Silesia, also Hedwig of Andechs, a member of the Bavarian comital House of Andechs, was Duchess of Silesia from 1201 and of Greater Poland from 1231 as well as High Duchess consort of Poland from 1232 until 1238. She was canonized by the Catholic Church in 1267 by Pope Clement IV.

Christoph Willibald Gluck

Christoph Willibald Gluck 106 Christoph Willibald Gluck was a composer of Italian and French opera in the early classical period. Born in the Upper Palatinate and raised in Bohemia, both part of the Holy Roman Empire, he gained prominence at the Habsburg court at Vienna. There he brought about the practical reform of opera's dramaturgical practices for which many intellectuals had been campaigning. With a series of radical new works in the 1760s, among them Orfeo ed Euridice and Alceste, he broke the stranglehold that Metastasian opera seria had enjoyed for much of the century. Gluck introduced more drama by using orchestral recitative and cutting the usually long da capo aria. His later operas have half the length of a typical baroque opera.

Maria Sibylla Merian

Maria Sibylla Merian 105 Maria Sibylla Merian was a German entomologist, naturalist and scientific illustrator. She was one of the earliest European naturalists to document observations about insects directly. Merian was a descendant of the Frankfurt branch of the Swiss Merian family.

Paul Schneider (pastor)

Paul Schneider (pastor) 105 Paul Robert Schneider was a German pastor of the Evangelical Church of the old-Prussian Union who was the first Protestant minister to be martyred by the Nazis. He was murdered with a strophanthin injection at the concentration camp of Buchenwald.

Max Liebermann

Max Liebermann 104 Max Liebermann was a German painter and printmaker, and one of the leading proponents of Impressionism in Germany and continental Europe. In addition to his activity as an artist, he also assembled an important collection of French Impressionist works.

Ludwig Erhard

Ludwig Erhard 103 Ludwig Wilhelm Erhard was a German politician and economist affiliated with the Christian Democratic Union (CDU), and chancellor of West Germany from 1963 until 1966. He is known for leading the West German postwar economic reforms and economic recovery in his role as Minister of Economic Affairs under Chancellor Konrad Adenauer from 1949 to 1963. During that period he promoted the concept of the social market economy, on which Germany's economic policy in the 21st century continues to be based. In his tenure as Chancellor, however, Erhard lacked support from Adenauer, who remained chairman of the party until 1966, and failed to win the public's confidence in his handling of a budget deficit and his direction of foreign policy. His popularity waned, and he resigned his chancellorship on 30 November 1966.

Carl von Ossietzky

Carl von Ossietzky 103 Carl von Ossietzky was a German journalist and pacifist. He was the recipient of the 1935 Nobel Peace Prize for his work in exposing the clandestine German rearmament.

Richard Strauss

Richard Strauss 103 Richard Georg Strauss was a German composer and conductor best known for his tone poems and operas. Considered a leading composer of the late Romantic and early modern eras, he has been described as a successor of Richard Wagner and Franz Liszt. Along with Gustav Mahler, he represents the late flowering of German Romanticism, in which pioneering subtleties of orchestration are combined with an advanced harmonic style.

Ludwig Feuerbach

Ludwig Feuerbach 101 Ludwig Andreas von Feuerbach was a German anthropologist and philosopher, best known for his book The Essence of Christianity, which provided a critique of Christianity that strongly influenced generations of later thinkers, including Charles Darwin, Karl Marx, Sigmund Freud, Friedrich Engels, Mikhail Bakunin, Richard Wagner, and Friedrich Nietzsche.

Karl Arnold

Karl Arnold 101 Karl Arnold was a German politician. He was Minister President of North Rhine-Westphalia from 1947 to 1956.

Konrad Zuse

Konrad Zuse 100 Konrad Ernst Otto Zuse was a German civil engineer, pioneering computer scientist, inventor and businessman. His greatest achievement was the world's first programmable computer; the functional program-controlled Turing-complete Z3 became operational in May 1941. Thanks to this machine and its predecessors, Zuse is regarded by some as the inventor and father of the modern computer.

Felix Mendelssohn

Felix Mendelssohn 98 Jakob Ludwig Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy, widely known as Felix Mendelssohn, was a German composer, pianist, organist and conductor of the early Romantic period. Mendelssohn's compositions include symphonies, concertos, piano music, organ music and chamber music. His best-known works include the overture and incidental music for A Midsummer Night's Dream, the Italian Symphony, the Scottish Symphony, the oratorio St. Paul, the oratorio Elijah, the overture The Hebrides, the mature Violin Concerto, the String Octet, and the melody used in the Christmas carol "Hark! The Herald Angels Sing". Mendelssohn's Songs Without Words are his most famous solo piano compositions.

Arthur Schopenhauer

Arthur Schopenhauer 98 Arthur Schopenhauer was a German philosopher. He is known for his 1818 work The World as Will and Representation, which characterizes the phenomenal world as the manifestation of a blind and irrational noumenal will. Building on the transcendental idealism of Immanuel Kant (1724–1804), Schopenhauer developed an atheistic metaphysical and ethical system that rejected the contemporaneous ideas of German idealism.

Saint Roch

Saint Roch 98 Roch, also called Rock in English, was a Majorcan Catholic confessor whose death is commemorated on 16 August and 9 September in Italy; he was especially invoked against the plague. He has the designation of Rollox in Glasgow, Scotland, said to be a corruption of Roch's Loch, which referred to a small loch once near a chapel dedicated to Roch in 1506.

Clara Schumann

Clara Schumann 98 Clara Josephine Schumann was a German pianist, composer, and piano teacher. Regarded as one of the most distinguished pianists of the Romantic era, she exerted her influence over the course of a 61-year concert career, changing the format and repertoire of the piano recital by lessening the importance of purely virtuosic works. She also composed solo piano pieces, a piano concerto, chamber music, choral pieces, and songs.

Leonard of Noblac

Leonard of Noblac 97 Leonard of Noblac, is a Frankish saint closely associated with the town and abbey of Saint-Léonard-de-Noblat, in Haute-Vienne, in the Limousin region of France. He was converted to Christianity along with the king, at Christmas 496. Leonard became a hermit in the forest of Limousin, where he gathered a number of followers. Leonard or Lienard became one of the most venerated saints of the late Middle Ages. His intercession was credited with miracles for the release of prisoners, women in labour and the diseases of cattle.

Daniel Paul Schreber

Daniel Paul Schreber 93 Daniel Paul Schreber was a German judge who was famous for his personal account of his own experience with schizophrenia. Schreber experienced three distinct periods of acute mental illness. The first of these, in 1884-1885 was what was then diagnosed as dementia praecox. He described his second mental illness, from 1893 to 1902, making also a brief reference to the first disorder from 1884 to 1885, in his book Memoirs of My Nervous Illness. The Memoirs became an influential book in the history of psychiatry and psychoanalysis because of its interpretation by Sigmund Freud. There is no personal account of his third disorder, in 1907–1911, but some details about it can be found in the Hospital Chart. During his second illness he was treated by Paul Flechsig, Pierson (Lindenhof), and Guido Weber.


Paracelsus 92 Paracelsus, born Theophrastus von Hohenheim, was a Swiss physician, alchemist, lay theologian, and philosopher of the German Renaissance.

Hermann von Helmholtz

Hermann von Helmholtz 91 Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz was a German physicist and physician who made significant contributions in several scientific fields, particularly hydrodynamic stability. The Helmholtz Association, the largest German association of research institutions, is named in his honour.

Saint Florian

Saint Florian 90 Florian was a Christian holy man and the patron saint of chimney sweeps; soapmakers, and firefighters. His feast day is 4 May. Florian is also the patron saint of Poland, the city of Linz, Austria, and Upper Austria, jointly with Leopold III, Margrave of Austria.

Alfred Nobel

Alfred Nobel 90 Alfred Bernhard Nobel was a Swedish chemist, inventor, engineer and businessman. He is known for inventing dynamite as well as having bequeathed his fortune to establish the Nobel Prize. He also made several important contributions to science, holding 355 patents in his lifetime.

Paul Ehrlich

Paul Ehrlich 90 Paul Ehrlich was a Nobel Prize-winning German physician and scientist who worked in the fields of hematology, immunology, and antimicrobial chemotherapy. Among his foremost achievements were finding a cure for syphilis in 1909 and inventing the precursor technique to Gram staining bacteria. The methods he developed for staining tissue made it possible to distinguish between different types of blood cells, which led to the ability to diagnose numerous blood diseases.

Hugo Eckener

Hugo Eckener 90 Hugo Eckener was the manager of the Luftschiffbau Zeppelin during the inter-war years, and also the commander of the famous Graf Zeppelin for most of its record-setting flights, including the first airship flight around the world, making him the most successful airship commander in history. He was also responsible for the construction of the most successful type of airships of all time. An anti-Nazi who was invited to campaign as a moderate in the German presidential elections, he was blacklisted by that regime and eventually sidelined.

Augustin Wibbelt

Augustin Wibbelt 88 Augustin Wibbelt war ein deutscher römisch-katholischer Geistlicher und westfälischer Mundartdichter und -schriftsteller.

Giuseppe Verdi

Giuseppe Verdi 88 Giuseppe Fortunino Francesco Verdi was an Italian composer best known for his operas. He was born near Busseto to a provincial family of moderate means, receiving a musical education with the help of a local patron, Antonio Barezzi. Verdi came to dominate the Italian opera scene after the era of Gioachino Rossini, Vincenzo Bellini, and Gaetano Donizetti, whose works significantly influenced him.

Friedrich Naumann

Friedrich Naumann 88 Friedrich Naumann was a German liberal politician and Protestant parish pastor. In 1896, he founded the National-Social Association that sought to combine liberalism, nationalism and (non-Marxist) socialism with Protestant Christian values, proposing social reform to prevent class struggle. He led the party until its merger into the Free-minded Union in 1903. From 1907 to 1912 and again from 1913 to 1918, he was a member of the Reichstag of the German Empire.

Bettina von Arnim

Bettina von Arnim 88 Bettina von Arnim, born Elisabeth Catharina Ludovica Magdalena Brentano, was a German writer and novelist.

Arnold Schoenberg

Arnold Schoenberg 88 Arnold Schoenberg or Schönberg was an Austrian-American composer, music theorist, teacher, writer, and painter. He is widely considered one of the most influential composers of the 20th century. He was associated with the expressionist movement in German poetry and art, and leader of the Second Viennese School. As a Jewish composer, Schoenberg was targeted under the Nazi regime, which labeled his works as degenerate music and forbade them from being published. He emigrated to the United States in 1933, becoming an American citizen in 1941.

Manfred von Richthofen

Manfred von Richthofen 88 Manfred Albrecht Freiherr von Richthofen, known in English as Baron von Richthofen or the Red Baron, was a fighter pilot with the German Air Force during World War I. He is considered the ace-of-aces of the war, being officially credited with 80 air combat victories.

Saint Kilian

Saint Kilian 85 Kilian, also spelled Cillian or Killian, was an Irish missionary bishop and the Apostle of Franconia, where he began his labours in the latter half of the 7th century. His feast day is 8 July.

Ernst Reuter

Ernst Reuter 82 Ernst Rudolf Johannes Reuter was the mayor of West Berlin from 1948 to 1953, during the time of the Cold War. He played a significant role in unifying the divided sectors of Berlin and publicly and politically took a stand against the totalitarianism of the Soviet Union.

Ignaz Semmelweis

Ignaz Semmelweis 82 Ignaz Philipp Semmelweis was a Hungarian physician and scientist of German descent, who was an early pioneer of antiseptic procedures, and was described as the "saviour of mothers". Postpartum infection, also known as puerperal fever or childbed fever, consists of any bacterial infection of the reproductive tract following birth, and in the 19th century was common and often fatal. Semmelweis discovered that the incidence of infection could be drastically reduced by requiring healthcare workers in obstetrical clinics to disinfect their hands. In 1847, he proposed hand washing with chlorinated lime solutions at Vienna General Hospital's First Obstetrical Clinic, where doctors' wards had three times the mortality of midwives' wards. The maternal mortality rate dropped from 18% to less than 2%, and he published a book of his findings, Etiology, Concept and Prophylaxis of Childbed Fever, in 1861.


Bonifatius 82 Bonifatius was a Roman general and governor of the diocese of Africa. He campaigned against the Visigoths in Gaul and the Vandals in North Africa. An ally of Galla Placidia, mother and advisor of Valentinian III, Bonifacius engaged in Roman civil wars on her behalf against the generals Felix in 427-429 and Aetius in 432. Although he defeated the latter at the Battle of Rimini, Bonifacius suffered a fatal wound and was succeeded by his son-in-law Sebastianus as patricius of the Western Roman Empire.

Max Josef Metzger

Max Josef Metzger 81 Max Josef Metzger was a Catholic priest and leading German pacifist who was executed by the Nazis during World War II.

Nelly Sachs

Nelly Sachs 81 Nelly Sachs was a German–Swedish poet and playwright. Her experiences resulting from the rise of the Nazis in World War II Europe transformed her into a poignant spokesperson for the grief and yearnings of her fellow Jews. Her best-known play is Eli: Ein Mysterienspiel vom Leiden Israels (1950); other works include the poems "Zeichen im Sand" (1962), "Verzauberung" (1970), and the collections of poetry In den Wohnungen des Todes (1947), Flucht und Verwandlung (1959), Fahrt ins Staublose (1961), and Suche nach Lebenden (1971). She was awarded the 1966 Nobel Prize in Literature.

Stefan Zweig

Stefan Zweig 81 Stefan Zweig was an Austrian writer. At the height of his literary career, in the 1920s and 1930s, he was one of the most widely translated and popular writers in the world.

Heinrich Böll

Heinrich Böll 80 Heinrich Theodor Böll was a German writer. Considered one of Germany's foremost post-World War II writers, Böll is a recipient of the Georg Büchner Prize (1967) and the Nobel Prize for Literature (1972).

Astrid Lindgren

Astrid Lindgren 80 Astrid Anna Emilia Lindgren was a Swedish writer of fiction and screenplays. She is best known for several children's book series, featuring Pippi Longstocking, Emil of Lönneberga, Karlsson-on-the-Roof, and the Six Bullerby Children, and for the children's fantasy novels Mio, My Son; Ronia the Robber's Daughter; and The Brothers Lionheart. Lindgren worked on the Children's Literature Editorial Board at the Rabén & Sjögren publishing house in Stockholm and wrote more than 30 books for children. In 2017, she was calculated to be the world's 18th most translated author. Lindgren had by 2010 sold roughly 167 million books worldwide. In 1994, she was awarded the Right Livelihood Award for "her unique authorship dedicated to the rights of children and respect for their individuality." Her opposition to corporal punishment of children resulted in the world's first law on the matter in 1979, while her campaigning for animal welfare led to a new law, Lex Lindgren, in time for her 80th birthday.

Marie Juchacz

Marie Juchacz 80 Marie Juchacz was a German social reformer.                                                         

Sophie Scholl

Sophie Scholl 79 Sophia Magdalena Scholl was a German student and anti-Nazi political activist, active within the White Rose non-violent resistance group in Nazi Germany.

Saint Vitus

Saint Vitus 78 Vitus, whose name is sometimes rendered Guy or Guido, was a Christian martyr from Sicily. His surviving hagiography is pure legend. The dates of his actual life are unknown. He has for long been tied to the Sicilian martyrs Modestus and Crescentia but in the earliest sources it is clear that these were originally different traditions that later became combined. The figures of Modestus and Crescentia are probably fictitious.

Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben

Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben 77 Friedrich Wilhelm August Heinrich Ferdinand von Steuben, also referred to as Baron von Steuben, was a Prussian military officer who played a leading role in the American Revolutionary War by reforming the Continental Army into a disciplined and professional fighting force. His contributions marked a significant improvement in the performance of U.S. troops, and he is consequently regarded as one of the fathers of the United States Army.

Maxim Gorky

Maxim Gorky 76 Alexei Maximovich Peshkov, popularly known as Maxim Gorky, was a Russian and Soviet writer and socialism proponent. He was nominated five times for the Nobel Prize in Literature. Before his success as an author, he travelled widely across the Russian Empire changing jobs frequently, experiences which would later influence his writing.

Florian Geyer

Florian Geyer 76 Florian Geyer von Giebelstadt was a German nobleman, diplomat, and knight. He became widely known for leading peasants during the German Peasants' War.

Thomas Edison

Thomas Edison 76 Thomas Alva Edison was an American inventor and businessman. He developed many devices in fields such as electric power generation, mass communication, sound recording, and motion pictures. These inventions, which include the phonograph, the motion picture camera, and early versions of the electric light bulb, have had a widespread impact on the modern industrialized world. He was one of the first inventors to apply the principles of organized science and teamwork to the process of invention, working with many researchers and employees. He established the first industrial research laboratory.

Adolph Diesterweg

Adolph Diesterweg 76 Friedrich Adolph Wilhelm Diesterweg was a German educator, thinker, and progressive liberal politician, who campaigned for the secularization of schools. He is said to be precursory to the reform of pedagogy. Diesterweg is considered as "a teacher of teachers".

Hugo Junkers

Hugo Junkers 75 Hugo Junkers was a German aircraft engineer and aircraft designer who pioneered the design of all-metal airplanes and flying wings. His company, Junkers Flugzeug- und Motorenwerke AG, was one of the mainstays of the German aircraft industry in the years between World War I and World War II. His multi-engined, all-metal passenger- and freight planes helped establish airlines in Germany and around the world.

Ludwig Windthorst

Ludwig Windthorst 74 Baron Ludwig von Windthorst was a German politician and leader of the Catholic Centre Party and the most notable opponent of Chancellor Otto von Bismarck during the Prussian-led unification of Germany and the Kulturkampf. Margaret L. Anderson argues that he was "Imperial Germany's greatest parliamentarian" and bears comparison with Irishmen Daniel O'Connell and Charles Stewart Parnell "in his handling of party machinery and his relation to the masses."

Elisabeth Selbert

Elisabeth Selbert 74 Elisabeth Selbert (1896–1986) was a German politician and lawyer. She was one of the four women who worked on the Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany, collectively called the Mütter des Grundgesetzes. She had a central role in ensuring that explicit equality between men and women was included as a fundamental right in the Basic Law.

Felix Wankel

Felix Wankel 72 Felix Heinrich Wankel was a German mechanical engineer and inventor after whom the Wankel engine was named.

Conradin Kreutzer

Conradin Kreutzer 71 Conradin Kreutzer or Kreuzer was a German composer and conductor. His works include the operas Das Nachtlager in Granada and incidental music to Der Verschwender, both produced in 1834 in Vienna.

Agnes Miegel

Agnes Miegel 71 Agnes Miegel was a German author, journalist and poet. She is best known for her poems and short stories about East Prussia, but also for the support she gave to the Nazi Party.

Otto Brenner

Otto Brenner 70 Otto Brenner was a German trades unionist and politician. Between 1956 and 1972 he was the leader of the powerful IG Metall (Industrial Union of Metalworkers).

Paul Lincke

Paul Lincke 70 Carl Emil Paul Lincke was a German composer and theater conductor. He is considered the "father" of the Berlin operetta. His well-known compositions include "Berliner Luft", the unofficial anthem of Berlin, from his operetta Frau Luna; and "The Glow-Worm", from his operetta Lysistrata.

Clemens von Ketteler

Clemens von Ketteler 69 Clemens August Freiherr von Ketteler was a German career diplomat. He was killed during the Boxer Rebellion.

Franz Mehring

Franz Mehring 69 Franz Erdmann Mehring was a German communist historian, literary and art critic, philosopher, and revolutionary socialist politician who was a senior member of the Spartacus League during the German Revolution of 1918–1919.

August Lämmle

August Lämmle 69 Julius August Lämmle war ein schwäbischer Mundartdichter.                                           

Kurt Tucholsky

Kurt Tucholsky 69 Kurt Tucholsky was a German journalist, satirist, and writer. He also wrote under the pseudonyms Kaspar Hauser, Peter Panter, Theobald Tiger and Ignaz Wrobel.

Francis of Assisi

Francis of Assisi 69 Giovanni di Pietro di Bernardone, known as Francis of Assisi, was an Italian mystic, poet and Catholic friar who founded the religious order of the Franciscans. He was inspired to lead a Christian life of poverty as a beggar and itinerant preacher. One of the most venerated figures in Christianity, Francis was canonized by Pope Gregory IX on 16 July 1228. He is commonly portrayed wearing a brown habit with a rope tied around his waist, featuring three knots that symbolize the three Franciscan vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience.

Eugen Bolz

Eugen Bolz 68 Eugen Anton Bolz was a German politician and a member of the resistance to the Nazi régime.         

Alois Senefelder

Alois Senefelder 68 Johann Alois Senefelder was a German actor and playwright who invented the printing technique of lithography in the 1790s.

Ernst Heinkel

Ernst Heinkel 68 Dr. Ernst Heinkel was a German aircraft designer, manufacturer, Wehrwirtschaftsführer in Nazi Germany, and member of the Nazi party. His company Heinkel Flugzeugwerke produced the Heinkel He 178, the world's first turbojet-powered aircraft, and the Heinkel He 176, the first rocket aircraft.

Erich Weinert

Erich Weinert 68 Erich Bernhard Gustav Weinert was a German Communist writer and a member of the Communist Party of Germany (KPD).

Jacques Offenbach

Jacques Offenbach 68 Jacques Offenbach 20 June 1819 – 5 October 1880) was a German-born French composer, cellist and impresario. He is remembered for his nearly 100 operettas of the 1850s to the 1870s, and his uncompleted opera The Tales of Hoffmann. He was a powerful influence on later composers of the operetta genre, particularly Franz von Suppé, Johann Strauss Jr. and Arthur Sullivan. His best-known works were continually revived during the 20th century, and many of his operettas continue to be staged in the 21st. The Tales of Hoffmann remains part of the standard opera repertory.

Fridtjof Nansen

Fridtjof Nansen 68 Fridtjof Wedel-Jarlsberg Nansen was a Norwegian polymath and Nobel Peace Prize laureate. He gained prominence at various points in his life as an explorer, scientist, diplomat, humanitarian and co-founded the Fatherland League.

Carl Maria von Weber

Carl Maria von Weber 67 Carl Maria Friedrich Ernst von Weber was a German composer, conductor, virtuoso pianist, guitarist, and critic of the early Romantic period. Best known for his operas, he was a crucial figure in the development of German Romantische Oper.

Gustav Mahler

Gustav Mahler 67 Gustav Mahler was an Austro-Bohemian Romantic composer, and one of the leading conductors of his generation. As a composer he acted as a bridge between the 19th-century Austro-German tradition and the modernism of the early 20th century. While in his lifetime his status as a conductor was established beyond question, his own music gained wide popularity only after periods of relative neglect, which included a ban on its performance in much of Europe during the Nazi era. After 1945 his compositions were rediscovered by a new generation of listeners; Mahler then became one of the most frequently performed and recorded of all composers, a position he has sustained into the 21st century.

Ernst Abbe

Ernst Abbe 67 Ernst Karl Abbe was a German businessman, optical engineer, physicist, and social reformer. Together with Otto Schott and Carl Zeiss, he developed numerous optical instruments. He was also a co-owner of Carl Zeiss AG, a German manufacturer of scientific microscopes, astronomical telescopes, planetariums, and other advanced optical systems.

Albrecht Altdorfer

Albrecht Altdorfer 66 Albrecht Altdorfer was a German painter, engraver and architect of the Renaissance working in Regensburg, Bavaria. Along with Lucas Cranach the Elder and Wolf Huber he is regarded to be the main representative of the Danube School, setting biblical and historical subjects against landscape backgrounds of expressive colours. He is remarkable as one of the first artists to take an interest in landscape as an independent subject. As an artist also making small intricate engravings he is seen to belong to the Nuremberg Little Masters.

Claude Dornier

Claude Dornier 66 Claude (Claudius) Honoré Désiré Dornier was a German-French airplane designer and founder of Dornier GmbH. His notable designs include the 12-engine Dornier Do X flying boat, for decades the world's largest and most powerful airplane. He also made several other successful aircraft.

Ferdinand von Steinbeis

Ferdinand von Steinbeis 65 Ferdinand Steinbeis, ab 1855 von Steinbeis, war ein württembergischer Wirtschaftspolitiker und wichtiger Förderer der Industrialisierung in Württemberg.

Anton Günther

Anton Günther 65 Anton Günther was an Austrian Roman Catholic philosopher whose work was condemned by the church as heretical tritheism. His work has been described as Liberal Catholicism and Vienna's first Catholic political movement. His writings made him a leader among the generation of German Catholic theologians who emerged from the Romantic movement.

Paul the Apostle

Paul the Apostle 64 Paul, commonly known as Paul the Apostle and Saint Paul, was a Christian apostle who spread the teachings of Jesus in the first-century world. For his contributions towards the New Testament, he is generally regarded as one of the most important figures of the Apostolic Age, and he also founded several Christian communities in Asia Minor and Europe from the mid-40s to the mid-50s AD.

Gustav Heinemann

Gustav Heinemann 63 Gustav Walter Heinemann was a German politician who was President of West Germany from 1969 to 1974. He served as mayor of Essen from 1946 to 1949, West German Minister of the Interior from 1949 to 1950, and Minister of Justice from 1966 to 1969.

Gregor Mendel

Gregor Mendel 63 Gregor Johann Mendel OSA was an Austrian-Czech biologist, meteorologist, mathematician, Augustinian friar and abbot of St. Thomas' Abbey in Brno (Brünn), Margraviate of Moravia. Mendel was born in a German-speaking family in the Silesian part of the Austrian Empire and gained posthumous recognition as the founder of the modern science of genetics. Though farmers had known for millennia that crossbreeding of animals and plants could favor certain desirable traits, Mendel's pea plant experiments conducted between 1856 and 1863 established many of the rules of heredity, now referred to as the laws of Mendelian inheritance.

Rudolf Harbig

Rudolf Harbig 63 Rudolf Waldemar Harbig was a German athlete. As a middle distance runner he was best known for the 800 metres world record that he set in Milan in 1939. He also held the European record in the 400 metres from 1939 until 1955.

Hans Christian Andersen

Hans Christian Andersen 62 Hans Christian Andersen was a Danish author. Although a prolific writer of plays, travelogues, novels, and poems, he is best remembered for his literary fairy tales.

Clare of Assisi

Clare of Assisi 61 Chiara Offreduccio, known as Clare of Assisi, was an Italian saint who was one of the first followers of Francis of Assisi.

Saint Ursula

Saint Ursula 61 Ursula was a Romano-British virgin and martyr possibly of royal origin. She is venerated as a saint in the Roman Catholic Church and the Anglican Communion. Her feast day in the pre-1970 General Roman Calendar and in some regional calendars of the ordinary form of the Roman Rite is 21 October.

James the Great

James the Great 61 James the Great was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus. According to the New Testament, he was the second of the apostles to die, and the first to be martyred. Saint James is the patron saint of Spain and, according to tradition, his remains are held in Santiago de Compostela in Galicia.

Tilman Riemenschneider

Tilman Riemenschneider 60 Tilman Riemenschneider was a German sculptor and woodcarver active in Würzburg from 1483. He was one of the most prolific and versatile sculptors of the transition period between the Late Gothic, to which he essentially belonged, and Northern Renaissance art, a master in stone and limewood. He was also a local politician in the council of Würzburg.

Gustav Freytag

Gustav Freytag 60 Gustav Freytag was a German novelist and playwright.                                               

Maria Montessori

Maria Montessori 60 Maria Tecla Artemisia Montessori was an Italian physician and educator best known for her philosophy of education and her writing on scientific pedagogy. At an early age, Montessori enrolled in classes at an all-boys technical school, with hopes of becoming an engineer. She soon had a change of heart and began medical school at the Sapienza University of Rome, becoming one of the first women to attend medical school in Italy; she graduated with honors in 1896. Her educational method is in use today in many public and private schools globally.

Franz Grillparzer

Franz Grillparzer 59 Franz Seraphicus Grillparzer was an Austrian writer who was considered to be the leading Austrian dramatist of the 19th century. His plays were and are frequently performed at the famous Burgtheater in Vienna. He also wrote the oration for Ludwig van Beethoven's funeral, as well as the epitaph for his friend Franz Schubert.

Arnold Böcklin

Arnold Böcklin 59 Arnold Böcklin was a Swiss Symbolist painter. He is best known for his six versions of the Isle of the Dead, which inspired works by several late-Romantic composers.

Werner Seelenbinder

Werner Seelenbinder 59 Werner Seelenbinder was a German communist and wrestler.                                           

Max von Schenkendorf

Max von Schenkendorf 58 Gottlob Ferdinand Maximilian Gottfried von Schenkendorf was a German poet, born in Tilsit and educated at Königsberg. During the War of Liberation, in which he took an active part, Schenkendorf was associated with Arndt and Körner in the writing of patriotic songs. His poems were published as Gedichte (1815), Poetischer Nachlass (1832), and Sämtliche Gedichte. Some of his poems were set to music by lieder composer Pauline Volkstein. For his Life, consult Hagen ; Knaake ; E. von Klein, M. von Schenkendorf.

Karl Theodor, Duke in Bavaria

Karl Theodor, Duke in Bavaria 58 Karl-Theodor, Duke in Bavaria, was a member of the House of Wittelsbach and a professional oculist. He was the favorite brother of the Empress Elisabeth of Austria, and father of Queen Elisabeth of the Belgians.

Franz Hermann Schulze-Delitzsch

Franz Hermann Schulze-Delitzsch 58 Franz Hermann Schulze-Delitzsch, also Hermann Schulze, was a German politician and economist. He was responsible for the organizing of the world's first credit unions. He was also co-founder of the German Progress Party.

Hermann Ehlers

Hermann Ehlers 57 Hermann Ehlers was a German politician. He was the second president of the Bundestag from 19 October 1950 to 29 October 1954.

Saint Stephen

Saint Stephen 57 Stephen is traditionally venerated as the protomartyr or first martyr of Christianity. According to the Acts of the Apostles, he was a deacon in the early church at Jerusalem who angered members of various synagogues by his teachings. Accused of blasphemy at his trial, he made a speech denouncing the Jewish authorities who were sitting in judgment on him and was then stoned to death. Saul of Tarsus, later known as Paul the Apostle, a Pharisee and Roman citizen who would later become an apostle, participated in Stephen's martyrdom.

Gustavus Adolphus

Gustavus Adolphus 57 Gustavus Adolphus, also known in English as Gustav II Adolf or Gustav II Adolph, was King of Sweden from 1611 to 1632, and is credited with the rise of Sweden as a great European power. During his reign, Sweden became one of the primary military forces in Europe during the Thirty Years' War, helping to determine the political and religious balance of power in Europe. He was formally and posthumously given the name Gustavus Adolphus the Great by the Riksdag of the Estates in 1634.

Wilhelm Wagenfeld

Wilhelm Wagenfeld 56 Wilhelm Wagenfeld was a German industrial designer and former student of the Bauhaus art school. He designed glass and metal works for the Jenaer Glaswerk Schott & Gen., the Vereinigte Lausitzer Glaswerke in Weißwasser, Rosenthal, Braun GmbH and WMF. Some of his designs are still produced to this day.

Wilhelm Pieck

Wilhelm Pieck 55 Friedrich Wilhelm Reinhold Pieck was a German communist politician who served as the chairman of the Socialist Unity Party from 1946 to 1950 and as president of the German Democratic Republic from 1949 to 1960.

Saint Gall

Saint Gall 54 Gall according to hagiographic tradition was a disciple and one of the traditional twelve companions of Columbanus on his mission from Ireland to the continent. However, he may have originally come from the border region between Lorraine and Alemannia and only met Columbanus at the monastery of Luxeuil in the Vosges. Gall is known as a representative of the Irish monastic tradition. The Abbey of Saint Gall in the city of Saint Gallen, Switzerland was built upon his original hermitage. Deicolus was the elder brother of Gall.

Saint Maurice

Saint Maurice 54 Maurice was an Egyptian military leader who headed the legendary Theban Legion of Rome in the 3rd century, and is one of the favourite and most widely venerated saints of that martyred group. He is the patron saint of several professions, locales, and kingdoms.

John Bosco

John Bosco 53 John Melchior Bosco, SDB, popularly known as Don Bosco, was an Italian Catholic priest, educator and writer of the 19th century. While working in Turin, where the population suffered many of the ill effects of industrialization and urbanization, he dedicated his life to the betterment and education of street children, juvenile delinquents, and other disadvantaged youth. He developed teaching methods based on love rather than punishment, a method that became known as the Salesian Preventive System.

Robert Stolz

Robert Stolz 53 Robert Elisabeth Stolz was an Austrian songwriter and conductor as well as a composer of operettas and film music.

Galileo Galilei

Galileo Galilei 53 Galileo di Vincenzo Bonaiuti de' Galilei, commonly referred to as Galileo Galilei or simply Galileo, was an Italian astronomer, physicist and engineer, sometimes described as a polymath. He was born in the city of Pisa, then part of the Duchy of Florence. Galileo has been called the father of observational astronomy, modern-era classical physics, the scientific method, and modern science.

Nikolaus Gross

Nikolaus Gross 53 Nikolaus Gross was a German Roman Catholic. Gross first worked in crafts requiring skilled labor before becoming a coal miner like his father while joining a range of trade union and political movements. But he soon settled on becoming a journalist before he got married while World War II prompted him to become a resistance fighter in the time of the Third Reich and for his anti-violent rhetoric and approach to opposing Adolf Hitler. He was also one of those implicated and arrested for the assassination attempt on Hitler despite not being involved himself.

Wilhelm Leibl

Wilhelm Leibl 52 Wilhelm Maria Hubertus Leibl was a German realist painter of portraits and scenes of peasant life. 

Ernst Barlach

Ernst Barlach 51 Ernst Heinrich Barlach was a German expressionist sculptor, medallist, printmaker and writer. Although he was a supporter of the war in the years leading to World War I, his participation in the conflict made him change his position, and he is mostly known for his sculptures protesting against the war. This created many conflicts during the rise of the Nazi Party, when most of his works were confiscated as degenerate art. Stylistically, his literary and artistic work would fall between the categories of twentieth-century Realism and Expressionism.

Fritz Erler

Fritz Erler 50 Fritz Erler was a German painter, graphic designer and scenic designer. Although most talented as an interior designer, he is perhaps best remembered for several propaganda posters he produced during World War I.

Otto Wels

Otto Wels 50 Otto Wels was a German politician who served as a member of the Reichstag from 1912 to 1933 and as the chairman of the Social Democratic Party (SPD) from 1919 until his death in 1939. He was military commander of Berlin in the turbulent early days of the German Revolution of 1918–1919, and during the 1920 Kapp Putsch he was instrumental in organizing the general strike that helped defeat the anti-republican putschists. Near the end of the Weimar Republic's life, however, he saw the futility of calling a general strike against the 1932 Prussian coup d'état because of the mass unemployment of the Great Depression.

Georg Kerschensteiner

Georg Kerschensteiner 50 Georg Michael Anton Kerschensteiner was a German professor and educational theorist. He was director of public schools in Munich from 1895 to 1919 and became a professor at the University of Munich in 1920. The author of Theorie der Bildungsorganisation (1933), Kerschensteiner is primarily known for developing a pragmatic approach to education, which included the integration of academic study with physical activity and the establishment of a network of vocational schools.

Martin Schongauer

Martin Schongauer 50 Martin Schongauer, also known as Martin Schön or Hübsch Martin by his contemporaries, was an Alsatian engraver and painter. He was the most important printmaker north of the Alps before Albrecht Dürer, a younger artist who collected his work. Schongauer is the first German painter to be a significant engraver, although he seems to have had the family background and training in goldsmithing which was usual for early engravers.

Peter Cornelius

Peter Cornelius 50 Carl August Peter Cornelius was a German composer, writer about music, poet and translator.         

Friedrich Wöhler

Friedrich Wöhler 50 Friedrich Wöhler FRS(For) HonFRSE was a German chemist known for his work in both organic and inorganic chemistry, being the first to isolate the chemical elements beryllium and yttrium in pure metallic form. He was the first to prepare several inorganic compounds, including silane and silicon nitride.


Stauffenberg 50 The Schenk von Stauffenberg family is a Roman Catholic Uradel German noble family from Swabia, Germany. The family's best-known recent member was Colonel Claus Schenk Graf von Stauffenberg – the key figure in the 1944 "20 July plot" to assassinate Adolf Hitler.

Gabriele Münter

Gabriele Münter 50 Gabriele Münter was a German expressionist painter who was at the forefront of the Munich avant-garde in the early 20th century. She studied and lived with the painter Wassily Kandinsky and was a founding member of the expressionist group Der Blaue Reiter.

Balthasar Neumann

Balthasar Neumann 49 Johann Balthasar Neumann, usually known as Balthasar Neumann, was a German architect and military artillery engineer who developed a refined brand of Baroque architecture, fusing Austrian, Bohemian, Italian, and French elements to design some of the most impressive buildings of the period, including the Würzburg Residence and the Basilica of the Fourteen Holy Helpers.

Alfred Krupp

Alfred Krupp 48 Alfred Krupp was a German steel manufacturer and inventor; the largest arms supplier of his era, which earned him the nickname "The Cannon King".

Adam Opel

Adam Opel 48 Adam Opel was a German entrepreneur who founded the automobile company Adam Opel AG.               

Wernher von Braun

Wernher von Braun 48 Wernher Magnus Maximilian Freiherr von Braun was a German-American aerospace engineer and space architect. He was a member of the Nazi Party and Allgemeine SS, the leading figure in the development of rocket technology in Nazi Germany, and later a pioneer of rocket and space technology in the United States.

Willi Bleicher

Willi Bleicher 47 Willi Bleicher was one of the best known and, according to at least one source, one of the most important and effective German trades union leaders of the post-war decades.

Carl Schurz

Carl Schurz 47 Carl Schurz was a German revolutionary and an American statesman, journalist, and reformer. He migrated to the United States after the German revolutions of 1848–1849 and became a prominent member of the new Republican Party. After serving as a Union general in the American Civil War, he helped found the short-lived Liberal Republican Party and became a prominent advocate of civil service reform. Schurz represented Missouri in the United States Senate and was the 13th United States Secretary of the Interior.

Georg Herwegh

Georg Herwegh 47 Georg Friedrich Rudolph Theodor Herwegh was a German poet, who is considered part of the Young Germany movement.

Ingeborg Bachmann

Ingeborg Bachmann 47 Ingeborg Bachmann was an Austrian poet and author. She is regarded as one of the major voices of German-language literature in the 20th century.

John F. Kennedy

John F. Kennedy 47 John Fitzgerald Kennedy, often referred to as JFK, was an American politician who served as the 35th president of the United States from 1961 until his assassination in 1963. He was the youngest person elected president. Kennedy served at the height of the Cold War, and the majority of his foreign policy concerned relations with the Soviet Union and Cuba. A Democrat, Kennedy represented Massachusetts in both houses of the United States Congress prior to his presidency.

Karl Ferdinand Braun

Karl Ferdinand Braun 47 Karl Ferdinand Braun was a German electrical engineer, inventor, physicist and Nobel laureate in physics. Braun contributed significantly to the development of radio and television technology and built the first semiconductor. He shared the 1909 Nobel Prize in Physics with Guglielmo Marconi "for their contributions to the development of wireless telegraphy", was a founder of Telefunken, one of the pioneering communications and television companies, and has been both called the "father of television", "great grandfather of every semiconductor ever manufactured" and the co-father of the radio telegraphy, together with Marconi.

Peter Henlein

Peter Henlein 47 Peter Henlein, a locksmith and clockmaker of Nuremberg, Germany, is often considered the inventor of the watch. He was one of the first craftsmen to make small ornamental portable clocks which were often worn as pendants or attached to clothing, and which are regarded as the first watches. Many sources also erroneously credit him as the inventor of the mainspring.

Johannes R. Becher

Johannes R. Becher 46 Johannes Robert Becher was a German politician, novelist, and poet. He was affiliated with the Communist Party of Germany (KPD) before World War II. At one time, he was part of the literary avant-garde, writing in an expressionist style.

Friedrich Harkort

Friedrich Harkort 46 Friedrich Harkort, known as the "Father of the Ruhr," was an early prominent German industrialist and pioneer of industrial development in the Ruhr region.

Heinrich Mann

Heinrich Mann 46 Luiz Heinrich Mann, best known as simply Heinrich Mann, was a German writer known for his socio-political novels. From 1930 until 1933, he was president of the fine poetry division of the Prussian Academy of Arts. His fierce criticism of the growing Fascism and Nazism forced him to flee Germany after the Nazis came to power during 1933. He was the elder brother of writer Thomas Mann.

Konrad Lorenz

Konrad Lorenz 46 Konrad Zacharias Lorenz was an Austrian zoologist, ethologist, and ornithologist. He shared the 1973 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Nikolaas Tinbergen and Karl von Frisch. He is often regarded as one of the founders of modern ethology, the study of animal behavior. He developed an approach that began with an earlier generation, including his teacher Oskar Heinroth.

Carl Diem

Carl Diem 46 Carl Diem was a German sports administrator, and as Secretary General of the Organizing Committee of the Berlin Olympic Games, the chief organizer of the 1936 Olympic Summer Games.

John the Evangelist

John the Evangelist 45 John the Evangelist is the name traditionally given to the author of the Gospel of John. Christians have traditionally identified him with John the Apostle, John of Patmos, and John the Presbyter, although this has been disputed by most modern scholars.

Georg Elser

Georg Elser 44 Johann Georg Elser was a German worker who planned and carried out an elaborate assassination attempt on Adolf Hitler and other high-ranking Nazi leaders on 8 November 1939 at the Bürgerbräukeller in Munich. Elser constructed and placed a bomb near the platform from which Hitler was to deliver a speech. It did not kill Hitler, who left earlier than expected, but it did kill 8 people and injured 62 others. Elser was held as a prisoner for more than five years until he was executed at Dachau concentration camp less than a month before the surrender of Nazi Germany.

Alfred Brehm

Alfred Brehm 44 Alfred Edmund Brehm was a German zoologist, writer, director of zoological gardens and the son of Christian Ludwig Brehm, a famous pastor and ornithologist.

Claus von Stauffenberg

Claus von Stauffenberg 44 Claus von Stauffenberg was a German army officer who is best known for his failed attempt on 20 July 1944 to assassinate Adolf Hitler at the Wolf's Lair.

Werner Heisenberg

Werner Heisenberg 43 Werner Karl Heisenberg was a German theoretical physicist, one of the main pioneers of the theory of quantum mechanics, and a principal scientist in the Nazi nuclear weapons program during World War II. He published his Umdeutung paper in 1925, a major reinterpretation of old quantum theory. In the subsequent series of papers with Max Born and Pascual Jordan, during the same year, his matrix formulation of quantum mechanics was substantially elaborated. He is known for the uncertainty principle, which he published in 1927. Heisenberg was awarded the 1932 Nobel Prize in Physics "for the creation of quantum mechanics".

Moritz von Schwind

Moritz von Schwind 43 Moritz von Schwind was an Austrian painter, born in Vienna. Schwind's genius was lyrical—he drew inspiration from chivalry, folklore, and the songs of the people. Schwind died in Pöcking in Bavaria, and was buried in the Alter Südfriedhof in Munich.

Bernhard Letterhaus

Bernhard Letterhaus 43 Bernhard Letterhaus was a German Catholic Trade Unionist and member of the resistance to Nazism.   

Robert Blum

Robert Blum 43 Robert Blum was a German democratic politician, publicist, poet, publisher, revolutionary and member of the National Assembly of 1848. In his fight for a strong, unified Germany he opposed ethnocentrism and it was his strong belief that no one people should rule over another. As such he was an opponent of the Prussian occupation of Poland and was in contact with the revolutionaries there. Blum was a critic of antisemitism, supported the German Catholic sect, and agitated for the equality of the sexes. Although claiming immunity as a member of the National Assembly, he was arrested during a stay at the hotel "Stadt London" in Vienna and executed for his role in the Revolutions of 1848 in the German states.

Veit Stoss

Veit Stoss 43 Veit Stoss was a leading German sculptor, mostly working with wood, whose career covered the transition between the late Gothic and the Northern Renaissance. His style emphasized pathos and emotion, helped by his virtuoso carving of billowing drapery; it has been called "late Gothic Baroque". He had a large workshop, and in addition to his own works there are a number by pupils. He is best known for the altarpiece in St. Mary's Basilica in Kraków, Poland.

Rudolf Kinau

Rudolf Kinau 43 Rudolf Kinau, also known as Rudi Kinau was a Low German writer.                                     

Ludwig von Vincke

Ludwig von Vincke 43 Friedrich Ludwig Wilhelm Philip Freiherr von Vincke was a liberal Prussian statesman. Born as member of an old Westphalian noble family and educated at three universities in a broad variety of subjects, he entered the Prussian service as head of local and regional authorities. Influenced by ideas of British liberalism, he joined the Prussian Reform Movement during the times of Napoleonic Wars, and was an important member as co-worker of the Barons vom Stein and vom Stein zum Altenstein.

Else Lasker-Schüler

Else Lasker-Schüler 43 Else Lasker-Schüler was a German-Jewish poet and playwright famous for her bohemian lifestyle in Berlin and her poetry. She was one of the few women affiliated with the Expressionist movement. Lasker-Schüler fled Nazi Germany and lived out the rest of her life in Jerusalem.

E. T. A. Hoffmann

E. T. A. Hoffmann 42 Ernst Theodor Amadeus Hoffmann was a German Romantic author of fantasy and Gothic horror, a jurist, composer, music critic and artist. His stories form the basis of Jacques Offenbach's opera The Tales of Hoffmann, in which Hoffmann appears as the hero. He is also the author of the novella The Nutcracker and the Mouse King, on which Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky's ballet The Nutcracker is based. The ballet Coppélia is based on two other stories that Hoffmann wrote, while Schumann's Kreisleriana is based on Hoffmann's character Johannes Kreisler.

Helene Weber

Helene Weber 42 Helene Weber was a German politician and was known as a women's rights activist. In the Weimar Republic she rose to prominence in the Catholic Centre Party. In 1945 she was among the founders of the Christian Democratic Union (CDU). In 1948 she was a co-founder of the CDU Women's Task Force, a precursor of the party's Women's Union, which she chaired from 1951 to 1958. Weber is one of four women who, alongside 61 men, drafted Germany's constitution, the Basic Law, in 1948-49. After initial hesitation, she closed ranks with the women delegates of the Social Democratic Party to successfully fight for the inclusion of the sentence "Men and women shall have equal rights" in Article 3 of the Basic Law. She is often cited for her anti-war statement: "The entirely male-run state is the ruin of nations".

James Watt

James Watt 42 James Watt was a Scottish inventor, mechanical engineer, and chemist who improved on Thomas Newcomen's 1712 Newcomen steam engine with his Watt steam engine in 1776, which was fundamental to the changes brought by the Industrial Revolution in both his native country Great Britain, and the rest of the world.

Heinrich Schütz

Heinrich Schütz 41 Heinrich Schütz was a German early Baroque composer and organist, generally regarded as the most important German composer before Johann Sebastian Bach and one of the most important composers of the 17th century. He is credited with bringing the Italian style to Germany and continuing its evolution from the Renaissance into the early Baroque. Most of his surviving music was written for the Lutheran church, primarily for the Electoral Chapel in Dresden. He wrote what is traditionally considered the first German opera, Dafne, performed at Torgau in 1627, the music of which has since been lost, along with nearly all of his ceremonial and theatrical scores. Schütz was a prolific composer, with more than 500 surviving works.

Otto von Guericke

Otto von Guericke 41 Otto von Guericke was a German scientist, inventor, mathematician and physicist. His pioneering scientific work, the development of experimental methods and repeatable demonstrations on the physics of the vacuum, atmospheric pressure, electrostatic repulsion, his advocacy for the reality of "action at a distance" and of "absolute space" were noteworthy contributions for the advancement of the Scientific Revolution.

Ludwig Anzengruber

Ludwig Anzengruber 41 Ludwig Anzengruber was an Austrian dramatist, novelist and poet. He was born and died in Vienna, Austria.

Ernest Louis, Grand Duke of Hesse

Ernest Louis, Grand Duke of Hesse 41 Ernest Louis was the last Grand Duke of Hesse and by Rhine, reigning from 1892 until 1918.         

Lena Christ

Lena Christ 41 Lena Christ German: [lɛna krɪst] was a German writer.                                               

Carlo Schmid (German politician)

Carlo Schmid (German politician) 41 Carlo Schmid was a German academic and politician of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD). 

Fritz Haber

Fritz Haber 41 Fritz Haber was a German chemist who received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1918 for his invention of the Haber–Bosch process, a method used in industry to synthesize ammonia from nitrogen gas and hydrogen gas. This invention is important for the large-scale synthesis of fertilizers and explosives. It is estimated that a third of annual global food production uses ammonia from the Haber–Bosch process, and that this supports nearly half the world's population. For this work, Haber has been called one of the most important scientists and industrial chemists in human history. Haber also, along with Max Born, proposed the Born–Haber cycle as a method for evaluating the lattice energy of an ionic solid.

Siegfried Lenz

Siegfried Lenz 41 Siegfried Lenz was a German writer of novels, short stories and essays, as well as dramas for radio and the theatre. In 2000 he received the Goethe Prize on the 250th Anniversary of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe's birth. He won the 2010 International Nonino Prize in Italy.

John Amos Comenius

John Amos Comenius 40 John Amos Comenius was a Moravian philosopher, pedagogue and theologian who is considered the father of modern education. He served as the last bishop of the Unity of the Brethren before becoming a religious refugee and one of the earliest champions of universal education, a concept eventually set forth in his book Didactica Magna. As an educator and theologian, he led schools and advised governments across Protestant Europe through the middle of the seventeenth century.

Heinrich Lübke

Heinrich Lübke 40 Karl Heinrich Lübke was a German politician, who served as president of West Germany from 1959 to 1969.

Johann von Werth

Johann von Werth 40 Johann von Werth, also Jan von Werth or in French Jean de Werth, was a German general of cavalry in the Thirty Years' War.

Oskar von Miller

Oskar von Miller 39 Oskar Franz Xaver Miller, since 1875 von Miller, was a German engineer and founder of the Deutsches Museum, a large museum of technology and science in Munich.

Louis Pasteur

Louis Pasteur 39 Louis Pasteur was a French chemist, pharmacist, and microbiologist renowned for his discoveries of the principles of vaccination, microbial fermentation, and pasteurization, the last of which was named after him. His research in chemistry led to remarkable breakthroughs in the understanding of the causes and preventions of diseases, which laid down the foundations of hygiene, public health and much of modern medicine. Pasteur's works are credited with saving millions of lives through the developments of vaccines for rabies and anthrax. He is regarded as one of the founders of modern bacteriology and has been honored as the "father of bacteriology" and the "father of microbiology".

Andreas Schlüter

Andreas Schlüter 39 Andreas Schlüter was a German baroque sculptor and architect, active in the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, and the Russian Tsardom.

Otto Nuschke

Otto Nuschke 39 Otto Nuschke was a German politician.                                                               

Charles Lindbergh

Charles Lindbergh 39 Charles Augustus Lindbergh was an American aviator and military officer. On May 20–21, 1927, he made the first nonstop flight from New York City to Paris, a distance of 3,600 miles (5,800 km), flying alone for 33.5 hours. His aircraft, the Spirit of St. Louis, was designed and built by the Ryan Airline Company specifically to compete for the Orteig Prize for the first flight between the two cities. Although not the first transatlantic flight, it was the first solo transatlantic flight and the longest at the time by nearly 2,000 miles (3,200 km). It became known as one of the most consequential flights in history and ushered in a new era of air transportation between parts of the globe.

Robert Schuman

Robert Schuman 39 Jean-Baptiste Nicolas Robert Schuman was a Luxembourg-born French statesman. Schuman was a Christian democratic political thinker and activist. Twice Prime Minister of France, a reformist Minister of Finance and a Foreign Minister, he was instrumental in building postwar European and trans-Atlantic institutions and was one of the founders of the European Communities, the Council of Europe and NATO. The 1964–1965 academic year at the College of Europe was named in his honour. In 2021, Schuman was declared venerable by Pope Francis in recognition of his acting on Christian principles.

Hildegard of Bingen

Hildegard of Bingen 39 Hildegard of Bingen, also known as Saint Hildegard and the Sibyl of the Rhine, was a German Benedictine abbess and polymath active as a writer, composer, philosopher, mystic, visionary, and as a medical writer and practitioner during the High Middle Ages. She is one of the best-known composers of sacred monophony, as well as the most recorded in modern history. She has been considered by a number of scholars to be the founder of scientific natural history in Germany.

John Calvin

John Calvin 38 John Calvin was a French theologian, pastor and reformer in Geneva during the Protestant Reformation. He was a principal figure in the development of the system of Christian theology later called Calvinism, including its doctrines of predestination and of God's absolute sovereignty in the salvation of the human soul from death and eternal damnation. Calvinist doctrines were influenced by and elaborated upon the Augustinian and other Christian traditions. Various Congregational, Reformed and Presbyterian churches, which look to Calvin as the chief expositor of their beliefs, have spread throughout the world.

Leonhard Euler

Leonhard Euler 38 Leonhard Euler was a Swiss mathematician, physicist, astronomer, geographer, logician, and engineer who founded the studies of graph theory and topology and made pioneering and influential discoveries in many other branches of mathematics such as analytic number theory, complex analysis, and infinitesimal calculus. He introduced much of modern mathematical terminology and notation, including the notion of a mathematical function. He is also known for his work in mechanics, fluid dynamics, optics, astronomy, and music theory.

Yuri Gagarin

Yuri Gagarin 38 Yuri Alekseyevich Gagarin was a Soviet pilot and cosmonaut who, aboard the first successful crewed spaceflight, became the first human to journey into outer space. Travelling on Vostok 1, Gagarin completed one orbit of Earth on 12 April 1961, with his flight taking 108 minutes. By achieving this major milestone for the Soviet Union amidst the Space Race, he became an international celebrity and was awarded many medals and titles, including the nation's highest distinction: Hero of the Soviet Union.

Max Immelmann

Max Immelmann 38 Max Immelmann PLM was the first German World War I flying ace. He was a pioneer in fighter aviation and is often mistakenly credited with the first aerial victory using a synchronized gun, which was in fact achieved on 1 July 1915 by the German ace Kurt Wintgens. He was the first aviator to receive the Pour le Mérite, colloquially known as the "Blue Max" in his honour, being awarded it at the same time as Oswald Boelcke. His name has become attached to a common flying tactic, the Immelmann turn, and remains a byword in aviation. He is credited with 15 aerial victories.

Friedrich Wilhelm

Friedrich Wilhelm 37 The German name Friedrich Wilhelm may refer to:                                                     

Adolf Reichwein

Adolf Reichwein 37 Adolf Reichwein was a German educator, economist, and cultural policymaker for the SPD, who resisted the policies of Nazi Germany.

Hermann Sudermann

Hermann Sudermann 37 Hermann Sudermann was a German dramatist and novelist.                                             

Hannah Arendt

Hannah Arendt 37 Hannah Arendt was a German-American historian and philosopher. She was one of the most influential political theorists of the 20th century.

Martin Niemöller

Martin Niemöller 37 Friedrich Gustav Emil Martin Niemöller was a German theologian and Lutheran pastor. He is best known for his opposition to the Nazi regime during the late 1930s and for his widely quoted 1946 poem "First they came ...". The poem exists in many versions; the one featured on the United States Holocaust Memorial reads: "First they came for the socialists, and I did not speak out – because I was not a socialist. Then they came for the trade unionists, and I did not speak out – because I was not a trade unionist. Then they came for the Jews, and I did not speak out – because I was not a Jew. Then they came for me – and there was no one left to speak for me."

Max Slevogt

Max Slevogt 37 Max Slevogt was a German Impressionist painter and illustrator, best known for his landscapes. He was, together with Lovis Corinth and Max Liebermann, one of the foremost representatives in Germany of the plein air style.

Otto Dix

Otto Dix 36 Wilhelm Heinrich Otto Dix was a German painter and printmaker, noted for his ruthless and harshly realistic depictions of German society during the Weimar Republic and the brutality of war. Along with George Grosz and Max Beckmann, he is widely considered one of the most important artists of the Neue Sachlichkeit.


Novalis 36 Georg Philipp Friedrich Freiherr von Hardenberg, pen name Novalis, was a German aristocrat and polymath, who was a poet, novelist, philosopher and mystic. He is regarded as an influential figure of Jena Romanticism.

Peter Dörfler

Peter Dörfler 36 Peter Dörfler war ein deutscher katholischer Priester, Erzieher und Dichter.                       

Elly Heuss-Knapp

Elly Heuss-Knapp 36 Elisabeth Eleonore Anna Justine Heuss-Knapp was a German politician of the Free Democratic Party (FDP), social reformer, author and wife of German president Theodor Heuss. She was the founder of the Müttergenesungswerk charitable organisation officially called Elly Heuss-Knapp Foundation in her honour.

August Horch

August Horch 35 August Horch was a German engineer and automobile pioneer, the founder of the manufacturing giant that eventually became Audi.

Saint Peter

Saint Peter 35 Saint Peter, also known as Peter the Apostle, Simon Peter, Simeon, Simon, or Cephas, was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus Christ and one of the first leaders of the early Christian Church. He appears repeatedly and prominently in all four New Testament gospels as well as the Acts of the Apostles. Catholic tradition accredits Peter as the first bishop of Rome‍—‌or pope‍—‌and also as the first bishop of Antioch.

Clara Viebig

Clara Viebig 35 Clara Emma Amalia Viebig was a German author.                                                       

Georg August Zinn

Georg August Zinn 35 Georg August Zinn was a German lawyer and a politician of the SPD. He was a member of the Bundestag from 1949 to 1951 representing Kassel, the 2nd Minister-President of Hesse from 1950 to 1969 and served as the 5th and 16th President of the Bundesrat in 1953/54 and 1964/65.

Friedrich Nietzsche

Friedrich Nietzsche 35 Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche was a German philosopher. He began his career as a classical philologist before turning to philosophy. He became the youngest person to hold the Chair of Classical Philology at the University of Basel in 1869 at the age of 24, but resigned in 1879 due to health problems that plagued him most of his life; he completed much of his core writing in the following decade. In 1889, at age 44, he suffered a collapse and afterward a complete loss of his mental faculties, with paralysis and probably vascular dementia. He lived his remaining years in the care of his mother until her death in 1897 and then with his sister Elisabeth Förster-Nietzsche. Nietzsche died in 1900, after experiencing pneumonia and multiple strokes.

Alessandro Volta

Alessandro Volta 35 Alessandro Giuseppe Antonio Anastasio Volta was an Italian physicist and chemist who was a pioneer of electricity and power and is credited as the inventor of the electric battery and the discoverer of methane. He invented the voltaic pile in 1799, and reported the results of his experiments in 1800 in a two-part letter to the president of the Royal Society. With this invention Volta proved that electricity could be generated chemically and debunked the prevalent theory that electricity was generated solely by living beings. Volta's invention sparked a great amount of scientific excitement and led others to conduct similar experiments, which eventually led to the development of the field of electrochemistry.

Wolfgang of Regensburg

Wolfgang of Regensburg 35 Wolfgang of Regensburg was bishop of Regensburg in Bavaria from Christmas 972 until his death. He is a saint in the Catholic and Eastern Orthodox churches. He is regarded as one of the three great German saints of the 10th century, the other two being Ulrich of Augsburg and Conrad of Constance. Towards the end of his life Wolfgang withdrew as a hermit to a solitary spot, in the Salzkammergut region of Upper Austria. Soon after Wolfgang's death many churches chose him as their patron saint, and various towns were named after him.

Johann Friedrich Böttger

Johann Friedrich Böttger 35 Johann Friedrich Böttger was a German alchemist. Böttger was born in Schleiz and died in Dresden. He is normally credited with being the first European to discover the secret of the creation of hard-paste porcelain in 1708, but it has also been claimed that English manufacturers or Ehrenfried Walther von Tschirnhaus produced porcelain first. Certainly, the Meissen factory, established 1710, was the first to produce porcelain in Europe in large quantities and since the recipe was kept a trade secret by Böttger for his company, experiments continued elsewhere throughout Europe.

Helene Lange

Helene Lange 35 Helene Lange was a pedagogue and feminist. She is a symbolic figure of the international and German civil rights feminist movement. In the years from 1919 to 1921 she was a member of the Hamburg Parliament. In 1928 she was honoured with the Grand Prussian State Medal "For Services to the State".

Walter Flex

Walter Flex 35 Walter Flex was a German author of The Wanderer between the Two Worlds: An Experience of War of 1916, a war novel dealing with themes of humanity, friendship, and suffering during World War I. Due to his idealism about Prussian virtues and the Great War, as well as the posthumous popularity of his writings, Walter Flex is sometimes compared to Allied war poets Rupert Brooke and Alan Seeger.

Franz Hitze

Franz Hitze 35 Franz Hitze war ein deutscher katholischer Geistlicher, Sozialethiker und Politiker der Zentrumspartei.

Theodor Mommsen

Theodor Mommsen 34 Christian Matthias Theodor Mommsen was a German classical scholar, historian, jurist, journalist, politician and archaeologist. He is widely regarded as one of the greatest classicists of the 19th century. His work regarding Roman history is still of fundamental importance for contemporary research. He received the 1902 Nobel Prize in Literature for his historical writings, including The History of Rome, after having been nominated by 18 members of the Prussian Academy of Sciences. He was also a prominent German politician, as a member of the Prussian and German parliaments. His works on Roman law and on the law of obligations had a significant impact on the German civil code.

Theodor Neubauer

Theodor Neubauer 34 Theodor Neubauer was a German communist politician, educator, essayist, historian and anti-Nazi resistance fighter.

Bertha Benz

Bertha Benz 34 Bertha Benz was a German automotive pioneer. She was the business partner, investor and wife of automobile inventor Karl Benz. On 5 August 1888, she was the first person to drive an internal-combustion-engined automobile over a long distance, field testing the Benz Patent-Motorwagen, inventing brake lining and solving several practical issues during the journey of 105 km. In doing so, she brought the Patent-Motorwagen worldwide attention and got their company its first sales.

Heinrich Lanz

Heinrich Lanz 34 Heinrich Lanz was a German entrepreneur and engineer. He founded Heinrich Lanz AG, a manufacturer of agricultural machinery and stationary steam engines and locomotives exported globally.

Berthold Schenk Graf von Stauffenberg

Berthold Schenk Graf von Stauffenberg 34 Berthold Alfred Maria Schenk Graf von Stauffenberg was a German aristocrat and lawyer who was a key conspirator in the plot to assassinate Adolf Hitler on 20 July 1944, alongside his younger brother, Colonel Claus Schenk Graf von Stauffenberg. After the plot failed, Berthold was tried and executed by the Nazi regime.

Andreas Hofer

Andreas Hofer 34 Andreas Hofer was a Tyrolean innkeeper and drover, who in 1809 became the leader of the Tyrolean Rebellion against the Napoleonic and Bavarian invasion during the War of the Fifth Coalition. He was subsequently captured and executed.

Friedrich Bergius

Friedrich Bergius 34 Friedrich Karl Rudolf Bergius was a German chemist known for the Bergius process for producing synthetic fuel from coal, Nobel Prize in Chemistry in recognition of contributions to the invention and development of chemical high-pressure methods. Having worked with IG Farben during World War II, his citizenship came into question following the war, causing him to ultimately flee to Argentina, where he acted as adviser to the Ministry of Industry.

Ina Seidel

Ina Seidel 34 Ina Seidel was a German lyric poet and novelist. Favourite themes included motherhood and the mysteries of race and heredity.

Heinrich Brüning

Heinrich Brüning 34 Heinrich Aloysius Maria Elisabeth Brüning was a German Centre Party politician and academic, who served as the chancellor of Germany during the Weimar Republic from 1930 to 1932.

Hugo Wolf

Hugo Wolf 34 Hugo Philipp Jacob Wolf was an Austrian composer, particularly noted for his art songs, or Lieder. He brought to this form a concentrated expressive intensity which was unique in late Romantic music, somewhat related to that of the Second Viennese School in concision but diverging greatly in technique.

Friedrich Hecker

Friedrich Hecker 34 Friedrich Franz Karl Hecker was a German lawyer, politician and revolutionary. He was one of the most popular speakers and agitators of the 1848 Revolution. After moving to the United States, he served as a brigade commander in the Union Army during the American Civil War.

Bruno of Cologne

Bruno of Cologne 33 Bruno of Cologne, venerated as Saint Bruno, was the founder of the Carthusian Order. He personally founded the order's first two communities. He was a celebrated teacher at Reims, and a close advisor of his former pupil, Pope Urban II. His feast day is 6 October.

Adolf Grimme

Adolf Grimme 33 Adolf Berthold Ludwig Grimme was a German politician, a member of the Social Democratic Party (SPD). He was Cultural Minister during the later years of the Weimar Republic and after World War II, during the early years of the Federal Republic of Germany. During the Third Reich, he was arrested as a member of the German Resistance and sentenced to prison. After the war, he filed a legal complaint against the judge who had condemned him and others. After years of delays, the case was dropped by the prosecutor.

Anna Seghers

Anna Seghers 33 Anna Seghers, is the pseudonym of German writer Anna Reiling, who was notable for exploring and depicting the moral experience of the Second World War. Born into a Jewish family and married to a Hungarian Communist, Seghers escaped Nazi-controlled territory through wartime France. She was granted a visa and gained ship's passage to Mexico, where she lived in Mexico City (1941–47).

Saint Christopher

Saint Christopher 33 Saint Christopher is venerated by several Christian denominations as a martyr killed in the reign of the 3rd-century Roman emperor Decius, or alternatively under the emperor Maximinus Daia. There appears to be confusion due to the similarity in names "Decius" and "Daia". Churches and monasteries were named after him by the 7th century.

Edvard Grieg

Edvard Grieg 32 Edvard Hagerup Grieg was a Norwegian composer and pianist. He is widely considered one of the leading Romantic era composers, and his music is part of the standard classical repertoire worldwide. His use of Norwegian folk music in his own compositions brought the music of Norway to fame, as well as helping to develop a national identity, much as Jean Sibelius did in Finland and Bedřich Smetana in Bohemia.

Frédéric Chopin

Frédéric Chopin 32 Frédéric François Chopin was a Polish composer and virtuoso pianist of the Romantic period, who wrote primarily for solo piano. He has maintained worldwide renown as a leading musician of his era, one whose "poetic genius was based on a professional technique that was without equal in his generation".

Joachim Ringelnatz

Joachim Ringelnatz 32 Joachim Ringelnatz is the pen name of the German author and painter Hans Bötticher (7 August 1883, Wurzen, Saxony – 17 November 1934, Berlin). From 1894 to 1900 he lived with his family in the Gottschedstrasse 40 in Leipzig.

Friedrich Wilhelm Weber

Friedrich Wilhelm Weber 32 Friedrich Wilhelm Weber was a German doctor, politician of the Prussian House of Deputies, and poet.

Albertus Magnus

Albertus Magnus 32 Albertus Magnus, also known as Saint Albert the Great, Albert of Swabia or Albert of Cologne, was a German Dominican friar, philosopher, scientist, and bishop, considered one of the greatest medieval philosophers and thinkers.

Otto Schott

Otto Schott 32 Friedrich Otto Schott (1851–1935) was a German chemist, glass technologist, and the inventor of borosilicate glass. Schott systematically investigated the relationship between the chemical composition of the glass and its properties. In this way, he solved fundamental problems in glass properties, identifying compositions with optical properties that approach the theoretical limit. Schott's findings were a major advance in the optics for microscopy and optical astronomy. His work has been described as "a watershed in the history of glass composition".

Ernst Wiechert

Ernst Wiechert 32 Ernst Wiechert was a German teacher, poet and writer.                                               

Annette Kolb

Annette Kolb 32 Annette Kolb was a German author and pacifist.                                                     

Emmy Noether

Emmy Noether 32 Amalie Emmy Noether was a German mathematician who made many important contributions to abstract algebra. She proved Noether's first and second theorems, which are fundamental in mathematical physics. She was described by Pavel Alexandrov, Albert Einstein, Jean Dieudonné, Hermann Weyl and Norbert Wiener as the most important woman in the history of mathematics. As one of the leading mathematicians of her time, she developed theories of rings, fields, and algebras. In physics, Noether's theorem explains the connection between symmetry and conservation laws.

Saint Blaise

Saint Blaise 31 Blaise of Sebaste was a physician and bishop of Sebastea in historical Lesser Armenia who is venerated as a Christian saint and martyr. He is counted as one of the Fourteen Holy Helpers.

Ernst Haeckel

Ernst Haeckel 31 Ernst Heinrich Philipp August Haeckel was a German zoologist, naturalist, eugenicist, philosopher, physician, professor, marine biologist and artist. He discovered, described and named thousands of new species, mapped a genealogical tree relating all life forms and coined many terms in biology, including ecology, phylum, phylogeny, and Protista. Haeckel promoted and popularised Charles Darwin's work in Germany and developed the influential but no longer widely held recapitulation theory claiming that an individual organism's biological development, or ontogeny, parallels and summarises its species' evolutionary development, or phylogeny.

Franz Kafka

Franz Kafka 31 Franz Kafka was a German-speaking Bohemian Jewish novelist and writer from Prague. He is widely regarded as one of the major figures of 20th-century literature. His work fuses elements of realism and the fantastic. It typically features isolated protagonists facing bizarre or surrealistic predicaments and incomprehensible socio-bureaucratic powers. It has been interpreted as exploring themes of alienation, existential anxiety, guilt, and absurdity. His best known works include the novella The Metamorphosis and novels The Trial and The Castle. The term Kafkaesque has entered English to describe absurd situations like those depicted in his writing.

Albrecht Thaer

Albrecht Thaer 31 Albrecht Daniel Thaer was a German agronomist and a supporter of the humus theory for plant nutrition.

Walter Gropius

Walter Gropius 31 Walter Adolph Georg Gropius was a German-American architect and founder of the Bauhaus School, who, along with Alvar Aalto, Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, Le Corbusier and Frank Lloyd Wright, is widely regarded as one of the pioneering masters of modernist architecture. He was a founder of Bauhaus in Weimar (1919). Gropius was also a leading architect of the International Style.

Ulrich von Hutten

Ulrich von Hutten 31 Ulrich von Hutten was a German knight, scholar, poet and satirist, who later became a follower of Martin Luther and a Protestant reformer.

Selma Lagerlöf

Selma Lagerlöf 31 Selma Ottilia Lovisa Lagerlöf was a Swedish writer. She published her first novel, Gösta Berling's Saga, at the age of 33. She was the first woman to win the Nobel Prize in Literature, which she was awarded in 1909. Additionally, she was the first woman to be granted a membership in the Swedish Academy in 1914.

Carl Millöcker

Carl Millöcker 31 Carl Joseph Millöcker, was an Austrian composer of operettas and a conductor. He was born in Vienna, where he studied the flute at the Vienna Conservatory. While holding various conducting posts in the city, he began to compose operettas. The first was Der tote Gast, an operetta in one act, premiered in 1865 with libretto by Ludwig Harisch, after the novel by Heinrich Zschokke.

Peter Vischer the Elder

Peter Vischer the Elder 31 Peter Vischer the Elder was a German sculptor, the son of Hermann Vischer, and the most notable member of the Vischer Family of Nuremberg.

Vincent van Gogh

Vincent van Gogh 31 Vincent Willem van Gogh was a Dutch Post-Impressionist painter who is among the most famous and influential figures in the history of Western art. In just over a decade, he created approximately 2100 artworks, including around 860 oil paintings, most of them in the last two years of his life. His oeuvre includes landscapes, still lifes, portraits, and self-portraits, most of which are characterized by bold colors and dramatic brushwork that contributed to the rise of expressionism in modern art. Van Gogh's work was beginning to gain critical attention before he died at age 37, by what was suspected at the time to be a suicide. During his lifetime, only one of Van Gogh's paintings, The Red Vineyard, was sold.

Helene Wessel

Helene Wessel 30 Helene Wessel was a German politician. From October 1949 to January 1952 she was chairwoman of the Centre Party and a founding member of the All-German People's Party, which eventually joined the SPD. She was elected to the Parlamentarischer Rat, the West German constitutional convention.

Erich Ollenhauer

Erich Ollenhauer 30 Erich Ollenhauer was the leader of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) from 1952 until 1963. He was a key leader of the opposition to Konrad Adenauer in the Bundestag. In exile under the Nazis, he returned to Germany in February 1946, becoming vice chairman of the SPD. He was a close ally of the chairman Kurt Schumacher, and worked on party organization. Where Schumacher was a passionate intellectual, Ollenhauer was a thorough and efficient bureaucrat. He became party leader after Schumacher's death in 1952. Besides attending to organizational details, his main role was moderating the tension between the left-wing and right-wing factions. He remained party leader until his death, but yielded to the charismatic Berlin mayor Willy Brandt in 1961 as the party's candidate for chancellor.

Franz von Sickingen

Franz von Sickingen 30 Franz von Sickingen was a knight of the Holy Roman Empire who, with Ulrich von Hutten, led the so-called "Knights' War," and was one of the most notable figures of the early period of the Protestant Reformation. Sickingen is posthumously known as "the last knight", an epithet he shared with his contemporaries Chevalier de Bayard and Emperor Maximilian.

Sophie Henschel

Sophie Henschel 30 Sophie Henschel (1841–1916) was a German industrialist. She was married to Oscar Henschel and the leader of Henschel & Son from his death in 1894 until 1910. She was one of the richest women in Germany. She was known as a patron of the arts and was given the Wilhelm-Orden.

Caroline Herschel

Caroline Herschel 30 Caroline Lucretia Herschel was a German-born British astronomer, whose most significant contributions to astronomy were the discoveries of several comets, including the periodic comet 35P/Herschel–Rigollet, which bears her name. She was the younger sister of astronomer William Herschel, with whom she worked throughout her career.

Jakob Kaiser

Jakob Kaiser 30 Jakob Kaiser was a German politician and resistance leader during World War II.                     

Andreas Hermes

Andreas Hermes 30 Andreas Hermes was a German agricultural scientist and politician. In the Weimar Republic, he was a member of several governments, serving as minister of food/nutrition and minister of finance for the Catholic Zentrum. During the rule of the Nazi Party, Hermes was part of the right-wing resistance, for which he was imprisoned and sentenced to death. After World War II, he co-founded the Christian Democratic Union.

Hans Geiger

Hans Geiger 29 Johannes Wilhelm "Hans" Geiger was a German physicist. He is best known as the co-inventor of the detector component of the Geiger counter and for the Geiger–Marsden experiment which discovered the atomic nucleus. He also carried the Bothe–Geiger coincidence experiment that confirmed the conservation of energy in light-particle interactions.

Heinrich von Stephan

Heinrich von Stephan 29 Ernst Heinrich Wilhelm von Stephan was a general post director for the German Empire who reorganized the German postal service. He was integral in the founding of the Universal Postal Union in 1874, and in 1877 introduced the telephone to Germany.

Johann Konrad Wilhelm Löhe

Johann Konrad Wilhelm Löhe 29 Johann Konrad Wilhelm Löhe was a pastor of the Lutheran Church, Confesional Lutheran writer, and is often regarded as being a founder of the deaconess movement in Lutheranism and a founding sponsor of the Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod (LCMS). From the small town of Neuendettelsau, he sent pastors to North America, Australia, New Guinea, Brazil, and Ukraine. His work for a clear confessional basis within the Bavarian church sometimes led to conflict with the ecclesiastical bureaucracy. His chief concern was that a parish find its life in the eucharist, and from that source evangelism and social ministries would flow. Many Lutheran congregations in Michigan, Ohio, and Iowa were either founded or influenced by missionaries sent by Löhe. He is commemorated on 2 January by the calendars of both the LCMS and the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America.

Stefan Lochner

Stefan Lochner 29 Stefan Lochner was a German painter working in the late International Gothic period. His paintings combine that era's tendency toward long flowing lines and brilliant colours with the realism, virtuoso surface textures and innovative iconography of the early Northern Renaissance. Based in Cologne, a commercial and artistic hub of northern Europe, Lochner was one of the most important German painters before Albrecht Dürer. Extant works include single-panel oil paintings, devotional polyptychs and illuminated manuscripts, which often feature fanciful and blue-winged angels. Today some thirty-seven individual panels are attributed to him with confidence.


Arminius 29 Arminius was a chieftain of the Germanic Cherusci tribe who is best known for commanding an alliance of Germanic tribes at the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest in AD 9, in which three Roman legions under the command of general and governor Publius Quinctilius Varus were destroyed. His victory at Teutoburg Forest precipitated the Roman Empire's permanent strategic withdrawal from Germania Magna, and modern historians regard it as one of Rome's greatest defeats. As it prevented the Romanization of Germanic peoples east of the Rhine, it has also been considered one of the most decisive battles in history and a turning point in human history.

Jochen Klepper

Jochen Klepper 29 Jochen Klepper was a German writer, poet and journalist.                                           

Bruno H. Bürgel

Bruno H. Bürgel 29 Bruno Hans Bürgel war ein bekannter deutscher Schriftsteller und Wissenschaftspublizist, dessen Verdienste vor allem in der Verbreitung astronomischer Kenntnisse liegen.

Carl Legien

Carl Legien 28 Carl Legien was a German unionist, moderate Social Democratic politician and first President of the International Federation of Trade Unions.

Ernst Ludwig Kirchner

Ernst Ludwig Kirchner 28 Ernst Ludwig Kirchner was a German expressionist painter and printmaker and one of the founders of the artists group Die Brücke or "The Bridge", a key group leading to the foundation of Expressionism in 20th-century art. He volunteered for army service in the First World War, but soon suffered a breakdown and was discharged. His work was branded as "degenerate" by the Nazis in 1933, and in 1937 more than 600 of his works were sold or destroyed.

John of Nepomuk

John of Nepomuk 28 John of Nepomuk was a saint of Bohemia who was drowned in the Vltava river at the behest of King Wenceslaus IV of Bohemia. Later accounts state that he was the confessor of the queen of Bohemia and refused to divulge the secrets of the confessional. On the basis of this account, John of Nepomuk is considered the first martyr of the Seal of the Confessional, a patron against calumnies and, because of the manner of his death, a protector from floods and drowning.

Hans Beimler (politician)

Hans Beimler (politician) 28 Johannes Baptist "Hans" Beimler was a trade unionist, Communist Party official, deputy in the 1933 Reichstag, an outspoken opponent of the Nazis and a volunteer in the international brigades fighting for the Spanish Republic.

Max von Laue

Max von Laue 28 Max Theodor Felix von Laue was a German physicist who received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1914 for his discovery of the diffraction of X-rays by crystals.

Hans Pfitzner

Hans Pfitzner 28 Hans Erich Pfitzner was a German composer, conductor and polemicist who was a self-described anti-modernist. His best known work is the post-Romantic opera Palestrina (1917), loosely based on the life of the sixteenth-century composer Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina and his Missa Papae Marcelli.

Max Beckmann

Max Beckmann 28 Max Carl Friedrich Beckmann was a German painter, draftsman, printmaker, sculptor, and writer. Although he is classified as an Expressionist artist, he rejected both the term and the movement. In the 1920s, he was associated with the New Objectivity, an outgrowth of Expressionism that opposed its introverted emotionalism. Even when dealing with light subject matter like circus performers, Beckmann often had an undercurrent of moodiness or unease in his works. By the 1930s, his work became more explicit in its horrifying imagery and distorted forms with combination of brutal realism and social criticism, coinciding with the rise of nazism in Germany.

Robert Gerwig

Robert Gerwig 27 Robert Gerwig (1820–1885) was a German civil engineer.                                             

Heinrich Schliemann

Heinrich Schliemann 27 Johann Ludwig Heinrich Julius Schliemann was a German businessman and an influential amateur archaeologist. He was an advocate of the historicity of places mentioned in the works of Homer and an archaeological excavator of Hisarlik, now presumed to be the site of Troy, along with the Mycenaean sites Mycenae and Tiryns. His work lent weight to the idea that Homer's Iliad reflects historical events. Schliemann's excavation of nine levels of archaeological remains has been criticized as destructive of significant historical artifacts, including the level that is believed to be the historical Troy.

Hermann Allmers

Hermann Allmers 27 Hermann Allmers was a German poet.                                                                 

Friedrich-Wilhelm Bock

Friedrich-Wilhelm Bock 27 Friedrich-Wilhelm Bock was a German Waffen-SS commander during World War II who led three SS divisions, the SS Division Hohenstaufen, 4th SS Polizei Division, Waffen Grenadier Division of the SS. He was awarded the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross of Nazi Germany.

Erich Mühsam

Erich Mühsam 27 Erich Mühsam was a German antimilitarist anarchist essayist, poet and playwright. He emerged at the end of World War I as one of the leading agitators for a federated Bavarian Soviet Republic, for which he served five years in prison.

Gertrud Bäumer

Gertrud Bäumer 27 Gertrud Bäumer was a German politician who actively participated in the German civil rights feminist movement. She was also a writer, and contributed to Friedrich Naumann's paper Die Hilfe. From 1898, Bäumer lived and worked together with the German feminist and politician Helene Lange.

Wolfram von Eschenbach

Wolfram von Eschenbach 27 Wolfram von Eschenbach was a German knight, poet and composer, regarded as one of the greatest epic poets of medieval German literature. As a Minnesinger, he also wrote lyric poetry.

Erwin Rommel

Erwin Rommel 27 Johannes Erwin Eugen Rommel was a German Generalfeldmarschall during World War II. Popularly known as the Desert Fox, he served in the Wehrmacht of Nazi Germany, as well as in the Reichswehr of the Weimar Republic, and the army of Imperial Germany. Rommel was injured multiple times in both world wars.

Gustav Kirchhoff

Gustav Kirchhoff 27 Gustav Robert Kirchhoff was a German physicist and mathematician who contributed to the fundamental understanding of electrical circuits, spectroscopy, and the emission of black-body radiation by heated objects.

Carl Zuckmayer

Carl Zuckmayer 27 Carl Zuckmayer was a German writer and playwright. His older brother was the pedagogue, composer, conductor, and pianist Eduard Zuckmayer.

Walther von Seydlitz-Kurzbach

Walther von Seydlitz-Kurzbach 27 Walther Kurt von Seydlitz-Kurzbach was a German general during World War II who commanded the LI Army Corps during the Battle of Stalingrad. At the end of the battle, he gave his officers freedom of action and was relieved of command. He assisted the Soviet Union as a prisoner-of-war. After the war, he was convicted by the Soviets of war crimes. In 1996, he was posthumously pardoned by Russia.

Karl Leisner

Karl Leisner 27 Karl Leisner was a Roman Catholic priest interned in the Dachau concentration camp. He died of tuberculosis shortly after being liberated by the Allied forces. He has been declared a martyr and was beatified by Pope John Paul II on 23 June 1996.

Ludwig Beck

Ludwig Beck 27 Ludwig August Theodor Beck was a German general and Chief of the German General Staff during the early years of the Nazi regime in Germany before World War II. Although Beck never became a member of the Nazi Party, in the early 1930s he supported Adolf Hitler's forceful denunciation of the Treaty of Versailles and the need to re-arm, although he believed Germany needed more time to rearm before starting a war.

Alfred Wegener

Alfred Wegener 26 Alfred Lothar Wegener was a German climatologist, geologist, geophysicist, meteorologist, and polar researcher.

Friedrich Freudenthal

Friedrich Freudenthal 26 Friedrich Freudenthal war einer der wichtigsten Heimatschriftsteller Niederdeutschlands.           

Hermann Köhl

Hermann Köhl 26 Hermann Köhl was a German aviation pioneer and pilot of the first transatlantic flight by a fixed-wing aircraft from east to west.

Margarete Steiff

Margarete Steiff 26 Margarete Steiff was a German seamstress who in 1880 founded Margarete Steiff GmbH, more widely known as Steiff, a maker of toy stuffed animals.

Louise Schroeder

Louise Schroeder 26 Louise Dorothea Schroeder was a German politician of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) party. She was among the 41 female members of the Weimar National Assembly, the Constituent Assembly of the Weimar Republic and subsequently remained a member of the Reichstag until 1933. An educator and activist central in the Arbeiterwohlfahrt movement, and she was under scrutiny of the Nazi Party during the 1930s and 1940s for her socialist positions. After the partition of Germany following World War II, she served as governing mayor of West Berlin in 1948. Until Franziska Giffey was sworn in in 2021, she was the only woman to have served as Mayor of Berlin.

Rupert Mayer

Rupert Mayer 26 Rupert Mayer was a German Jesuit priest and a leading figure of the Catholic resistance to Nazism in Munich. In 1987, he was beatified by Pope John Paul II.

Hans Carossa

Hans Carossa 26 Hans Carossa was a German novelist and poet, known mostly for his autobiographical novels, and his inner emigration during the Nazi era.

Antonio Vivaldi

Antonio Vivaldi 26 Antonio Lucio Vivaldi was an Italian composer, virtuoso violinist and impresario of Baroque music. Along with Johann Sebastian Bach and George Frideric Handel, Vivaldi ranks amongst the greatest Baroque composers and his influence during his lifetime was widespread across Europe, giving origin to many imitators and admirers. He pioneered many developments in orchestration, violin technique and programmatic music. He consolidated the emerging concerto form into a widely accepted and followed idiom.

Carl Spitzweg

Carl Spitzweg 26 Carl Spitzweg was a German romantic painter, especially of genre subjects. He is considered to be one of the most important artists of the Biedermeier era.

Frieda Nadig

Frieda Nadig 26 Friederike Nadig was a German politician of the Social Democratic Party (SPD). One of the four women members of the Parlamentarischer Rat who drafted the Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany in 1948/49, she was one of the Mothers of the Basic Law.

Adam Stegerwald

Adam Stegerwald 25 Adam Stegerwald was a German Catholic politician and a leader of the left wing of the Centre Party. 

Peter Behrens

Peter Behrens 25 Peter Behrens was a leading German architect, graphic and industrial designer, best known for his early pioneering AEG Turbine Hall in Berlin in 1909. He had a long career, designing objects, typefaces, and important buildings in a range of styles from the 1900s to the 1930s. He was a foundation member of the German Werkbund in 1907, when he also began designing for AEG, pioneered corporate design, graphic design, producing typefaces, objects, and buildings for the company. In the next few years, he became a successful architect, a leader of the rationalist / classical German Reform Movement of the 1910s. After WW1 he turned to Brick Expressionism, designing the remarkable Hoechst Administration Building outside Frankfurt, and from the mid-1920s increasingly to New Objectivity. He was also an educator, heading the architecture school at Academy of Fine Arts Vienna from 1922 to 1936. As a well known architect he produced design across Germany, in other European countries, Russia and England. Several of the leading names of European modernism worked for him when they were starting out in the 1910s, including Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, Le Corbusier and Walter Gropius.

Clemens August of Bavaria

Clemens August of Bavaria 25 Clemens August of Bavaria was an 18th-century member of the Wittelsbach dynasty of Bavaria and Archbishop-Elector of Cologne.

Ludwig Ganghofer

Ludwig Ganghofer 25 Ludwig Ganghofer was a German writer. He has been called the "most-adapted author in the history of German cinema", as many of his novels were turned into films.

Theodor Haubach

Theodor Haubach 25 Theodor Haubach was a German journalist, SPD politician, and resistance fighter against the Nazi régime.

Carl Bosch

Carl Bosch 25 Carl Bosch was a German chemist and engineer and Nobel Laureate in Chemistry. He was a pioneer in the field of high-pressure industrial chemistry and founder of IG Farben, at one point the world's largest chemical company.

Ernst Schneller

Ernst Schneller 25 Ernst Schneller was a German school teacher. In 1914 he volunteered to join the army when war broke out. Sent to fight on the Eastern Front, he became politicised and radicalised, especially as the ideas behind the Russian Revolution filtered through to the German troops. After the war he joined first the Social Democratic Party and then, in 1920, the recently launched Communist Party of Germany. He served as a regional member ("Landtagsabgeordneter") of parliament in the Saxon parliament ("Landtag") between 1921 and 1924, and then between 1924 and 1933 as a member ("Reichstagsabgeordneter") of the national parliament ("Reichstag"). He was arrested in 1933 and imprisoned. Transfer to the Sachsenhausen concentration camp followed in 1939.

Richard Schirrmann

Richard Schirrmann 24 Richard Schirrmann was a German teacher and founder of the first hostel.                           

Augustine of Hippo

Augustine of Hippo 24 Augustine of Hippo, also known as Saint Augustine, was a theologian and philosopher of Berber origin and the bishop of Hippo Regius in Numidia, Roman North Africa. His writings influenced the development of Western philosophy and Western Christianity, and he is viewed as one of the most important Church Fathers of the Latin Church in the Patristic Period. His many important works include The City of God, On Christian Doctrine, and Confessions.

Martin Luther King Jr.

Martin Luther King Jr. 24 Martin Luther King Jr. was an American Christian minister, activist, and political philosopher who was one of the most prominent leaders in the civil rights movement from 1955 until his assassination in 1968. A black church leader and a son of early civil rights activist and minister Martin Luther King Sr., King advanced civil rights for people of color in the United States through the use of nonviolent resistance and nonviolent civil disobedience against Jim Crow laws and other forms of legalized discrimination.

Heinrich Sohnrey

Heinrich Sohnrey 24 Heinrich Sohnrey war Lehrer, Volksschriftsteller und Publizist. Er kam über die Völkische Bewegung zum Nationalsozialismus.

John Brinckman

John Brinckman 24 John Brinckman, originally Johann Friedrich Brinckmann was a German author of humorous works in Plattdeutsch.

Paula Modersohn-Becker

Paula Modersohn-Becker 24 Paula Modersohn-Becker was a German Expressionist painter of the late 19th and early 20th century. She is noted for the many self-portraits the artist produced, including nude self-portraits. She is considered one of the most important representatives of early expressionism, producing more than 700 paintings and over 1000 drawings during her active painting life. She is recognized both as the first known woman painter to paint nude self-portraits, and the first woman to have a museum devoted exclusively to her art. Additionally, she is considered to be the first woman artist to depict herself both pregnant and nude and pregnant.

Otto Hue

Otto Hue 24 Otto Hue [ˈhuːə] war ein deutscher Gewerkschafter und Politiker (SPD).                             

August Hermann Francke

August Hermann Francke 24 August Hermann Francke was a German Lutheran clergyman, theologian, philanthropist, and Biblical scholar.

Saint Remigius

Saint Remigius 24 Remigius was the Bishop of Reims and "Apostle of the Franks". On 25 December 496, he baptised Clovis I, King of the Franks. The baptism, leading to about 3000 additional converts, was an important event in the Christianization of the Franks. Because of Clovis's efforts, a large number of churches were established in the formerly pagan lands of the Frankish empire, establishing a distinctly Orthodox variety of Christianity for the first time in Germanic lands, most of whom had been converted to Arian Christianity.

Joseph Lanner

Joseph Lanner 24 Joseph Lanner was an Austrian dance music composer and dance orchestra conductor. He is best remembered as one of the earliest Viennese composers to reform the waltz from a simple peasant dance to something that even the highest society could enjoy, either as an accompaniment to the dance, or for the music's own sake. He was just as famous as his friend and musical rival Johann Strauss I, who was better known outside of Austria in their day because of his concert tours abroad, in particular, to France and England.

Johann Heinrich von Thünen

Johann Heinrich von Thünen 24 Johann Heinrich von Thünen, sometimes spelled Thuenen, was a prominent nineteenth-century economist and a native of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, now in northern Germany.

Johann Hinrich Fehrs

Johann Hinrich Fehrs 24 Johann Hinrich Fehrs war ein niederdeutscher Erzähler und Lyriker.                                 

Luise Hensel

Luise Hensel 24 Luise Hensel was a German teacher and religious poet, who influenced the romantic style of her friend and fellow poet, Clemens Brentano.

Friedrich Rückert

Friedrich Rückert 24 Johann Michael Friedrich Rückert was a German poet, translator, and professor of Oriental languages.

Gustav Werner (Pfarrer)

Gustav Werner (Pfarrer) 24 Gustav Albert Werner war evangelischer Pfarrer und Gründer der Gustav-Werner-Stiftung.             

Gerhard Domagk

Gerhard Domagk 23 Gerhard Johannes Paul Domagk was a German pathologist and bacteriologist.                           

Salvador Allende

Salvador Allende 23 Salvador Guillermo Allende Gossens was a Chilean socialist politician who served as the 28th president of Chile from 1970 until his death in 1973. As a democratic socialist committed to democracy, he has been described as the first Marxist to be elected president in a liberal democracy in Latin America.

Philipp Scheidemann

Philipp Scheidemann 23 Philipp Heinrich Scheidemann was a German politician of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD). In the first quarter of the 20th century he played a leading role in both his party and in the young Weimar Republic. During the German Revolution of 1918–1919 that broke out after Germany's defeat in World War I, Scheidemann proclaimed a German Republic from a balcony of the Reichstag building. In 1919 he was elected Reich Minister President by the National Assembly meeting in Weimar to write a constitution for the republic. He resigned the office the same year due to a lack of unanimity in the cabinet on whether or not to accept the terms of the Treaty of Versailles.

Charles Darwin

Charles Darwin 23 Charles Robert Darwin was an English naturalist, geologist and biologist, widely known for his contributions to evolutionary biology. His proposition that all species of life have descended from a common ancestor is now generally accepted and considered a fundamental concept in science. In a joint publication with Alfred Russel Wallace, he introduced his scientific theory that this branching pattern of evolution resulted from a process he called natural selection, in which the struggle for existence has a similar effect to the artificial selection involved in selective breeding. Darwin has been described as one of the most influential figures in human history and was honoured by burial in Westminster Abbey.

Lovis Corinth

Lovis Corinth 23 Lovis Corinth was a German artist and writer whose mature work as a painter and printmaker realized a synthesis of impressionism and expressionism.

Julius Echter von Mespelbrunn

Julius Echter von Mespelbrunn 23 Julius Echter von Mespelbrunn was Prince-Bishop of Würzburg from 1573. He was born in Mespelbrunn Castle, Spessart and died in Würzburg.

Liselotte Herrmann

Liselotte Herrmann 23 Liselotte Herrmann was a German Communist resistance fighter in Nazi Germany. Herrmann was the first woman to be sentenced to death by a Nazi court and then executed in Plötzensee Prison in 1938.

Martin Behaim

Martin Behaim 23 Martin Behaim, also known as Martin von Behaim and by various forms of Martin of Bohemia, was a German textile merchant and cartographer. He served John II of Portugal as an adviser in matters of navigation and participated in a voyage to West Africa. He is now best known for his Erdapfel, the world's oldest known globe, which he produced for the Imperial City of Nuremberg in 1492.

Gioachino Rossini

Gioachino Rossini 23 Gioachino Antonio Rossini was an Italian composer who gained fame for his 39 operas, although he also wrote many songs, some chamber music and piano pieces and some sacred music. He set new standards for both comic and serious opera before retiring from large-scale composition while still in his thirties, at the height of his popularity.

Ferdinand Lassalle

Ferdinand Lassalle 23 Ferdinand Lassalle was a Prussian-German jurist, philosopher, socialist and politician who is best remembered as the initiator of the social-democratic movement in Germany. "Lassalle was the first man in Germany, the first in Europe, who succeeded in organising a party of socialist action", according to Élie Halévy. Or, as Rosa Luxemburg put it: "Lassalle managed to wrestle from history in two years of flaming agitation that needed decades to come about".

Wolfgang Borchert

Wolfgang Borchert 23 Wolfgang Borchert was a German author and playwright whose work was strongly influenced by his experience of dictatorship and his service in the Wehrmacht during the Second World War. His work is among the best-known examples of the Trümmerliteratur movement in post-World War II Germany. His most famous work is the drama Draußen vor der Tür (The Man Outside), which he wrote soon after the end of World War II. His works are uncompromising on the issues of humanity and humanism. He is one of the most popular authors of the German postwar period; his work continues to be studied in German schools.

Frederick III, German Emperor

Frederick III, German Emperor 22 Frederick III was German Emperor and King of Prussia for 99 days between March and June 1888, during the Year of the Three Emperors. Known informally as "Fritz", he was the only son of Emperor Wilhelm I and was raised in his family's tradition of military service. Following the unification of Germany in 1871 his father, then King of Prussia, became German Emperor. Upon Wilhelm's death at the age of ninety on 9 March 1888, the thrones passed to Frederick, who had been German Crown Prince for seventeen years and Crown Prince of Prussia for twenty-seven years. Frederick was suffering from cancer of the larynx when he died, aged fifty-six, following unsuccessful medical treatments for his condition.

Helene Stöcker

Helene Stöcker 22 Helene Stöcker was a German feminist, pacifist and gender activist. She successfully campaigned to keep same sex relationships between women legal, but she was unsuccessful in her campaign to legalise abortion. She was a pacifist in Germany and joined the Deutsche Friedensgesellschaft. As war emerged, she fled to Norway. As Norway was invaded, she moved to Japan and emigrated to America in 1942.

Pablo Picasso

Pablo Picasso 22 Pablo Ruiz Picasso was a Spanish painter, sculptor, printmaker, ceramicist, and theatre designer who spent most of his adult life in France. One of the most influential artists of the 20th century, he is known for co-founding the Cubist movement, the invention of constructed sculpture, the co-invention of collage, and for the wide variety of styles that he helped develop and explore. Among his most famous works are the proto-Cubist Les Demoiselles d'Avignon (1907) and the anti-war painting Guernica (1937), a dramatic portrayal of the bombing of Guernica by German and Italian air forces during the Spanish Civil War.

Ottmar Mergenthaler

Ottmar Mergenthaler 22 Ottmar Mergenthaler was a German-American inventor who invented the linotype machine, the first device that could easily and quickly set complete lines of type for use in printing presses. This machine revolutionized the art of printing.

Ernst Toller

Ernst Toller 22 Ernst Toller was a German author, playwright, left-wing politician and revolutionary, known for his Expressionist plays. He served in 1919 for six days as President of the short-lived Bavarian Soviet Republic, after which he became the head of its army. He was imprisoned for five years for his part in the armed resistance by the Bavarian Soviet Republic to the central government in Berlin. While in prison Toller wrote several plays that gained him international renown. They were performed in London and New York City as well as in Berlin.

Karl Kessler

Karl Kessler 22 Karl Fedorovich Kessler was a Baltic German zoologist who worked as a professor of biology at Saint Petersburg Imperial University. Among his contributions was the idea that evolution at an infraspecific level involved mutual aid and that Charles Darwin had placed too much emphasis on competition which he accepted as occurring at the interspecies level.

J. Robert Oppenheimer

J. Robert Oppenheimer 22 J. Robert Oppenheimer was an American theoretical physicist. He was director of the Manhattan Project's Los Alamos Laboratory during World War II and is often called the "father of the atomic bomb".

Eduard Spranger

Eduard Spranger 22 Eduard Spranger was a German philosopher and psychologist. A student of Wilhelm Dilthey, Spranger was born in Berlin and died in Tübingen. He was considered a humanist who developed a philosophical pedagogy as an act of 'self defense' against the psychology-oriented experimental theory of the times.

August Heinrich Hoffmann von Fallersleben

August Heinrich Hoffmann von Fallersleben 22 August Heinrich Hoffmann was a German poet. He is best known for writing "Das Lied der Deutschen", whose third stanza is now the national anthem of Germany, and a number of popular children's songs, considered part of the Young Germany movement.

Erich Heckel

Erich Heckel 22 Erich Heckel was a German painter and printmaker, and a founding member of the group Die Brücke which existed 1905–1913. His work was part of the art competitions at the 1928 Summer Olympics and the 1932 Summer Olympics.

Karl Joseph Simrock

Karl Joseph Simrock 22 Karl Joseph Simrock was a German poet and writer. He is primarily known for his translation of Das Nibelungenlied into modern German.

Carl Sonnenschein

Carl Sonnenschein 22 Carl Sonnenschein was a German writer and Catholic priest, the founder of the Catholic student movement in Germany.

Michael Ende

Michael Ende 22 Michael Andreas Helmuth Ende was a German writer of fantasy and children's fiction. He is known for his epic fantasy The Neverending Story ; other well-known works include Momo and Jim Button and Luke the Engine Driver. His works have been translated into more than 40 languages and sold more than 35 million copies.

Käthe Kruse

Käthe Kruse 22 Käthe Kruse, born Katharina Simon was a notable pioneer of German doll-making and went on to establish manufacturing principles which persist to this day. Her original dolls remain very collectible due to their realism and durability, and fetch high prices from collectors.

Ludwig Bechstein

Ludwig Bechstein 22 Ludwig Bechstein was a German writer and collector of folk fairy tales.                             

Lyonel Feininger

Lyonel Feininger 21 Lyonel Charles Adrian Feininger was a German-American painter, and a leading exponent of Expressionism. He also worked as a caricaturist and comic strip artist. He was born and grew up in New York City. In 1887 he traveled to Europe and studied art in Hamburg, Berlin and Paris. He started his career as a cartoonist in 1894 and met with much success in this area. He also worked as a commercial caricaturist for 20 years. At the age of 36, he began to work as a fine artist. His work, characterized above all by prismatically broken, overlapping forms in translucent colors, with many references to architecture and the sea, made him of the most important artists of classical modernism. Furthermore he produced a large body of photographic works and created several piano compositions and fugues for organ.

Heinrich Jasper (biologist)

Heinrich Jasper (biologist) 21 Heinrich (Henri) Jasper is a German-American biologist at Buck Institute for Research on Aging. He was formerly a professor of biology at The University of Rochester. He studies aging, stem cell function, and tissue regeneration.

Matthias Erzberger

Matthias Erzberger 21 Matthias Erzberger was a politician of the Catholic Centre Party, member of the Reichstag and minister of finance of Germany from 1919 to 1920.

Heinrich Lersch

Heinrich Lersch 21 Heinrich Lersch war ein deutscher Arbeiterdichter.                                                 

Timm Kröger

Timm Kröger 21 Timm Kröger war ein deutscher Jurist und Schriftsteller. Er verfasste Novellen, Erzählungen und Skizzen, die das holsteinische Bauern- und Landleben schildern. Sein Neffe war der kaiserliche Baurat Jürgen Kröger.

Wassily Kandinsky

Wassily Kandinsky 21 Wassily Wassilyevich Kandinsky was a Russian painter and art theorist. Kandinsky is generally credited as one of the pioneers of abstraction in western art. Born in Moscow, he spent his childhood in Odessa, where he graduated from Odessa Art School. He enrolled at the University of Moscow, studying law and economics. Successful in his profession, he was offered a professorship at the University of Dorpat. Kandinsky began painting studies at the age of 30.

Hellmut von Gerlach

Hellmut von Gerlach 21 Hellmut Georg von Gerlach was a German journalist and politician.                                   

Bernard of Clairvaux

Bernard of Clairvaux 21 Bernard of Clairvaux, O. Cist., venerated as Saint Bernard, was an abbot, mystic, co-founder of the Knights Templar, and a major leader in the reformation of the Benedictine Order through the nascent Cistercian Order.

Isolde Kurz

Isolde Kurz 21 Maria Clara Isolde Kurz was a German poet and short story writer.                                   

Franz Werfel

Franz Werfel 21 Franz Viktor Werfel was an Austrian-Bohemian novelist, playwright, and poet whose career spanned World War I, the Interwar period, and World War II. He is primarily known as the author of The Forty Days of Musa Dagh, a novel based on events that took place during the Armenian genocide of 1915, and The Song of Bernadette (1941), a novel about the life and visions of the French Catholic saint Bernadette Soubirous, which was made into a Hollywood film of the same name.

Nikolaus Ehlen

Nikolaus Ehlen 21 Nikolaus Ehlen was a German pacifist teacher. He was a Catholic pioneer of the Selbsthilfe-Siedlungsbau, which was a movement to help workers get their own home.

Irène Joliot-Curie

Irène Joliot-Curie 20 Irène Joliot-Curie was a French chemist, physicist and politician, the elder daughter of Pierre Curie and Marie Skłodowska–Curie, and the wife of Frédéric Joliot-Curie. Jointly with her husband, Joliot-Curie was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1935 for their discovery of induced radioactivity, making them the second-ever married couple to win the Nobel Prize, while adding to the Curie family legacy of five Nobel Prizes. This made the Curies the family with the most Nobel laureates to date.

Lion Feuchtwanger

Lion Feuchtwanger 20 Lion Feuchtwanger was a German Jewish novelist and playwright. A prominent figure in the literary world of Weimar Germany, he influenced contemporaries including playwright Bertolt Brecht.

Felix Dahn

Felix Dahn 20 Felix Ludwig Julius Dahn was a German law professor and nationalist author, poet and historian.     

Roald Amundsen

Roald Amundsen 20 Roald Engelbregt Gravning Amundsen was a Norwegian explorer of polar regions. He was a key figure of the period known as the Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration.

Adam Ries

Adam Ries 20 Adam Ries was a German mathematician. He is also known by the name Adam Riese. He is known as the "father of modern calculating" because of his decisive contribution to the recognition that Roman numerals are unpractical and to their replacement by the considerably more practical Arabic numerals.

Dorothea Erxleben

Dorothea Erxleben 20 Dorothea Christiane Erxleben was a German doctor who became the first female doctor of medicine in Germany. Educated by her progressive physician father and rector of her school, she desired to attend medical school and study medicine like her brother. She eventually petitioned Frederick the Great of Prussia to allow her entry into the University of Halle. Despite a Royal permission to attend, Erxleben never entered University. When her cousin died, leaving 5 five children, she decided in 1741, at the age of 26, to look after them, married widower Johann Christian Erxleben and went on to have four children with him.

Carlo Mierendorff

Carlo Mierendorff 20 Carlo Mierendorff was a German politician of the Social Democratic Party (SPD) during the Weimar Republic. An intellectual activist and regional politician in the People's State of Hesse, he played a major role in the propaganda of the SPD and the anti-fascist Iron Front during the last years of the republic. He was elected to the Reichstag in 1930. After the Nazi rise to power, he was arrested and spent several years in concentration camps before being released in 1938. He then helped organise the underground resistance to the Nazi regime until his death in December 1943 in an Allied air raid on Leipzig.

Heinrich von Brentano

Heinrich von Brentano 20 Heinrich Joseph Maximilian Johann Maria von Brentano di Tremezzo, known professionally as Heinrich von Brentano, was a German politician of the Christian Democratic Union (CDU). He served as Federal Minister for Foreign Affairs from 1955 to 1961.

August Hinrichs

August Hinrichs 20 August Gerhard Hinrichs war ein deutscher Schriftsteller.                                           

Fanny Mendelssohn

Fanny Mendelssohn 20 Fanny Mendelssohn was a German composer and pianist of the early Romantic era who was known as Fanny Hensel after her marriage. Her compositions include a piano trio, a piano quartet, an orchestral overture, four cantatas, more than 125 pieces for the piano and over 250 lieder, most of which were unpublished in her lifetime. Although lauded for her piano technique, she rarely gave public performances outside her family circle.

Liborius of Le Mans

Liborius of Le Mans 20 Liborius of Le Mans was the second Bishop of Le Mans. He is the patron saint of the cathedral and archdiocese of Paderborn in Germany. The year of his birth is unknown; he died in 397, reputedly on 23 July.

Leo Tolstoy

Leo Tolstoy 20 Count Lev Nikolayevich Tolstoy, usually referred to in English as Leo Tolstoy, was a Russian writer. He is regarded as one of the greatest and most influential authors of all time. He received nominations for the Nobel Prize in Literature every year from 1902 to 1906 and for the Nobel Peace Prize in 1901, 1902, and 1909.


Tristan 20 Tristan, also known as Tristram, Tristyn or Tristain and similar names, is the hero of the legend of Tristan and Iseult. In the legend, he is tasked with escorting the Irish princess Iseult to wed Tristan's uncle, King Mark of Cornwall. Tristan and Iseult accidentally drink a love potion during the journey and fall in love, beginning an adulterous relationship that eventually leads to Tristan's banishment and death. The character's first recorded appearance is in retellings of British mythology from the 12th century by Thomas of Britain and Gottfried von Strassburg, and later in the Prose Tristan. He is featured in Arthurian legends, including the seminal text Le Morte d'Arthur, as a skilled knight and a friend of Lancelot.

Oswald von Nell-Breuning

Oswald von Nell-Breuning 20 Oswald von Nell-Breuning was a Roman Catholic theologian and sociologist.                           

Theodor Fliedner

Theodor Fliedner 20 Theodor Fliedner was a German Lutheran minister and founder of Lutheran deaconess training. In 1836, he founded Kaiserswerther Diakonie, a hospital and deaconess training center. Together with his wives Friederike Münster and Caroline Bertheau, he is regarded as the renewer of the apostolic deaconess ministry. His work in nursing was pioneering for Florence Nightingale, who spent a few months in Kaiserswerth in 1850.

Martin Buber

Martin Buber 20 Martin Buber was an Austrian-Jewish and Israeli philosopher best known for his philosophy of dialogue, a form of existentialism centered on the distinction between the I–Thou relationship and the I–It relationship. Born in Vienna, Buber came from a family of observant Jews, but broke with Jewish custom to pursue secular studies in philosophy. He produced writings about Zionism and worked with various bodies within the Zionist movement extensively over a nearly 50-year period spanning his time in Europe and the Near East. In 1923, Buber wrote his famous essay on existence, Ich und Du, and in 1925 he began translating the Hebrew Bible into the German language reflecting the patterns of the Hebrew language.

Hermann Staudinger

Hermann Staudinger 19 Hermann Staudinger was a German organic chemist who demonstrated the existence of macromolecules, which he characterized as polymers. For this work he received the 1953 Nobel Prize in Chemistry.

Sepp Herberger

Sepp Herberger 19 Josef "Sepp" Herberger was a German football player and manager. He is most famous for being the manager of the West Germany national team that won the 1954 FIFA World Cup final, a match later dubbed The Miracle of Bern, defeating the overwhelming favourites from Hungary. Previously he had also coached the Breslau Eleven, one of the greatest teams in German football history.

Heinrich Göbel

Heinrich Göbel 19 Heinrich Göbel, or Henry Goebel was a German-born American precision mechanic and inventor. In 1848 he immigrated to New York City, where he resided until his death. He received American citizenship in 1865.

Blaise Pascal

Blaise Pascal 19 Blaise Pascal was a French mathematician, physicist, inventor, philosopher, and Catholic writer.   

Joseph Wirth

Joseph Wirth 19 Karl Joseph Wirth was a German politician of the Catholic Centre Party who served for one year and six months as the chancellor of Germany from 1921 to 1922, as the finance minister from 1920 to 1921, as acting foreign minister of Germany from 1921 to 1922 and again in 1922, as the minister for the Occupied Territories from 1929 to 1930 and as the minister of the Interior from 1930 to 1931. During the postwar era, he participated in the Soviet and East German Communist-controlled neutralist Alliance of Germans party from 1952 until his death in 1956.

Martin Andersen Nexø

Martin Andersen Nexø 19 Martin Andersen Nexø was a Danish writer. He was one of the authors in the Modern Breakthrough movement in Danish art and literature. He was a socialist throughout his life and during the Second World War moved to the Soviet Union, and afterwards to Dresden in East Germany.

Otto Weddigen

Otto Weddigen 19 Otto Eduard Weddigen was an Imperial German Navy U-boat commander during World War I. He was awarded the Pour le Mérite, Germany's highest honour, for sinking four British warships.

Boy Lornsen

Boy Lornsen 19 Boy Lornsen was a German sculptor and author of children's literature, writing both in Standard German and in Platt.

Karl Carstens

Karl Carstens 19 Karl Carstens was a German politician. He served as the president of West Germany from 1979 to 1984.

Max Pechstein

Max Pechstein 19 Hermann Max Pechstein was a German expressionist painter and printmaker and a member of the Die Brücke group. He fought on the Western Front during World War I and his art was classified as Degenerate Art by the Nazis. More than 300 paintings were removed from German Museums during the Nazi era.

Hermann Stehr

Hermann Stehr 19 Hermann Stehr was a German novelist, dramatist and poet. He was nominated for the Nobel Prize in Literature four times.

Erich Klausener

Erich Klausener 19 Erich Klausener was a German Catholic politician and Catholic martyr in the "Night of the Long Knives", a purge that took place in Nazi Germany from 30 June to 2 July 1934, when the Nazi regime carried out a series of political murders.

Vladimir Lenin

Vladimir Lenin 19 Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov, better known as Vladimir Lenin, was a Russian revolutionary, politician, and political theorist. He served as the first and founding head of government of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic from 1917 until his death in 1924, and of the Soviet Union from 1922 until his death. Under his administration, Russia, and later the Soviet Union, became a one-party socialist state governed by the Communist Party. Ideologically a Marxist, his developments to the ideology are called Leninism.

Willi Graf

Willi Graf 19 Wilhelm "Willi" Graf was a German member of the White Rose resistance group in Nazi Germany. The Catholic Church in Germany included Graf in their list of martyrs of the 20th century. In 2017, his cause for beatification was opened. He was given the title Servant of God, the first step toward possible sainthood.

William Tell

William Tell 19 William Tell is a folk hero of Switzerland. According to the legend, Tell was an expert mountain climber and marksman with a crossbow who assassinated Albrecht Gessler, a tyrannical reeve of the Austrian dukes of the House of Habsburg positioned in Altdorf, in the canton of Uri. Tell's defiance and tyrannicide encouraged the population to open rebellion and a pact against the foreign rulers with neighbouring Schwyz and Unterwalden, marking the foundation of the Swiss Confederacy. Tell was considered the father of the Swiss Confederacy.

Karl May

Karl May 19 Karl Friedrich May was a German author. He is best known for his novels of travels and adventures, set in the American Old West, the Orient, the Middle East, Latin America, China and Germany. He also wrote poetry, a play, and composed music. He was a proficient player of several musical instruments. Many of his works were adapted for film, theatre, audio dramas and comics. Later in his career, May turned to philosophical and spiritual genres. He is one of the best-selling German writers of all time, with about 200,000,000 copies sold worldwide.

Saint Giles

Saint Giles 19 Saint Giles, also known as Giles the Hermit, was a hermit or monk active in the lower Rhône most likely in the 7th century. Revered as a saint, his cult became widely diffused but his hagiography is mostly legendary. A town that bears his name grew up around the monastery he purportedly founded, which became a pilgrimage centre and a stop on the Way of Saint James. He is traditionally one of the Fourteen Holy Helpers.


Napoleon 19 Napoleon Bonaparte, later known by his regnal name Napoleon I, was a French emperor and military commander who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led successful campaigns during the Revolutionary Wars. He was the leader of the French Republic as First Consul from 1799 to 1804, then of the French Empire as Emperor of the French from 1804 until 1814, and briefly again in 1815. His political and cultural legacy endures as a celebrated and controversial leader. He initiated many enduring reforms, but has been criticized for his authoritarian rule. He is considered one of the greatest military commanders in history and his wars and campaigns are still studied at military schools worldwide. However, historians still debate the degree to which he was responsible for the Napoleonic Wars, in which between three and six million people died.

Thomas Dehler

Thomas Dehler 18 Thomas Dehler was a German politician. He was the Federal Republic of Germany's first Minister of Justice (1949–1953) and chairman of Free Democratic Party (1954–1957).

Dante Alighieri

Dante Alighieri 18 Dante Alighieri, most likely baptized Durante di Alighiero degli Alighieri and often referred to as Dante, was an Italian poet, writer, and philosopher. His Divine Comedy, originally called Comedìa and later christened Divina by Giovanni Boccaccio, is widely considered one of the most important poems of the Middle Ages and the greatest literary work in the Italian language.

Hans Bredow

Hans Bredow 18 Hans Bredow was a German radio broadcasting pioneer and the first chairman of Weimar Germany's National broadcasting service. He is regarded as the "father of German broadcasting".

Albert, Duke of Prussia

Albert, Duke of Prussia 18 Albert of Prussia was a German prince who was the 37th grand master of the Teutonic Knights and, after converting to Lutheranism, became the first ruler of the Duchy of Prussia, the secularized state that emerged from the former Monastic State of the Teutonic Knights. Albert was the first European ruler to establish Lutheranism, and thus Protestantism, as the official state religion of his lands. He proved instrumental in the political spread of Protestantism in its early stage, ruling the Prussian lands for nearly six decades (1510–1568).

Bernhard Riemann

Bernhard Riemann 18 Georg Friedrich Bernhard Riemann was a German mathematician who made profound contributions to analysis, number theory, and differential geometry. In the field of real analysis, he is mostly known for the first rigorous formulation of the integral, the Riemann integral, and his work on Fourier series. His contributions to complex analysis include most notably the introduction of Riemann surfaces, breaking new ground in a natural, geometric treatment of complex analysis. His 1859 paper on the prime-counting function, containing the original statement of the Riemann hypothesis, is regarded as a foundational paper of analytic number theory. Through his pioneering contributions to differential geometry, Riemann laid the foundations of the mathematics of general relativity. He is considered by many to be one of the greatest mathematicians of all time.

Karl Stieler

Karl Stieler 18 Karl Stieler was a German lawyer and author.                                                       

August Thyssen

August Thyssen 18 August Thyssen was a German industrialist, founder and controlling shareholder of Thyssen & Co. He was a prominent member of the Thyssen family.


Augustus 18 Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus, also known as Octavian, was the founder of the Roman Empire. He reigned as the first Roman emperor from 27 BC until his death in AD 14. The reign of Augustus initiated an imperial cult, as well as an era of imperial peace in which the Roman world was largely free of armed conflict. The Principate system of government was established during his reign and lasted until the Crisis of the Third Century.

Maria Theresa

Maria Theresa 18 Maria Theresa was ruler of the Habsburg dominions from 1740 until her death in 1780, and the only woman to hold the position suo jure. She was the sovereign of Austria, Hungary, Croatia, Bohemia, Transylvania, Mantua, Milan, Galicia and Lodomeria, the Austrian Netherlands, and Parma. By marriage, she was Duchess of Lorraine, Grand Duchess of Tuscany, and Holy Roman Empress.

Gustav Struve

Gustav Struve 18 Gustav Struve, known as Gustav von Struve until he gave up his title, was a German surgeon, politician, lawyer and publicist, and a revolutionary during the German revolutions of 1848–1849 in Baden, Germany. He also spent over a decade in the United States and was active there as a reformer.

Paul Hindemith

Paul Hindemith 18 Paul Hindemith was a German and American composer, music theorist, teacher, violist and conductor. He founded the Amar Quartet in 1921, touring extensively in Europe. As a composer, he became a major advocate of the Neue Sachlichkeit style of music in the 1920s, with compositions such as Kammermusik, including works with viola and viola d'amore as solo instruments in a neo-Bachian spirit. Other notable compositions include his song cycle Das Marienleben (1923), Der Schwanendreher for viola and orchestra (1935), the opera Mathis der Maler (1938), the Symphonic Metamorphosis of Themes by Carl Maria von Weber (1943), and the oratorio When Lilacs Last in the Dooryard Bloom'd (1946), a requiem based on Walt Whitman's poem. Hindemith and his wife emigrated to Switzerland and the United States ahead of World War II, after worsening difficulties with the Nazi German regime. In his later years, he conducted and recorded much of his own music.

Maximilian von Spee

Maximilian von Spee 18 Maximilian Johannes Maria Hubert Reichsgraf von Spee was a naval officer of the German Kaiserliche Marine, who commanded the East Asia Squadron during World War I. Spee entered the navy in 1878 and served in a variety of roles and locations, including on a colonial gunboat in German West Africa in the 1880s, the East Africa Squadron in the late 1890s, and as commander of several warships in the main German fleet in the early 1900s. During his time in Germany in the late 1880s and early 1890s, he married his wife, Margareta, and had three children, his sons Heinrich and Otto and his daughter Huberta. By 1912, he had returned to the East Asia Squadron as its commander, and was promoted to the rank of Vizeadmiral the following year.

Adam Müller-Guttenbrunn

Adam Müller-Guttenbrunn 18 Adam Müller-Guttenbrunn was an Austrian author.                                                     

Pope Urban I

Pope Urban I 18 Pope Urban I, also known as Saint Urban (175?–230), was the bishop of Rome from 222 to 23 May 230. He was born in Rome and succeeded Callixtus I, who had been martyred. It was believed for centuries that Urban I was also martyred. However, recent historical discoveries now lead scholars to believe that he died of natural causes.

Louis Braille

Louis Braille 17 Louis Braille was a French educator and the inventor of a reading and writing system named after him, braille, intended for use by visually impaired people. His system is used worldwide and remains virtually unchanged to this day.

Paul Reusch

Paul Reusch 17 Paul Hermann Reusch war ein deutscher Industriemanager und langjähriger Vorstandsvorsitzender der Gutehoffnungshütte. Unter seiner Leitung wandelte sich das Oberhausener Montanunternehmen endgültig zu einem gemischtwirtschaftlichen Konzern mit starker Maschinenbausparte. Als einer der einflussreichsten Wirtschaftsfunktionäre der Weimarer Republik versuchte Reusch, die Industrie auf einen antirepublikanischen Kurs festzulegen. Seine Haltung zur NSDAP war dagegen widersprüchlich.

Isaac Newton

Isaac Newton 17 Sir Isaac Newton was an English polymath active as a mathematician, physicist, astronomer, alchemist, theologian, and author who was described in his time as a natural philosopher. He was a key figure in the Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment that followed. His pioneering book Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica, first published in 1687, consolidated many previous results and established classical mechanics. Newton also made seminal contributions to optics, and shares credit with German mathematician Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz for developing infinitesimal calculus, though he developed calculus years before Leibniz.

Paul Löbe

Paul Löbe 17 Paul Gustav Emil Löbe was a German politician of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD), a member and president of the Reichstag of the Weimar Republic, and member of the Bundestag of West Germany. He died in Bonn in 1967.

Ernst A. Lehmann

Ernst A. Lehmann 17 Captain Ernst August Lehmann was a German Zeppelin captain. He was one of the most famous and experienced figures in German airship travel. The Pittsburgh Press called Lehmann the best airship pilot in the world, although he was criticized by Hugo Eckener for often making dangerous maneuvers that compromised the airships. He was a victim of the Hindenburg disaster in 1937.

Henry IV, Duke of Saxony

Henry IV, Duke of Saxony 17 Henry IV the Pious, Duke of Saxony was a Duke of Saxony from the House of Wettin. Succeeding his brother George, Duke of Saxony, a fervent Catholic who sought to extinguish Lutheranism by any means possible, Henry established the Lutheran church as the state religion in his domains.

Gustav Nachtigal

Gustav Nachtigal 17 Gustav Nachtigal was a German military surgeon and explorer of Central and West Africa. He is further known as the German Empire's consul-general for Tunisia and Commissioner for West Africa. His mission as commissioner resulted in Togoland and Kamerun becoming the first colonies of a German colonial empire. The Gustav-Nachtigal-Medal, awarded by the Berlin Geographical Society, is named after him.

Bernhard Kellermann

Bernhard Kellermann 17 Bernhard Kellermann was a German author and poet.                                                   

Eugen Roth

Eugen Roth 17 Eugen Roth was a Bavarian poet who wrote mostly humorous verse.                                     


Quirinus 17 In Roman mythology and religion, Quirinus is an early god of the Roman state. In Augustan Rome, Quirinus was also an epithet of Janus, as Janus Quirinus.


Erasmus 17 Desiderius Erasmus Roterodamus was a Dutch Christian humanist, Catholic theologian, educationalist, satirist, and philosopher. Through his vast number of translations, books, essays, prayers and letters, he is considered one of the most influential thinkers of the Northern Renaissance and one of the major figures of Dutch and Western culture.

Christine Koch

Christine Koch 17 Christine Koch, geb. Wüllner, war eine deutsche Lyrikerin sauerländischer Mundart.                 

Jakob Wassermann

Jakob Wassermann 17 Jakob Wassermann was a German writer and novelist.                                                 

Johann Heinrich Jung

Johann Heinrich Jung 17 Johann Heinrich Jung, better known by his assumed name Heinrich Stilling, was a German author. He is often called by both surnames as "Jung-Stilling".

Heinrich Imig

Heinrich Imig 17 Heinrich Gottlieb Imig was a German trade unionist and politician.                                 

Emanuel Geibel

Emanuel Geibel 17 Emanuel von Geibel was a German poet and playwright.                                               

Christian Rohlfs

Christian Rohlfs 16 Christian Rohlfs was a German painter and printmaker, one of the important representatives of German expressionism.

Hans Fallada

Hans Fallada 16 Hans Fallada was a German writer of the first half of the 20th century. Some of his better known novels include Little Man, What Now? (1932) and Every Man Dies Alone (1947). His works belong predominantly to the New Objectivity literary style, a style associated with an emotionless reportage approach, with precision of detail, and a veneration for 'the fact'. Fallada's pseudonym derives from a combination of characters found in the Grimm's Fairy Tales: The titular protagonist of Hans in Luck, and Falada the magical talking horse in The Goose Girl.

Wilhelm Liebknecht

Wilhelm Liebknecht 16 Wilhelm Martin Philipp Christian Ludwig Liebknecht was a German socialist and one of the principal founders of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD). His political career was a pioneering project combining Marxist revolutionary theory with practical legal political activity. Under his leadership, the SPD grew from a tiny sect to become Germany's largest political party. He was the father of Karl Liebknecht and Theodor Liebknecht.

L. L. Zamenhof

L. L. Zamenhof 16 L. L. Zamenhof was the creator of Esperanto, the most widely used constructed international auxiliary language.

Abraham Lincoln

Abraham Lincoln 16 Abraham Lincoln was an American lawyer, politician, and statesman, who served as the 16th president of the United States, from 1861 until his assassination in 1865. Lincoln led the United States through the American Civil War, defending the nation as a constitutional union, defeating the insurgent Confederacy, playing a major role in the abolition of slavery, expanding the power of the federal government, and modernizing the U.S. economy.

Kurt Huber

Kurt Huber 16 Kurt Huber was a German university professor and resistance fighter with the anti-Nazi group White Rose. For his involvement he was imprisoned and guillotined.

Heinrich Seidel

Heinrich Seidel 16 Heinrich Friedrich Wilhelm Seidel was a German engineer, poet and writer.                           

Georg Ohm

Georg Ohm 16 Georg Simon Ohm was a German physicist and mathematician. As a school teacher, Ohm began his research with the new electrochemical cell, invented by Italian scientist Alessandro Volta. Using equipment of his own creation, Ohm found that there is a direct proportionality between the potential difference (voltage) applied across a conductor and the resultant electric current. This relation is called Ohm's law, and the ohm, the unit of electrical resistance, is named after him.

Carl Linnaeus

Carl Linnaeus 16 Carl Linnaeus, also known after ennoblement in 1761 as Carl von Linné, was a Swedish biologist and physician who formalised binomial nomenclature, the modern system of naming organisms. He is known as the "father of modern taxonomy". Many of his writings were in Latin; his name is rendered in Latin as Carolus Linnæus and, after his 1761 ennoblement, as Carolus a Linné.

Frau Holle

Frau Holle 16 "Frau Holle" is a German fairy tale collected by the Brothers Grimm in Children's and Household Tales in 1812. It is of Aarne-Thompson type 480.

Ludwig Finckh

Ludwig Finckh 16 Ludwig Finckh war ein deutscher Schriftsteller und Arzt. Neben eigenen schriftstellerischen Erfolgen ist er bekannt durch seine Freundschaft mit Hermann Hesse, von der eine umfangreiche Korrespondenz erhalten ist.

Hans Watzlik

Hans Watzlik 16 Hans Watzlik war ein deutsch-böhmischer Schriftsteller.                                             

Karl Bröger

Karl Bröger 16 Karl Bröger war ein deutscher Arbeiter- und Heimatdichter.                                         

Jakob Böhme

Jakob Böhme 16 Jakob Böhme was a German philosopher, Christian mystic, and Lutheran Protestant theologian. He was considered an original thinker by many of his contemporaries within the Lutheran tradition, and his first book, commonly known as Aurora, caused a great scandal. In contemporary English, his name may be spelled Jacob Boehme ; in seventeenth-century England it was also spelled Behmen, approximating the contemporary English pronunciation of the German Böhme.

Ludwig Quidde

Ludwig Quidde 16 Ludwig Quidde was a German politician and pacifist who is mainly remembered today for his acerbic criticism of German Emperor Wilhelm II. Quidde's long career spanned four different eras of German history: Otto von Bismarck, the Hohenzollern Empire under Wilhelm II (1888–1918), the Weimar Republic (1918–1933); and Nazi Germany. In 1927, Quidde was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.

Carl Miele

Carl Miele 16 Carl Miele was a German businessman. He was a company co-founder of the German company Miele.       

Rudolf Tarnow

Rudolf Tarnow 15 Rudolf Tarnow was a Low German writer.                                                             

Theodor Litt

Theodor Litt 15 Theodor Litt was a German culture and social philosopher as well as a pedagogue.                   

Rudolf Friedrichs

Rudolf Friedrichs 15 Rudolf Friedrichs was a German politician who served as the Minister-President of Saxony in the German Democratic Republic from 1945 to his death.

Oskar Maria Graf

Oskar Maria Graf 15 Oskar Maria Graf was a German-American writer who wrote several narratives about life in Bavaria, mostly autobiographical. In the beginning, Graf wrote under his real name Oskar Graf. After 1918, his works for newspapers were signed with the pseudonym Oskar Graf-Berg; only for those of his works he regarded as "worth reading", he used the name Oskar Maria Graf.

Henning von Tresckow

Henning von Tresckow 15 Henning Hermann Karl Robert von Tresckow was a German military officer with the rank of major general in the German Army who helped organize German resistance against Adolf Hitler. He attempted to assassinate Hitler on 13 March 1943 and drafted the Valkyrie plan for a coup against the German government. He was described by the Gestapo as the "prime mover" behind the plot of 20 July 1944 to assassinate Hitler. He committed suicide at Królowy Most on the Eastern Front upon learning of the plot's failure.

Ottilie Wildermuth

Ottilie Wildermuth 15 Ottilie Wildermuth was a German writer, particularly notable for her children's books.             

Mildred Harnack

Mildred Harnack 15 Mildred Elizabeth Harnack was an American literary historian, translator, and member of the German resistance against the Nazi regime. After marrying Arvid Harnack, she moved to Germany in 1929, where she began her career as an academic. Mildred Harnack spent a year at the University of Jena and the University of Giessen working on her doctoral thesis. At Giessen, she witnessed the beginnings of Nazism. Mildred Harnack became an assistant lecturer in English and American literature at the University of Berlin in 1931.

Niels Bohr

Niels Bohr 15 Niels Henrik David Bohr was a Danish physicist who made foundational contributions to understanding atomic structure and quantum theory, for which he received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1922. Bohr was also a philosopher and a promoter of scientific research.

Gerold, Prefect of Bavaria

Gerold, Prefect of Bavaria 15 Gerold was a franconian nobleman who served the Frankish King, Charlemagne, as Margrave of the Avar March and Prefect of Bavaria in what is now South-Eastern Germany. Gerold played a significant role in the integration of Bavaria into the Frankish Kingdom during Carolingian expansion in the late 8th, and early 9th centuries. Gerold both aided the continuity of Agilofing rule of Bavaria, as well as took steps to integrate Bavarians into the wider scope of the Frankish Kingdom. Gerold was related both to the Agilofing family, the ruling class of Bavaria, as well as the Carolingian family. The Agilofings had ruled Bavaria since Duke Garibald I in 548. Gerold was born into the Agilofings, and his sister Hildegard was married to Charlemagne in 771. From these familial connections, he was appointed Prefect of Bavaria following the deposition of Duke Tassilo III in 788. Gerold was heralded as a superb military commander, giving rise to his promotion to Prefect as a defender of the eastern border of the Frankish Kingdom. In 799, Gerold is said to have fallen in battle against the Avars, shortly after the same Avars killed his ally, Eric, Duke of Friuli, through treachery.

John Schehr

John Schehr 15 John Schehr was a German political activist who became a Communist Party politician and ultimately, chairman (leader) of the party, following the arrest on 3 March 1933 of Ernst Thälmann. By this time the country was very rapidly being transformed into a one-party dictatorship, meaning that the party John Schehr led was outlawed, with those members of the leadership team who had not escaped abroad now living "underground" (unregistered) and in hiding. Schehr was nevertheless arrested on 13 November 1933 and taken to a Berlin concentration camp. He died when he was one of four men shot by Gestapo officials, reportedly "while escaping" during an overnight transport, following arrest.


Hadrian 15 Hadrian was Roman emperor from 117 to 138. Hadrian was born in Italica, close to modern Seville in Spain, an Italic settlement in Hispania Baetica; his branch of the Aelia gens, the Aeli Hadriani, came from the town of Hadria in eastern Italy. He was a member of the Nerva-Antonine dynasty.

Melli Beese

Melli Beese 15 Amelie Hedwig Boutard-Beese, besser bekannt unter ihrem Rufnamen Melli Beese, war eine deutsche Pilotin. Sie ging in die Geschichte ein als die erste Frau, die in Deutschland die Prüfung zum Erwerb eines Privatpilotenscheins ablegte.

Oskar Schlemmer

Oskar Schlemmer 15 Oskar Schlemmer was a German painter, sculptor, designer and choreographer associated with the Bauhaus school.

Peter Parler

Peter Parler 15 Peter Parler was a German-Bohemian architect and sculptor from the Parler family of master builders. Along with his father, Heinrich Parler, he is one of the most prominent and influential craftsmen of the Middle Ages. Born and apprenticed in the town of Schwäbisch Gmünd, Peter worked at several important late Medieval building sites, including Strasbourg, Cologne, and Nuremberg. After 1356 he lived in Prague, capital of the Kingdom of Bohemia and seat of the Holy Roman Empire, where he created his most famous works: St. Vitus Cathedral and the Charles Bridge.

Diedrich Speckmann

Diedrich Speckmann 15 Diedrich Speckmann war ein deutscher Schriftsteller. Als Vertreter der Heimatkunst wurde er vor allem als „Heidedichter“ bekannt.

Marie-Elisabeth Lüders

Marie-Elisabeth Lüders 15 Marie-Elisabeth Lüders was a German politician and women's rights activist.                         

Saint Alban

Saint Alban 15 Saint Alban is venerated as the first-recorded British Christian martyr, for which reason he is considered to be the British protomartyr. Along with fellow Saints Julius and Aaron, Alban is one of three named martyrs recorded at an early date from Roman Britain. He is traditionally believed to have been beheaded in Verulamium sometime during the 3rd or 4th century, and his cult has been celebrated there since ancient times.

Luise Rinser

Luise Rinser 15 Luise Rinser was a German writer, best known for her novels and short stories.                     

Emmeram of Regensburg

Emmeram of Regensburg 15 Saint Emmeram of Regensburg was a Christian bishop and a martyr born in Poitiers, Aquitaine. Having heard of idolatry in Bavaria, Emmeram travelled to Ratisbon (Regensburg) some time after the year 649 to the court of Theodo I, Duke of Bavaria. He supposedly travelled up the Loire, crossed through the Black Forest and then followed the Danube to Regensburg. Theodo welcomed Emmeram to his court, where he laboured for three years carrying out missionary work. During this time, he gained a reputation as a pious man. He died circa 652 and is buried in St. Emmeram's in Regensburg, Germany. His feast day in the Catholic Calendar of saints is September 22.

Helene Weigel

Helene Weigel 14 Helene Weigel was a German actress and artistic director. She was the second wife of Bertolt Brecht and was married to him from 1930 until his death in 1956. Together they had two children.

Hermann Oberth

Hermann Oberth 14 Hermann Julius Oberth was an Austro-Hungarian-born German physicist and rocket pioneer of Transylvanian Saxon descent. He is considered one of the founding fathers of rocketry and astronautics, along with Robert Esnault-Pelterie, Konstantin Tsiolkovsky, Robert H. Goddard and Herman Potočnik. Oberth supported Nazi Germany's war effort and received the War Merit Cross in 1943.


Apollo 14 Apollo is one of the Olympian deities in classical Greek and Roman religion and Greek and Roman mythology. Apollo has been recognized as a god of archery, music and dance, truth and prophecy, healing and diseases, the Sun and light, poetry, and more. One of the most important and complex of the Greek gods, he is the son of Zeus and Leto, and the twin brother of Artemis, goddess of the hunt. He is considered to be the most beautiful god and is represented as the ideal of the kouros. Apollo is known in Greek-influenced Etruscan mythology as Apulu.

Menno Simons

Menno Simons 14 Menno Simons was a Roman Catholic priest from the Friesland region of the Low Countries who was excommunicated from the Catholic Church and became an influential Anabaptist religious leader. Simons was a contemporary of the Protestant Reformers and it is from his name that his followers became known as Mennonites.

Otto Mueller

Otto Mueller 14 Otto Müller was a German painter and printmaker of the Die Brücke expressionist movement.           

Fritz Heckert

Fritz Heckert 14 Friedrich (Fritz) Carl Heckert was a German politician, co-founder of the Spartacus League and the Communist Party of Germany and a leading member of the Communist International (Comintern). He also briefly served as the Saxon Minister of Economy in 1923.

Friedrich Gerstäcker

Friedrich Gerstäcker 14 Friedrich Gerstäcker was a German traveler, novelist, and adventurer.                               

Olof Palme

Olof Palme 14 Sven Olof Joachim Palme was a Swedish politician and statesman who served as Prime Minister of Sweden from 1969 to 1976 and 1982 to 1986. Palme led the Swedish Social Democratic Party from 1969 until his assassination in 1986.

Hanns Martin Schleyer

Hanns Martin Schleyer 14 Hans "Hanns" Martin Schleyer was a German business executive, and employer and industry representative, and SS officer who served as president of two powerful commercial organizations, the Confederation of German Employers' Associations and the Federation of German Industries. Schleyer became a target for radical elements of the German student movement in the 1970s for his role in those business organisations, positions in the labour disputes, aggressive appearance on television, conservative anti-communist views, position as a prominent member of the Christian Democratic Union, and past as an enthusiastic member of the Nazi student movement and a former SS officer.

Leonhard Frank

Leonhard Frank 14 Leonhard Frank was a German expressionist writer. He studied painting and graphic art in Munich, and gained acclaim with his first novel The Robber Band. When a Berlin journalist celebrated in a famous café about news of the loss of the ship RMS Lusitania, torpedoed by a German submarine, Frank was upset – and slapped the man in his face. That is why he went into exile in Switzerland (1915–18), where he wrote a series of pacifist short-stories published under the title Man is Good. He returned to Germany, but after the Nazis gained power in 1933 Frank had to emigrate a second time. He lived in Switzerland again, moved to London, then Paris and finally fled under adventurous conditions to the United States in 1940, returning to Munich in 1950. His best-known novels were In the Last Coach and Carl and Anna, which he dramatized in 1929. In 1947 MGM made a movie titled Desire Me out of this story.

Christine Teusch

Christine Teusch 14 Christine Teusch was a German politician of the Zentrumspartei and the Christian Democratic Union. 

Anton Aulke

Anton Aulke 14 Anton Aulke war ein deutscher Gymnasiallehrer und als Schriftsteller ein bedeutender Vertreter mundartlicher Dichtung im Münsterland.

Nicholas of Cusa

Nicholas of Cusa 14 Nicholas of Cusa, also referred to as Nicholas of Kues and Nicolaus Cusanus, was a German Catholic cardinal and polymath active as a philosopher, theologian, jurist, mathematician and astronomer. One of the first German proponents of Renaissance humanism, he made spiritual and political contributions in European history. A notable example of this is his mystical or spiritual writings on "learned ignorance," as well as his participation in power struggles between Rome and the German states of the Holy Roman Empire.


Baldr 14 Baldr is a god in Germanic mythology. In Norse mythology, he is a son of the god Odin and the goddess Frigg, and has numerous brothers, such as Thor and Váli. In wider Germanic mythology, the god was known in Old English as Bældæġ, and in Old High German as Balder, all ultimately stemming from the Proto-Germanic theonym *Balðraz.

Johanna Kirchner

Johanna Kirchner 14 Johanna "Hanna" Kirchner was a German opponent of the Nazi régime.                                 

Peter Thumb

Peter Thumb 14 Peter Thumb was an Austrian architect and master builder whose family came from Bezau, Vorarlberg, in the westernmost part of Austria. He was active in Baden, the Black Forest, Alsace, Upper Swabia, on and around Lake Constance, and in Switzerland. He is best known for his Rococo architecture, mainly in Southern Germany. Outstanding examples of his work include the pilgrimage church at Birnau on Lake Constance and the monastery library at the Abbey of Saint Gall, Saint Gallen, Switzerland.

Michael von Faulhaber

Michael von Faulhaber 14 Michael Ritter von Faulhaber was a German Catholic prelate who served as Archbishop of Munich for 35 years, from 1917 to his death in 1952. Created Cardinal in 1921, von Faulhaber remained an outspoken monarchist and denounced the Weimar Republic as rooted in "perjury and treason" against the German Empire during a speech at the 62nd German Catholics' Day of 1922. Cardinal von Faulhaber was a senior member and co-founder of the Amici Israel, a priestly association founded in Rome in 1926 with the goal of working toward the Jewish people's conversion to Roman Catholicism, while also seeking to combat antisemitism within the Church.

Alexander Fleming

Alexander Fleming 14 Sir Alexander Fleming was a Scottish physician and microbiologist, best known for discovering the world's first broadly effective antibiotic substance, which he named penicillin. His discovery in 1928 of what was later named benzylpenicillin from the mould Penicillium rubens has been described as the "single greatest victory ever achieved over disease". For this discovery, he shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1945 with Howard Florey and Ernst Boris Chain.

Hanns Eisler

Hanns Eisler 14 Hanns Eisler was a German-Austrian composer. He is best known for composing the national anthem of East Germany, for his long artistic association with Bertolt Brecht, and for the scores he wrote for films. The Hochschule für Musik Hanns Eisler Berlin is named after him.

Katharina Paulus

Katharina Paulus 14 Katharina "Käthe" Paulus was a German exhibition parachute jumper and the inventor of the first collapsible parachute. At the time, 1910, the parachute was named "rescue apparatus for aeronauts". The previous parachutes were not able to fit in a case like apparatus worn on the back, thus Paulus' invention became of paramount importance for the Germans in the First World War and she produced about 7,000 parachutes for the German forces. During the First World War, Paulus created approximately 125 parachutes a week. She was also credited with inventing the "drag 'chute", an intentional breakaway system where one small parachute opens to pull out the main parachute.

Frederick Augustus I of Saxony

Frederick Augustus I of Saxony 14 Frederick Augustus I was a member of the House of Wettin who reigned as the last Elector of Saxony from 1763 to 1806 and as the first King of Saxony from 1806 to 1827. He was also Duke of Warsaw from 1807 to 1815, and a legitimate candidate to the Polish throne.

Otto Grotewohl

Otto Grotewohl 14 Otto Emil Franz Grotewohl was a German politician who served as the first prime minister of the German Democratic Republic from its foundation in October 1949 until his death in September 1964.

Alma Rogge

Alma Rogge 14 Alma Rogge war eine deutsche Schriftstellerin.                                                     


Thusnelda 14 Thusnelda was a Germanic Cheruscan noblewoman who was captured by the Roman general Germanicus during his invasion of Germania. She was the wife of Arminius. Tacitus and Strabo cite her capture as evidence of both the firmness and restraint of Roman arms.

Mother Teresa

Mother Teresa 14 Mary Teresa Bojaxhiu MC, better known as Mother Teresa, was an Albanian-Indian Catholic nun and the founder of the Missionaries of Charity. Born in Skopje, then part of the Ottoman Empire, at the age of 18 she moved to Ireland and later to India, where she lived most of her life. On 4 September 2016, she was canonised by the Catholic Church as Saint Teresa of Calcutta. The anniversary of her death, 5 September, is her feast day.

Johannes Rau

Johannes Rau 14 Johannes Rau was a German politician (SPD). He was the president of Germany from 1 July 1999 until 30 June 2004 and the minister president of North Rhine-Westphalia from 20 September 1978 to 9 June 1998. In the latter role, he also served as president of the Bundesrat in 1982/83 and in 1994/95.

Oskar Schindler

Oskar Schindler 14 Oskar Schindler was a German industrialist, humanitarian, and member of the Nazi Party who is credited with saving the lives of 1,200 Jews during the Holocaust by employing them in his enamelware and ammunitions factories in occupied Poland and the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia. He is the subject of the 1982 novel Schindler's Ark and its 1993 film adaptation, Schindler's List, which reflected his life as an opportunist initially motivated by profit who came to show extraordinary initiative, tenacity, courage, and dedication in saving his Jewish employees' lives.

Mary Ward (nun)

Mary Ward (nun) 14 Mary Ward, IBVM CJ was an English Catholic religious sister whose activities led to the founding of the Congregation of Jesus and the Institute of the Blessed Virgin Mary, better known as the Sisters of Loreto. There is now a network of around 200 Mary Ward schools worldwide. Ward was declared venerable by Pope Benedict XVI on 19 December 2009.

Gustav Ludwig Hertz

Gustav Ludwig Hertz 14 Gustav Ludwig Hertz was a German experimental physicist and Nobel Prize winner for his work on inelastic electron collisions in gases, and a nephew of Heinrich Hertz.

Reinhold Schneider

Reinhold Schneider 14 Reinhold Schneider was a German poet who also wrote novels. Initially his works were less religious, but later his poetry had a Christian and specifically Catholic influence. His first works included ones about Luís de Camões and Portugal.

Thomas Dachser

Thomas Dachser 14 Thomas Dachser was a German businessman. In 1930, he founded the forwarding agency Dachser in Kempten in the Allgäu. Today the business, still owned by the family, is one of the largest logistics service providers in Europe. In 1977, Thomas Dachser was awarded the Bavarian Order of Merit by the then prime minister of Bavaria Alfons Goppel.

Victor Hugo

Victor Hugo 14 Victor-Marie Hugo, vicomte Hugo, sometimes nicknamed the Ocean Man, was a French Romantic writer and politician. During a literary career that spanned more than sixty years, he wrote in a variety of genres and forms.

Anton Saefkow

Anton Saefkow 13 Anton Emil Hermann Saefkow was a German Communist and a resistance fighter against the Nazi régime. He was arrested in July 1944 and executed on 18 September by guillotine.

Alfred Döblin

Alfred Döblin 13 Bruno Alfred Döblin was a German novelist, essayist, and doctor, best known for his novel Berlin Alexanderplatz (1929). A prolific writer whose œuvre spans more than half a century and a wide variety of literary movements and styles, Döblin is one of the most important figures of German literary modernism. His complete works comprise over a dozen novels ranging in genre from historical novels to science fiction to novels about the modern metropolis; several dramas, radio plays, and screenplays; a true crime story; a travel account; two book-length philosophical treatises; scores of essays on politics, religion, art, and society; and numerous letters—his complete works, republished by Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag and Fischer Verlag, span more than thirty volumes. His first published novel, Die drei Sprünge des Wang-lung, appeared in 1915 and his final novel, Hamlet oder Die lange Nacht nimmt ein Ende was published in 1956, one year before his death.

George Washington

George Washington 13 George Washington was an American Founding Father, military officer, and politician who served as the first president of the United States from 1789 to 1797. Appointed by the Second Continental Congress as commander of the Continental Army in 1775, Washington led Patriot forces to victory in the American Revolutionary War and then served as president of the Constitutional Convention in 1787, which drafted and ratified the Constitution of the United States and established the U.S. federal government. Washington has thus become commonly known as the "Father of his Country".

Charles I of Austria

Charles I of Austria 13 Charles I or Karl I was Emperor of Austria, King of Hungary, King of Croatia, King of Bohemia, and the last of the monarchs belonging to the House of Habsburg-Lorraine to rule over Austria-Hungary. The son of Archduke Otto of Austria and Princess Maria Josepha of Saxony, Charles became heir presumptive of Emperor Franz Joseph when his uncle Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria was assassinated in 1914. In 1911, he married Princess Zita of Bourbon-Parma. He is venerated in the Catholic Church, was beatified by Pope John Paul II on 3 October 2004, and is known to the Catholic Church as Blessed Karl of Austria.

Johann Christoph Friedrich GutsMuths

Johann Christoph Friedrich GutsMuths 13 Johann Christoph Friedrich GutsMuths, also called Guts Muth or Gutsmuths, was a teacher and educator in Germany, and is especially known for his role in the development of physical education. He is thought of as the "grandfather of gymnastics" – the "father" being Friedrich Ludwig Jahn. GutsMuths introduced systematic physical exercise into the school curriculum, and he developed the basic principles of artistic gymnastics.

Martin Opitz

Martin Opitz 13 Martin Opitz von Boberfeld was a German poet, regarded as the greatest of that nation during his lifetime.

Anders Celsius

Anders Celsius 13 Anders Celsius was a Swedish astronomer, physicist and mathematician. He was professor of astronomy at Uppsala University from 1730 to 1744, but traveled from 1732 to 1735 visiting notable observatories in Germany, Italy and France. He founded the Uppsala Astronomical Observatory in 1741, and in 1742 proposed the Centigrade temperature scale which was later renamed Celsius in his honour.

Kiem Pauli

Kiem Pauli 13 Kiem Pauli war ein Musikant und Volksliedsammler, der wesentlich zur Wiederbelebung der bayerischen Volksmusik in der ersten Hälfte des zwanzigsten Jahrhunderts beitrug.

Gebhard of Constance

Gebhard of Constance 13 Gebhard of Constance was a bishop of Constance from 979 until 995. He founded the Benedictine abbey of Petershausen in 983. Regarded as a Christian saint, his feast day is 27 August.

Ernst Bloch

Ernst Bloch 13 Ernst Simon Bloch was a German Marxist philosopher. Bloch was influenced by Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel and Karl Marx, as well as by apocalyptic and religious thinkers such as Thomas Müntzer, Paracelsus, and Jacob Böhme. He established friendships with György Lukács, Bertolt Brecht, Kurt Weill, Walter Benjamin, and Theodor W. Adorno. Bloch's work focuses on an optimistic teleology of the history of mankind.

Elisabeth Langgässer

Elisabeth Langgässer 13 Elisabeth Langgässer was a German author and teacher. She is known for lyrical poetry and novels. Her short story Saisonbeginn, for example, provides a graphically human portrayal of a 1930s German Alpine village erecting a sign forbidding the entry of Jews.

Kurt Weill

Kurt Weill 13 Kurt Julian Weill was a German-born American composer active from the 1920s in his native country, and in his later years in the United States. He was a leading composer for the stage who was best known for his fruitful collaborations with Bertolt Brecht. With Brecht, he developed productions such as his best-known work, The Threepenny Opera, which included the ballad "Mack the Knife". Weill held the ideal of writing music that served a socially useful purpose, Gebrauchsmusik. He also wrote several works for the concert hall and a number of works on Jewish themes. He became a United States citizen in 1943.

Heinrich Brauns

Heinrich Brauns 13 Heinrich Brauns was a German politician and Roman Catholic theologian, who for the German Center Party was a long-serving Minister of Labour of the Weimar Republic from 1920 to 1928. Serving in a total of 13 cabinets, Brauns was a major influence on social policy in the period of German history.

Ferdinand von Schill

Ferdinand von Schill 13 Ferdinand Baptista von Schill was a Prussian major who revolted unsuccessfully against French domination of Prussia in May 1809.

Bernd Rosemeyer

Bernd Rosemeyer 13 Bernd Rosemeyer was a German racing driver and speed record holder. He is often considered one of the greatest racing drivers of his era.

Hedwig Dohm

Hedwig Dohm 13 Marianne Adelaide Hedwig Dohm was a German feminist and writer.                                     

Theodor Hürth

Theodor Hürth 13 Theodor Hürth war katholischer Geistlicher und als langjähriger Generalpräses des Katholischen Gesellenvereins und späteren Internationalen Kolpingwerkes dritter Nachfolger des Seligen Adolph Kolping.

Frans Hals

Frans Hals 13 Frans Hals the Elder was a Dutch Golden Age painter, chiefly of individual and group portraits and of tronies, who lived and worked in Haarlem.

Guglielmo Marconi

Guglielmo Marconi 13 Guglielmo Giovanni Maria Marconi, 1st Marquis of Marconi was an Italian inventor and electrical engineer, known for his creation of a practical radio wave–based wireless telegraph system. This led to Marconi's being credited as the inventor of radio, and he shared the 1909 Nobel Prize in Physics with Karl Ferdinand Braun "in recognition of their contributions to the development of wireless telegraphy".

Hedwig Dransfeld

Hedwig Dransfeld 13 Hedwig Dransfeld was a German Catholic feminist, writer and member of parliament.                 

Otto Engert

Otto Engert 13 Otto Engert war ein deutscher kommunistischer Politiker. Er war von 1929 bis 1933 Bürgermeister von Neuhaus am Rennweg.

Ludwig Wolker

Ludwig Wolker 13 Ludwig Wolker war ein deutscher römisch-katholischer Priester und eine führende Gestalt in der katholischen Jugendbewegung sowie Mitbegründer des Bundes der Deutschen Katholischen Jugend (BDKJ).

Aristide Briand

Aristide Briand 13 Aristide Pierre Henri Briand was a French statesman who served eleven terms as Prime Minister of France during the French Third Republic. He is mainly remembered for his focus on international issues and reconciliation politics during the interwar period (1918–1939).

Karl Valentin

Karl Valentin 13 Karl Valentin was a Bavarian comedian. He had significant influence on German Weimar culture. Valentin starred in many silent films in the 1920s, and was sometimes called the "Charlie Chaplin of Germany". His work has an essential influence on artists like Bertolt Brecht, Samuel Beckett, Loriot and Helge Schneider.

Emil Fischer

Emil Fischer 13 Hermann Emil Louis Fischer was a German chemist and 1902 recipient of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry. He discovered the Fischer esterification. He also developed the Fischer projection, a symbolic way of drawing asymmetric carbon atoms. He also hypothesized lock and key mechanism of enzyme action. He never used his first given name, and was known throughout his life simply as Emil Fischer.

Michael Praetorius

Michael Praetorius 13 Michael Praetorius was a German composer, organist, and music theorist. He was one of the most versatile composers of his age, being particularly significant in the development of musical forms based on Protestant hymns.

Gottfried Benn

Gottfried Benn 13 Gottfried Benn was a German poet, essayist, and physician. He was nominated for the Nobel Prize in Literature five times. He was awarded the Georg Büchner Prize in 1951.

Gottlieb Graf von Haeseler

Gottlieb Graf von Haeseler 12 Gottlieb Ferdinand Albert Alexis Graf von Haeseler was a German military officer of the Imperial Wilhelmine period, with final rank of Generalfeldmarschall.

August Halm

August Halm 12 August Otto Halm was a German music theorist, music educationist and composer.                     

Jörg Syrlin the Elder

Jörg Syrlin the Elder 12 Jörg Syrlin the Elder was a German sculptor who is considered part of the Ulm school. After his death his son Jörg Syrlin the Younger took over command of his workshop. His best known works are the carvings for the choir stalls of the Ulm Minster.

Nikolaus Fey

Nikolaus Fey 12 Nikolaus Fey war ein deutscher Mundartdichter in Franken und bedeutender Vertreter der (ost)fränkischen Mundart.

Otto Modersohn

Otto Modersohn 12 Friedrich Wilhelm Otto Modersohn was a German landscape painter. He was a co-founder of the Art Colony at Worpswede.

Janusz Korczak

Janusz Korczak 12 Janusz Korczak, the pen name of Henryk Goldszmit, was a Polish Jewish pediatrician, educator, children's author and pedagogue known as Pan Doktor or Stary Doktor. He was an early children's rights advocate, in 1919 drafting a children's constitution.

Reinhold Maier

Reinhold Maier 12 Reinhold Maier was a German politician and the leader of the FDP from 1957–1960. From 1946 to 1952 he was Minister President of Württemberg-Baden and then the 1st Minister President of the new state of Baden-Württemberg until 1953.

Carl Duisberg

Carl Duisberg 12 Friedrich Carl Duisberg was a German chemist and industrialist.                                     

Louis III, Duke of Württemberg

Louis III, Duke of Württemberg 12 Louis III, Duke of Württemberg, was a German nobleman. He was the Duke of Württemberg, from 1568 until his death.

Edgar André (politician)

Edgar André (politician) 12 Edgar Josef André, or Etkar Josef André was a politician in the Communist Party of Germany (KPD) and an antifascist.

Joannes Baptista Sproll

Joannes Baptista Sproll 12 Joannes Baptista Sproll was a German bishop and prominent opponent of the Nazi regime.             

Paul Heyse

Paul Heyse 12 Paul Johann Ludwig von Heyse was a distinguished German writer and translator. A member of two important literary societies, the Tunnel über der Spree in Berlin and Die Krokodile in Munich, he wrote novels, poetry, 177 short stories, and about sixty dramas. The sum of Heyse's many and varied productions made him a dominant figure among German men of letters. He was awarded the 1910 Nobel Prize in Literature "as a tribute to the consummate artistry, permeated with idealism, which he has demonstrated during his long productive career as a lyric poet, dramatist, novelist and writer of world-renowned short stories." Wirsen, one of the Nobel judges, said that "Germany has not had a greater literary genius since Goethe." Heyse is the fifth oldest laureate in literature, after Alice Munro, Jaroslav Seifert, Theodor Mommsen and Doris Lessing.

Mildred Scheel

Mildred Scheel 12 Mildred Scheel was a German physician, the second wife of the President of the Federal Republic Walter Scheel and the founder of the German Cancer Aid.

Helmut Just

Helmut Just 12 Helmut Just war ein deutscher Angehöriger der Ost-Berliner Volkspolizei (VP), der im Dienst an der Sektorengrenze zu West-Berlin erschossen wurde. Weder die Täter noch ihr Motiv konnten ermittelt werden. Die Propaganda der DDR verehrte Just stets als einen von „westlichen Terroristen ermordeten Grenzschützer“. Dabei blieb es auch, als 1967 das Ministerium für Staatssicherheit (MfS) eher die organisierte Kriminalität in Berliner Boxer- und Schieberkreisen, in denen Just zuvor verkehrt habe, hinter der Tat sah.

Heinrich von Gagern

Heinrich von Gagern 12 Heinrich Wilhelm August Freiherr von Gagern was a statesman who argued for the unification of Germany.

Maurice Ravel

Maurice Ravel 12 Joseph Maurice Ravel was a French composer, pianist and conductor. He is often associated with Impressionism along with his elder contemporary Claude Debussy, although both composers rejected the term. In the 1920s and 1930s Ravel was internationally regarded as France's greatest living composer.

Thaddäus Troll

Thaddäus Troll 12 Hans Bayer, known by the pseudonym Thaddäus Troll, was a German journalist and writer and one of the most prominent modern poets in the Swabian German dialect. In his later years, he was also an active campaigner for libraries and for support, pension rights, and fair publishing contracts for writers. He was born in Cannstatt, a suburb of Stuttgart, and committed suicide there at the age of 66. The literary award Thaddäus-Troll-Preis is named in his honour.

Bernhard Lichtenberg

Bernhard Lichtenberg 12 Bernhard Lichtenberg was a German Catholic priest who became known for repeatedly speaking out, after the rise of Adolf Hitler and during the Holocaust, against the persecution and deportation of the Jews. After serving a jail sentence, he died in the custody of the Gestapo on his way to Dachau concentration camp. Raul Hilberg wrote: "Thus a solitary figure had made his singular gesture. In the buzz of rumormongers and sensation seekers, Bernhard Lichtenberg fought almost alone."

Hugo Distler

Hugo Distler 12 August Hugo Distler was a German organist, choral conductor, teacher and composer.                 

Marion Dönhoff

Marion Dönhoff 12 Marion Hedda Ilse Gräfin von Dönhoff was a German journalist and publisher who participated in the resistance against Nazism, along with Helmuth James Graf von Moltke, Peter Yorck von Wartenburg, and Claus Schenk Graf von Stauffenberg. After the war, she became one of Germany's leading journalists and intellectuals, working for over 55 years as an editor and later publisher of the Hamburg-based weekly newspaper Die Zeit.

Emil Rittershaus

Emil Rittershaus 12 Friedrich Emil Rittershaus was a German poet.                                                       

Clara Immerwahr

Clara Immerwahr 12 Clara Helene Immerwahr was a German chemist. She was the first German woman to be awarded a doctorate in chemistry from the University of Breslau, and is credited with being a pacifist as well as a "heroine of the women's rights movement". From 1901 until her suicide in 1915, she was married to the Nobel Prize-winning chemist Fritz Haber.

Oskar Kokoschka

Oskar Kokoschka 12 Oskar Kokoschka was an Austrian artist, poet, playwright, and teacher best known for his intense expressionistic portraits and landscapes, as well as his theories on vision that influenced the Viennese Expressionist movement.

Henry II, Holy Roman Emperor

Henry II, Holy Roman Emperor 12 Henry II, also known as Saint Henry, Obl. S. B., was Holy Roman Emperor from 1014. He died without an heir in 1024, and was the last ruler of the Ottonian line. As Duke of Bavaria, appointed in 995, Henry became King of the Romans following the sudden death of his second cousin, Emperor Otto III in 1002, was made King of Italy in 1004, and crowned emperor by Pope Benedict VIII in 1014.

Johann Baptist Huber

Johann Baptist Huber 12 Johann Baptist Huber war ein deutscher katholischer Geistlicher und Widerstandskämpfer.             

Jakob Bleyer

Jakob Bleyer 12 Jakob Bleyer was a Hungarian German studies scholar, literary scholar, MP of Hungarian-German origin, and the Hungarian Minister for National Minorities from 1919 to 1920.

Karl Wagenfeld

Karl Wagenfeld 12 Karl Wagenfeld war ein deutscher Heimatpropagandist, -forscher und -dichter vornehmlich niederdeutscher Sprache und regionaler Vordenker der NS-Rassenideologie.

Alexander Schmorell

Alexander Schmorell 12 Alexander Schmorell was a Russian-German student at Munich University who, with five others, formed a resistance group known as White Rose which was active against the Nazi German regime from June 1942 to February 1943. In 2012, he was glorified as a saint and passion bearer by the Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia, and is venerated by Orthodox Christians throughout the world.

Hans Kudlich

Hans Kudlich 12 Johann "Hans" Kudlich was an Austrian political activist, Austrian legislator, American immigrant, writer, and physician.

Michel Buck

Michel Buck 12 Michael Richard „Michel“ Buck war ein deutscher Mediziner, Kulturhistoriker und schwäbischer Dialektdichter.

Marie Luise Kaschnitz

Marie Luise Kaschnitz 12 Marie Luise Kaschnitz was a German short story writer, novelist, essayist and poet. She is considered to be one of the leading post-war German poets.

Johannes Brenz

Johannes Brenz 12 Johann (Johannes) Brenz was a German Lutheran theologian and the Protestant Reformer of the Duchy of Württemberg.

Eberhard I, Duke of Württemberg

Eberhard I, Duke of Württemberg 12 Eberhard I of Württemberg was known as Count Eberhard V from 1459 to 1495, and from July 1495 he was the first Duke of Württemberg. He is also known as Eberhard im Bart.

Georg Ignaz Komp

Georg Ignaz Komp 12 Georg Ignaz Komp was a Roman Catholic clergyman who was Bishop of Fulda. He was appointed Archbishop of Freiburg but died en route to his enthronement.

Rudolf Steiner

Rudolf Steiner 12 Rudolf Joseph Lorenz Steiner was an Austrian occultist, social reformer, architect, esotericist, and claimed clairvoyant. Steiner gained initial recognition at the end of the nineteenth century as a literary critic and published works including The Philosophy of Freedom. At the beginning of the twentieth century he founded an esoteric spiritual movement, anthroposophy, with roots in German idealist philosophy and theosophy. His teachings are influenced by Christian Gnosticism. Many of his ideas are pseudoscientific. He was also prone to pseudohistory.

Dominikus Zimmermann

Dominikus Zimmermann 12 Dominikus Zimmermann was a German Rococo architect and stuccoist.                                   

August Becker

August Becker 12 August Becker was a mid-ranking functionary in the SS of Nazi Germany and chemist in the Reich Security Main Office (RSHA). He helped design the vans with a gas chamber built into the back compartment used in early Nazi mass murder of disabled people, political dissidents, Jews, and other "racial enemies", including Action T4 as well as the Einsatzgruppen in the Nazi-occupied portions of the Soviet Union. Generally his role was to provide important technical support, but on at least one occasion he personally gassed about 20 people.

George II, Duke of Saxe-Meiningen

George II, Duke of Saxe-Meiningen 11 George II, Duke of Saxe-Meiningen, was the penultimate Duke of Saxe-Meiningen, reigning from 1866 to 1914. For his support for his successful court theatre he was also known as the Theaterherzog.

Wolfgang Pauli

Wolfgang Pauli 11 Wolfgang Ernst Pauli was an Austrian theoretical physicist and one of the pioneers of quantum physics. In 1945, after having been nominated by Albert Einstein, Pauli received the Nobel Prize in Physics for his "decisive contribution through his discovery of a new law of Nature, the exclusion principle or Pauli principle". The discovery involved spin theory, which is the basis of a theory of the structure of matter.


Lamprecht 11 Lamprecht, called der Pfaffe, was a German poet of the twelfth century. He is the author of the Alexanderlied, the first German epic composed on a French model.

Robert Havemann

Robert Havemann 11 Robert Havemann was an East German chemist and dissident.                                           

Christoph Probst

Christoph Probst 11 Christoph Ananda Probst was a German student of medicine and member of the White Rose resistance group.

Felix von Luckner

Felix von Luckner 11 Felix Nikolaus Alexander Georg Graf von Luckner, sometimes called Count Luckner in English, was a German nobleman, naval officer, author, and sailor who earned the epithet Der Seeteufel, and his crew that of Die Piraten des Kaisers, for his exploits in command of the sailing commerce raider SMS Seeadler during the First World War. After the war, Luckner became a war hero in Germany and was renowned around the world for his seamanship and chivalrous conduct during the war, which resulted in a minimal loss of life on both sides.

Leonardo da Vinci

Leonardo da Vinci 11 Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci was an Italian polymath of the High Renaissance who was active as a painter, draughtsman, engineer, scientist, theorist, sculptor, and architect. While his fame initially rested on his achievements as a painter, he has also become known for his notebooks, in which he made drawings and notes on a variety of subjects, including anatomy, astronomy, botany, cartography, painting, and paleontology. Leonardo is widely regarded to have been a genius who epitomized the Renaissance humanist ideal, and his collective works comprise a contribution to later generations of artists matched only by that of his younger contemporary Michelangelo.

Thomas More

Thomas More 11 Sir Thomas More, venerated in the Catholic Church as Saint Thomas More, was an English lawyer, judge, social philosopher, author, statesman, amateur theologian, and noted Renaissance humanist. He also served Henry VIII as Lord High Chancellor of England from October 1529 to May 1532. He wrote Utopia, published in 1516, which describes the political system of an imaginary island state.

Sigmund Freud

Sigmund Freud 11 Sigmund Freud was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of psychoanalysis, a clinical method for evaluating and treating pathologies seen as originating from conflicts in the psyche, through dialogue between patient and psychoanalyst, and the distinctive theory of mind and human agency derived from it.

Otto Nagel

Otto Nagel 11 Otto Nagel was a German painter, graphic designer and long-time head of the Berlin Academy of Arts who was one of the most prolific artists of East Germany.

Peter Hille

Peter Hille 11 Peter Hille war ein deutscher spätromantischer und naturalistischer Schriftsteller.                 

Willi Bredel

Willi Bredel 11 Willi Bredel was a German writer and president of the East German Academy of Arts, Berlin. Born in Hamburg, he was a pioneer of socialist realist literature.

Johann Georg Fischer

Johann Georg Fischer 11 Johann Georg Fischer was a German poet and playwright.                                             

Enno Wilhelm Hektor

Enno Wilhelm Hektor 11 Enno Wilhelm Hektor war ein deutscher Schriftsteller. Er schrieb sozialkritische Bücher, Gedichte und Theaterstücke und veröffentlichte auch in plattdeutscher Sprache. Sein bekanntestes Werk ist das Heimatlied der Ostfriesen In Oostfreesland is’t am besten.


Trajan 11 Trajan was a Roman emperor from AD 98 to 117, the second of the Five Good Emperors of the Nerva–Antonine dynasty. He was a philanthropic ruler and a successful soldier-emperor who led the Roman Empire to its greatest territorial extent by the time of his death. He was given the title of Optimus by the Roman Senate.

Erwin von Witzleben

Erwin von Witzleben 11 Job Wilhelm Georg Erdmann Erwin von Witzleben was a German Generalfeldmarschall in the Wehrmacht during the Second World War. A leading conspirator in the 20 July plot to assassinate Adolf Hitler, he was designated to become Commander-in-Chief of the Wehrmacht in a post-Nazi regime had the plot succeeded.

Hugo Preuß

Hugo Preuß 11 Hugo Preuß (Preuss) was a German lawyer and liberal politician. He was the author of the draft version of the constitution that was passed by the Weimar National Assembly and came into force in August 1919. He based it on three principles: all political authority belongs to the people; that the state should be organized on a federal basis; and that the Reich should form a democratic Rechtsstaat within the international community.

Eugen Richter

Eugen Richter 11 Eugen Richter was a German politician and journalist in Imperial Germany. He was one of the leading Old Liberals in the Prussian Landtag and the German Reichstag.

Katharina von Bora

Katharina von Bora 11 Katharina von Bora, after her wedding Katharina Luther, also referred to as "die Lutherin", was the wife of the German reformer Martin Luther and a seminal figure of the Protestant Reformation. Although little is known about her, she is often considered to have been important to the Reformation, her marriage setting a precedent for Protestant family life and clerical marriage.

Helen Keller

Helen Keller 11 Helen Adams Keller was an American author, disability rights advocate, political activist and lecturer. Born in West Tuscumbia, Alabama, she lost her sight and her hearing after a bout of illness when she was 19 months old. She then communicated primarily using home signs until the age of seven, when she met her first teacher and life-long companion Anne Sullivan. Sullivan taught Keller language, including reading and writing. After an education at both specialist and mainstream schools, Keller attended Radcliffe College of Harvard University and became the first deafblind person in the United States to earn a Bachelor of Arts degree.

Paul Reuter

Paul Reuter 11 Paul Julius Reuter, later ennobled as Freiherr von Reuter, was a German-born British entrepreneur who was a pioneer of telegraphy and news reporting. He was a reporter, media owner, and the founder of the Reuters news agency, which became part of the Thomson Reuters conglomerate in 2008.

Hermann Kurz

Hermann Kurz 11 Hermann Kurz was a German poet and novelist.                                                       


Raphael 11 Raffaello Sanzio da Urbino, now generally known in English as Raphael, was an Italian painter and architect of the High Renaissance. His work is admired for its clarity of form, ease of composition, and visual achievement of the Neoplatonic ideal of human grandeur. Together with Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo, he forms the traditional trinity of great masters of that period.

Elisabeth von Thadden

Elisabeth von Thadden 11 Elisabeth Adelheid Hildegard von Thadden was a German progressive educator and a resistance fighter against the Nazi régime as a member of the Solf Circle. She was sentenced to death for conspiring to commit high treason and undermining the fighting forces (Wehrkraftzersetzung).

Werner Bergengruen

Werner Bergengruen 11 Werner Bergengruen was a Baltic German novelist and poet. He was nominated for the Nobel Prize in Literature.

Hans Purrmann

Hans Purrmann 11 Hans Marsilius Purrmann was a German artist. He was born in Speyer where he also grew up. He completed an apprenticeship as a scene painter and interior decorator, and subsequently studied in Karlsruhe and Munich before going to Paris in 1906. It was here he became a student and later a friend of Henri Matisse whom he set up a painting school with. After 1916, Purrmann lived in Berlin and Langenargen, moving from there in 1935 to run the German art foundation at the Villa Romana in Florence. He lived there until 1943, then in Montagnola (Switzerland). He died in Basel. Typical of Purrmann's style are colourful, sensitively painted landscapes, still lifes and portraits. There are large collections of his works in Langenargen Museum and in the Purrmann House, Speyer.

Max Peinkofer

Max Peinkofer 11 Max Peinkofer war ein deutscher Schriftsteller und Heimatforscher.                                 

Otto Herzog

Otto Herzog 10 Otto Friedrich Herzog was a German Nazi Party politician and SA-Obergruppenführer. During the closing months of the Second World War, he commanded the Volkssturm forces during the siege of Breslau and died there when the city fell to the Red Army in May 1945.

Christine Brückner

Christine Brückner 10 Christine Brückner was a German writer.                                                             

Arnold Janssen

Arnold Janssen 10 Arnold Janssen, was a German-Dutch Catholic priest and missionary who is venerated as a saint. He founded the Society of the Divine Word, a Catholic missionary religious congregation, also known as the Divine Word Missionaries, as well as two congregations for women. In 1889 he founded in Steyl, Netherlands, the Missionary Sisters Servants of the Holy Spirit and in 1896 at the same place the Holy Spirit Adoration Sisters. He was canonized on 5 October 2003, by Pope John Paul II.

Heinrich Nordhoff

Heinrich Nordhoff 10 Heinz Heinrich Nordhoff was a German engineer who led the rebuilding of Volkswagen (VW) after World War II. He was featured on the cover of Time magazine on Feb. 15, 1954.

Henry the Fowler

Henry the Fowler 10 Henry the Fowler was the Duke of Saxony from 912 and the King of East Francia from 919 until his death in 936. As the first non-Frankish king of East Francia, he established the Ottonian dynasty of kings and emperors, and he is generally considered to be the founder of the medieval German state, known until then as East Francia. An avid hunter, he obtained the epithet "the Fowler" because he was allegedly fixing his birding nets when messengers arrived to inform him that he was to be king.

Arnold von Harff

Arnold von Harff 10 Arnold von Harff was a 15th-century German traveler from Köln. He went on pilgrimage to many countries, collecting both languages and cultural information. He wrote about a number of languages during his travels (1496-1499): Breton, Croatian, Turkish, Basque, Hebrew, Arabic, Albanian, Hungarian, Syriac, Amharic, and Armenian.

Carl Ulrich

Carl Ulrich 10 Carl Theodor Johann Ulrich was a German politician of the Social Democratic Party (SPD) who served as the first State-President of the People's State of Hesse from 1918 to 1928. He was a member of the Hessian state parliament for 46 continuous years from 1885 to 1931, making him the longest-serving legislator in German history. He also served in the Reichstag for 36 years between 1890 and 1930.

Hermann Gmeiner

Hermann Gmeiner 10 Hermann Gmeiner was an Austrian philanthropist and the founder of SOS Children's Villages.         

Philip I, Landgrave of Hesse

Philip I, Landgrave of Hesse 10 Philip I, Landgrave of Hesse, nicknamed der Großmütige, was a German nobleman and champion of the Protestant Reformation, notable for being one of the most important of the early Protestant rulers in Germany. He was one of the main belligerents in the War of the Katzenelnbogen Succession.

Johann Michael Sailer

Johann Michael Sailer 10 Johann Michael Sailer was a German Jesuit theologian and philosopher, and Bishop of Regensburg. Sailer was a major contributor to the Catholic Enlightenment.

Dag Hammarskjöld

Dag Hammarskjöld 10 Dag Hjalmar Agne Carl Hammarskjöld was a Swedish economist and diplomat who served as the second Secretary-General of the United Nations from April 1953 until his death in a plane crash in September 1961. As of 2023, he remains the youngest person to have held the post, having been only 47 years old when he was appointed. He was a son of Hjalmar Hammarskjöld, who served as Prime Minister of Sweden from 1914 to 1917.

Theodor Zink

Theodor Zink 10 Theodor Zink war ein Lehrer, Sammler, Heimatforscher und Konservator der Landesgewerbeanstalt in Kaiserslautern sowie Gründer des Theodor-Zink-Museums.

Ludwig Mies van der Rohe

Ludwig Mies van der Rohe 10 Ludwig Mies van der Rohe was a German-American architect, academic, and interior designer. He was commonly referred to as Mies, his surname. He is regarded as one of the pioneers of modern architecture.

Hermann Wissmann

Hermann Wissmann 10 Hermann Wilhelm Leopold Ludwig Wissmann, after 1890 Hermann von Wissmann, was a German explorer and administrator in Africa.

Karl Schiller

Karl Schiller 10 Karl August Fritz Schiller was a German economist and politician of the Social Democratic Party (SPD). From 1966 to 1972, he was Federal Minister of Economic Affairs and from 1971 to 1972 Federal Minister of Finance. He was the inventor of the magic square, depicting Economic equilibrium, and of the Concerted activity to reflate the German market. He is thus seen as one of the most influential German economists beside Ludwig Erhard.

Erich Klabunde

Erich Klabunde 10 Erich Klabunde war ein deutscher Journalist und Politiker der SPD, der die Gründung des Nordwestdeutschen Rundfunks und die Grundlegung eines sozialen Wohnungsbaus im Nachkriegsdeutschland vorantrieb.

Knud Rasmussen

Knud Rasmussen 10 Knud Johan Victor Rasmussen was a Greenlandic-Danish polar explorer and anthropologist. He has been called the "father of Eskimology" and was the first European to cross the Northwest Passage via dog sled. He remains well known in Greenland, Denmark and among Canadian Inuit.

Fanny Lewald

Fanny Lewald 10 Fanny Lewald was a German novelist and essayist and a women's rights activist.                     

Julius Döpfner

Julius Döpfner 10 Julius August Döpfner was a German Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church who served as Archbishop of Munich and Freising from 1961 until his death, and was elevated to the cardinalate in 1958.

Michael Buchberger

Michael Buchberger 10 Michael Buchberger was a Roman Catholic priest, notable as the seventy-fourth bishop of Regensburg since the diocese's foundation in 739.

Georg Queri

Georg Queri 10 Georg Queri war ein bayerischer Heimatdichter und Schriftsteller.                                   

Anton Heinen

Anton Heinen 10 Anton Heinen war ein deutscher katholischer Priester und Erwachsenenpädagoge.                       

Marie von Ebner-Eschenbach

Marie von Ebner-Eschenbach 10 Countess Marie von Ebner-Eschenbach was an Austrian writer. Noted for her psychological novels, she is regarded as one of the most important German-language writers of the latter portion of the 19th century.

Lily Braun

Lily Braun 10 Lily Braun, born Amalie von Kretschmann, was a German feminist writer and politician of the Social Democratic Party (SPD).

Carl Peters

Carl Peters 10 Carl Peters was a German explorer and colonial administrator. He was a major promoter of the establishment of the German colony of East Africa and one of the founders of the German East Africa Company. He was a controversial figure in Germany for his views and his brutal treatment of native Africans, which ultimately led to his dismissal from government service in 1897.

Sebastian Sailer

Sebastian Sailer 10 Sebastian Sailer, born Johann Valentin Sailer, was a German Premonstratensian Baroque preacher and writer. He is especially known for his comedies written in Swabian German.

Fritz Bauer

Fritz Bauer 10 Fritz Bauer was a German Jewish judge and prosecutor. He played an instrumental role in the post-war capture of former Holocaust planner Adolf Eichmann and the beginning of the Frankfurt Auschwitz trials.

Alfred Kubin

Alfred Kubin 10 Alfred Leopold Isidor Kubin was an Austrian printmaker, illustrator, and occasional writer. Kubin is considered an important representative of Symbolism and Expressionism.

Wilhelm Ostwald

Wilhelm Ostwald 10 Friedrich Wilhelm Ostwald was a Baltic German chemist and philosopher. Ostwald is credited with being one of the founders of the field of physical chemistry, with Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff, Walther Nernst, and Svante Arrhenius. He received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1909 for his scientific contributions to the fields of catalysis, chemical equilibria and reaction velocities.

Agatha of Sicily

Agatha of Sicily 10 Agatha of Sicily is a Christian saint. Her feast is on 5 February. Agatha was born in Catania, part of the Roman Province of Sicily, and was martyred c. 251. She is one of several virgin martyrs who are commemorated by name in the Canon of the Mass.

Walter Kolb

Walter Kolb 10 Walter Eugen Kolb was a German politician of the Social Democratic Party (SPD) who served as Mayor of Frankfurt from 1946 until his death in 1956. He was the first Mayor of Frankfurt to be elected after the end of World War II.

Helmut Schmidt

Helmut Schmidt 10 Helmut Heinrich Waldemar Schmidt was a German politician and member of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD), who served as the chancellor of West Germany from 1974 to 1982.

Heinrich Imbusch

Heinrich Imbusch 10 Heinrich Imbusch war ein deutscher Gewerkschaftsführer und Politiker der Zentrumspartei.           

Josef Wirmer

Josef Wirmer 10 Josef Wirmer was a German jurist and resistance fighter against the Nazi regime.                   

Ludwig Dürr

Ludwig Dürr 10 Ludwig Dürr was a German airship designer.                                                         

Anselm Feuerbach

Anselm Feuerbach 10 Anselm Feuerbach was a German painter. He was the leading neoclassical painter of the German 19th-century school.

Gottfried Kinkel

Gottfried Kinkel 10 Johann Gottfried Kinkel was a German poet also noted for his revolutionary activities and his escape from a Prussian prison in Spandau with the help of his friend Carl Schurz.

Franz Stock

Franz Stock 10 Franz Stock was a German Roman Catholic priest. He is known for ministering to prisoners in France during World War II, and to German prisoners of war in the years following. The cause for his beatification has been accepted by the Holy See.

Heinrich Vogeler

Heinrich Vogeler 10 Johann Heinrich Vogeler was a German painter, designer, and architect, associated with the Düsseldorf school of painting.

Kurt Georg Kiesinger

Kurt Georg Kiesinger 10 Kurt Georg Kiesinger was a German politician who served as the chancellor of West Germany from 1 December 1966 to 21 October 1969. Before he became Chancellor he served as Minister–President of Baden-Württemberg from 1958 to 1966 and as President of the Federal Council from 1962 to 1963. He was Chairman of the Christian Democratic Union from 1967 to 1971.

Otto Suhr

Otto Suhr 9 Otto Ernst Heinrich Hermann Suhr was a German politician as a member of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD). He served as the Governing Mayor of Berlin from 1955 until his death.

Rudolf Christoph Eucken

Rudolf Christoph Eucken 9 Rudolf Christoph Eucken was a German philosopher. He received the 1908 Nobel Prize in Literature "in recognition of his earnest search for truth, his penetrating power of thought, his wide range of vision, and the warmth and strength in presentation with which in his numerous works he has vindicated and developed an idealistic philosophy of life", after he had been nominated by a member of the Swedish Academy.

Ernst Sachs (Unternehmer)

Ernst Sachs (Unternehmer) 9 Ernst Sachs war ein deutscher Industrieller, Geheimer Kommerzienrat, Dr.-Ing. h. c., Ehrenbürger von Schweinfurt und Innovator der Freilaufnabe mit Rücktrittbremse am Fahrrad.

Caspar David Friedrich

Caspar David Friedrich 9 Caspar David Friedrich was a German Romantic landscape painter, generally considered the most important German artist of his generation. He is best known for his allegorical landscapes, which typically feature contemplative figures silhouetted against night skies, morning mists, barren trees or Gothic ruins. His primary interest was the contemplation of nature, and his often symbolic and anti-classical work seeks to convey a subjective, emotional response to the natural world. Friedrich's paintings characteristically set a human presence in diminished perspective amid expansive landscapes, reducing the figures to a scale that, according to the art historian Christopher John Murray, directs "the viewer's gaze towards their metaphysical dimension".

Ubbo Emmius

Ubbo Emmius 9 Ubbo Emmius was a German historian and geographer.                                                 

Ottilie Baader

Ottilie Baader 9 Ottilie Baader was a German women's rights activist and socialist. In 1900–1908, she was a central agent of the comrades of Germany. Baader was one of the founders of the first trade union organization for women in Germany.

Franz Josef Strauss

Franz Josef Strauss 9 Franz Josef Strauss was a German politician. He was the long-time chairman of the Christian Social Union in Bavaria (CSU) from 1961 until 1988, member of the federal cabinet in different positions between 1953 and 1969 and minister-president of the state of Bavaria from 1978 until 1988. Strauss is also credited as a co-founder of European aerospace conglomerate Airbus.

Engelbert III of the Mark

Engelbert III of the Mark 9 Engelbert III of the Mark (1333–1391) was the Count of Mark from 1347 until 1391.                   

Egon Kisch

Egon Kisch 9 Egon Erwin Kisch was an Austrian and Czechoslovak writer and journalist, who wrote in German. He styled himself Der Rasende Reporter for his countless travels to the far corners of the globe and his equally numerous articles produced in a relatively short time, Kisch was noted for his development of literary reportage, his opposition to Adolf Hitler's Nazi regime, and his Communism.

Hinrich Wilhelm Kopf

Hinrich Wilhelm Kopf 9 Hinrich Wilhelm Kopf was a German politician (SPD). He joined the SPD in 1919. Kopf worked from 1939 to 1943 on behalf of the Nazi government as an asset manager in occupied Poland, initially with his own company together with the lawyer Edmund Bohne, later for the Haupttreuhandstelle Ost and was "trustee of confiscated Polish and Jewish goods" and worked as an expropriation commissioner in the Lubliniec region.

André-Marie Ampère

André-Marie Ampère 9 André-Marie Ampère was a French physicist and mathematician who was one of the founders of the science of classical electromagnetism, which he referred to as "electrodynamics". He is also the inventor of numerous applications, such as the solenoid and the electrical telegraph. As an autodidact, Ampère was a member of the French Academy of Sciences and professor at the École polytechnique and the Collège de France.

Alice Salomon

Alice Salomon 9 Alice Salomon was a German social reformer and pioneer of social work as an academic discipline. Her role was so important to German social work that the Deutsche Bundespost issued a commemorative postage stamp about her in 1989. A university, a park and a square in Berlin are all named after her.

Stefan George

Stefan George 9 Stefan Anton George was a German symbolist poet and a translator of Dante Alighieri, William Shakespeare, Hesiod, and Charles Baudelaire. He is also known for his role as leader of the highly influential literary circle called the George-Kreis and for founding the literary magazine Blätter für die Kunst. From the inception of his circle, George and his followers represented a literary and cultural revolt against the literary realism trend in German literature during the last decades of the German Empire.

Charles de Gaulle

Charles de Gaulle 9 Charles André Joseph Marie de Gaulle was a French army officer and statesman who led the Free French Forces against Nazi Germany in World War II and chaired the Provisional Government of the French Republic from 1944 to 1946 to restore democracy in France. In 1958, amid the Algerian War, he came out of retirement when appointed Prime Minister by President René Coty. He rewrote the Constitution of France and founded the Fifth Republic after approval by referendum. He was elected President of France later that year, a position he held until his resignation in 1969.

Werner Hilpert

Werner Hilpert 9 Werner Johannes Hilpert was a German politician of the Centre Party and CDU, and is largely considered one of the founding fathers of the Federal Republic of Germany.

Sven Hedin

Sven Hedin 9 Sven Anders Hedin, KNO1kl RVO, was a Swedish geographer, topographer, explorer, photographer, travel writer and illustrator of his own works. During four expeditions to Central Asia, he made the Transhimalaya known in the West and located sources of the Brahmaputra, Indus and Sutlej Rivers. He also mapped lake Lop Nur, and the remains of cities, grave sites and the Great Wall of China in the deserts of the Tarim Basin. In his book Från pol till pol, Hedin describes a journey through Asia and Europe between the late 1880s and the early 1900s. While traveling, Hedin visited Turkey, the Caucasus, Tehran, Iraq, lands of the Kyrgyz people and the Russian Far East, India, China and Japan. The posthumous publication of his Central Asia Atlas marked the conclusion of his life's work.

Christoph von Schmid

Christoph von Schmid 9 Christoph von Schmid was a writer of children's stories and an educator. His stories were very popular and translated into many languages. His best known work in the English-speaking world is The Basket of Flowers. In this work, fifteen-year-old Mary is taught all the principles of godliness through the flowers planted and cared for by her father, James, who is the king's gardener. When she is falsely accused of stealing and temporarily banished, her friends try to find some evidence in order to prove that Mary didn't do anything wrong until it's too late. In recent years, The Basket of Flowers has been published in the United States as part of the Lamplighter Family Collection.

Hilde Coppi

Hilde Coppi 9 Betti Gertrud Käthe Hilda Coppi, known as Hilde Coppi, was a German communist and resistance fighter against the Nazi regime. She was a member of the anti-fascist resistance group that was later called the Red Orchestra by the Abwehr, during the Nazi period.

Otto Dill

Otto Dill 9 Otto Dill was a German painter. His work was part of the art competitions at the 1928 Summer Olympics and the 1932 Summer Olympics.

Rudolf Dietz (Autor)

Rudolf Dietz (Autor) 9 Georg Christian Conrad Theodor Hermann Rudolf Otto Dietz war ein deutscher Lehrer, Schulbuchautor und Heimatdichter, der in nassauischer Mundart schrieb.

Fritz Schäffer

Fritz Schäffer 9 Fritz Schäffer was a German politician of the Bavarian People's Party (BVP) and the Christian Social Union (CSU). He was the Bavarian Minister of Finance from 1931 to 1933, when the Nazis came to power in Berlin. In 1945 he became the first Minister President of Bavaria to hold office after the end of the Second World War. From 1949 to 1957, he was the West German federal Minister of Finance and, from 1957 to 1961, federal Minister of Justice.

Hennes Weisweiler

Hennes Weisweiler 9 Hans "Hennes" Weisweiler was a German professional football player and coach. As a coach, he won major titles with Bundesliga clubs Borussia Mönchengladbach and 1. FC Köln in the 1970s.

Georg Weerth

Georg Weerth 9 Georg Ludwig Weerth was a German writer and poet. Weerth's poems celebrated the solidarity of the working class in its fight for liberation from exploitation and oppression. He was a friend and companion of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, who described Georg Weerth as the first and most significant poet of the German proletariat.

Fritz Müller

Fritz Müller 9 Johann Friedrich Theodor Müller, better known as Fritz Müller, and also as Müller-Desterro, was a German biologist who emigrated to southern Brazil, where he lived in and near the city of Blumenau, Santa Catarina. There he studied the natural history of the Atlantic forest and was an early advocate of Darwinism. Müllerian mimicry is named after him.

Artur Becker

Artur Becker 9 Artur Becker was a German communist and functionary of the Young Communist League of Germany (KJVD), as well as a participant in the Spanish Civil War.

Walther Bothe

Walther Bothe 9 Walther Wilhelm Georg Bothe was a German nuclear physicist know for the development of coincidence methods to study particle physics.

Franz Schnabel

Franz Schnabel 9 Franz Schnabel was a German historian. He wrote about German history, particularly the "cultural crisis" of the 19th century in Germany as well as humanism after the end of the Third Reich. He opposed Nazism during the Second World War.

Adam Kraft

Adam Kraft 9 Adam Kraft was a German stone sculptor and master builder of the late Gothic period, based in Nuremberg and with a documented career there from 1490.

Wilhelm Wisser

Wilhelm Wisser 9 Wilhelm Wisser was a German teacher and dialectologist. He is remembered as a collector of Low German legends and fairy tales.

Uncle Bräsig

Uncle Bräsig 9 Uncle Bräsig is a 1936 German historical comedy film directed by Erich Waschneck and starring Otto Wernicke, Heinrich Schroth and Harry Hardt. It marked the film debut of the Swedish actress Kristina Söderbaum who went on to be a major star of Nazi cinema. Söderbaum won her part in a contest organised by UFA. It was based on the 1862 novel From My Farming Days by Fritz Reuter. The film was shot at the Grunewald Studios in Berlin with sets designed by the art director Robert A. Dietrich.


Gabriel 9 In the Abrahamic religions, Gabriel is an archangel with the power to announce God's will to mankind. He is mentioned in the Hebrew Bible, the New Testament, the Quran and the Kitáb-i-Aqdas. Many Christian traditions – including Eastern Orthodoxy, Catholicism, Lutheranism, and Anglicanism – revere Gabriel as a saint.

Wilhelm Münker

Wilhelm Münker 9 Wilhelm Münker war Mitbegründer des Deutschen Jugendherbergswerks und aktiver Naturschützer.       

Reinhard Scheer

Reinhard Scheer 9 Carl Friedrich Heinrich Reinhard Scheer was an Admiral in the Imperial German Navy. Scheer joined the navy in 1879 as an officer cadet and progressed through the ranks, commanding cruisers and battleships, as well as senior staff positions on land. At the outbreak of World War I, Scheer was the commander of the II Battle Squadron of the High Seas Fleet. He then took command of the III Battle Squadron, which consisted of the newest and most powerful battleships in the navy. In January 1916, he was promoted to Admiral and given control of the High Seas Fleet. Scheer led the German fleet at the Battle of Jutland on 31 May – 1 June 1916, one of the largest naval battles in history.

August Euler

August Euler 9 August Euler was a pioneer German aviator, aircraft constructor and the holder of the first German pilot's license, issued in 1909. After the First World War, he became German Secretary of State for Air, until he retired in 1922.

Max Schmeling

Max Schmeling 9 Maximilian Adolph Otto Siegfried Schmeling was a German boxer who was heavyweight champion of the world between 1930 and 1932. His two fights with Joe Louis in 1936 and 1938 were worldwide cultural events because of their national associations. Schmeling is the only boxer to win the world heavyweight championship on a foul.

Elisabeth Schwarzhaupt

Elisabeth Schwarzhaupt 9 Elisabeth Schwarzhaupt was a German politician of the Christian Democratic Union (CDU). She was Federal Minister of Health in the German Cabinet from 1961 to 1966, the first woman to hold a Ministerial position in Germany.

Christian Morgenstern

Christian Morgenstern 9 Christian Otto Josef Wolfgang Morgenstern was a German writer and poet from Munich. Morgenstern married Margareta Gosebruch von Liechtenstern on 7 March 1910. He worked for a while as a journalist in Berlin, but spent much of his life traveling through Germany, Switzerland, and Italy, primarily in a vain attempt to recover his health. His travels, though they failed to restore him to health, allowed him to meet many of the foremost literary and philosophical figures of his time in central Europe.


Amandus 9 Amandus, commonly called Saint Amand, was a bishop of Tongeren-Maastricht and one of the catholic missionaries of Flanders. He is venerated as a saint, particularly in France and Belgium.

Claude Monet

Claude Monet 9 Oscar-Claude Monet was a French painter and founder of impressionist painting who is seen as a key precursor to modernism, especially in his attempts to paint nature as he perceived it. During his long career, he was the most consistent and prolific practitioner of impressionism's philosophy of expressing one's perceptions of nature, especially as applied to plein air (outdoor) landscape painting. The term "Impressionism" is derived from the title of his painting Impression, soleil levant, exhibited in 1874 initiated by Monet and his associates as an alternative to the Salon.

Marc Chagall

Marc Chagall 9 Marc Chagall was a Russian-French artist. An early modernist, he was associated with the École de Paris as well as several major artistic styles and created works in a wide range of artistic formats, including painting, drawings, book illustrations, stained glass, stage sets, ceramics, tapestries and fine art prints.

Gottfried Könzgen

Gottfried Könzgen 9 Gottfried Könzgen war ein deutscher Arbeitersekretär, Politiker (Zentrum) und Märtyrer.             

Frida Kahlo

Frida Kahlo 9 Magdalena Carmen Frida Kahlo y Calderón was a Mexican painter known for her many portraits, self-portraits, and works inspired by the nature and artifacts of Mexico. Inspired by the country's popular culture, she employed a naïve folk art style to explore questions of identity, postcolonialism, gender, class, and race in Mexican society. Her paintings often had strong autobiographical elements and mixed realism with fantasy. In addition to belonging to the post-revolutionary Mexicayotl movement, which sought to define a Mexican identity, Kahlo has been described as a surrealist or magical realist. She is also known for painting about her experience of chronic pain.

Marlene Dietrich

Marlene Dietrich 8 Marie Magdalene "Marlene" Dietrich was a German and American actress and singer whose career spanned from the 1910s to the 1980s.

Marco Polo

Marco Polo 8 Marco Polo was a Venetian merchant, explorer and writer who travelled through Asia along the Silk Road between 1271 and 1295. His travels are recorded in The Travels of Marco Polo, a book that described to Europeans the then-mysterious culture and inner workings of the Eastern world, including the wealth and great size of the Mongol Empire and China under the Yuan dynasty, giving their first comprehensive look into China, Persia, India, Japan, and other locations throughout Asia.

Max Delbrück

Max Delbrück 8 Max Ludwig Henning Delbrück was a German–American biophysicist who participated in launching the molecular biology research program in the late 1930s. He stimulated physical scientists' interest into biology, especially as to basic research to physically explain genes, mysterious at the time. Formed in 1945 and led by Delbrück along with Salvador Luria and Alfred Hershey, the Phage Group made substantial headway unraveling important aspects of genetics. The three shared the 1969 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine "for their discoveries concerning the replication mechanism and the genetic structure of viruses". He was the first physicist to predict what is now called Delbrück scattering.

Maximilian I Joseph of Bavaria

Maximilian I Joseph of Bavaria 8 Maximilian I Joseph was Duke of Zweibrücken from 1795 to 1799, prince-elector of Bavaria from 1799 to 1806, then King of Bavaria from 1806 to 1825. He was a member of the House of Palatinate-Birkenfeld-Zweibrücken, a branch of the House of Wittelsbach.

Georg Gottfried Gervinus

Georg Gottfried Gervinus 8 Georg Gottfried Gervinus was a German literary and political historian.                             

Albert Kuntz

Albert Kuntz 8 Albert Kuntz was a German goldsmith, soldier, communist and concentration camp victim. A soldier in the First World War, Kuntz rose to become an elected representative of the German Communist Party in Berlin's Prussian Landtag. In 1933 he was arrested by the Gestapo, and sent to a succession of prisons and concentration camps. He died in January 1945 at the Mittelbau-Dora concentration camp, where he had been organizing the sabotage of the V-2 rocket production line. Following his death, he was revered as an anti-fascist hero in East Germany.

Matthäus Daniel Pöppelmann

Matthäus Daniel Pöppelmann 8 Matthäus Daniel Pöppelmann (1662–1736) was a German master builder and architect who helped to rebuild Dresden after the fire of 1685. His most famous work is the Zwinger Palace.

Nicolas Steno

Nicolas Steno 8 Niels Steensen ; 1 January 1638 – 25 November 1686 [NS: 11 January 1638 – 5 December 1686]) was a Danish scientist, a pioneer in both anatomy and geology who became a Catholic bishop in his later years.

Ernst Robert Curtius

Ernst Robert Curtius 8 Ernst Robert Curtius was a German literary scholar, philologist, and Romance languages literary critic, best known for his 1948 study Europäische Literatur und Lateinisches Mittelalter, translated in English as European Literature and the Latin Middle Ages.

Georg Pictorius

Georg Pictorius 8 Georg Pictorius of Villingen was a physician and an author of the German Renaissance.               

Alberich Rabensteiner

Alberich Rabensteiner 8 Alberich Rabensteiner was a Cistercian monk who practiced at Heiligenkreuz Abbey. He was also prior and pastor at Neukloster Priory, Wiener Neustadt, Austria.

Wilhelm Müller

Wilhelm Müller 8 Johann Ludwig Wilhelm Müller was a German lyric poet, best known as the author of Die schöne Müllerin (1823) and Winterreise (1828). These would later be the source of inspiration for two song cycles composed by Franz Schubert.

Otto Graf zu Stolberg-Wernigerode

Otto Graf zu Stolberg-Wernigerode 8 Otto Graf zu Stolberg-Wernigerode was an Imperial German officer, diplomat and politician who served as the first vice-chancellor of the German Empire under Otto Von Bismarck between 1878 and 1881.

Kurt Eisner

Kurt Eisner 8 Kurt Eisner was a German politician, revolutionary, journalist, and theatre critic. As a socialist journalist, he organized the socialist revolution that overthrew the Wittelsbach monarchy in Bavaria in November 1918, which led to him being described as "the symbol of the Bavarian revolution". He is used as an example of charismatic authority by Max Weber. Eisner subsequently proclaimed the People's State of Bavaria but was assassinated by far-right German nationalist Anton Graf von Arco auf Valley in Munich on 21 February 1919.

Jerg Ratgeb

Jerg Ratgeb 8 Jerg Ratgeb, also Jörg Ratgeb, was a German painter during the Renaissance, and a contemporary of Albrecht Dürer.

Jean Baptist, Comte d'Arco

Jean Baptist, Comte d'Arco 8 Jean Baptist, Comte d'Arco was a diplomat and Generalfeldmarschall in the service of the Electorate of Bavaria during the Great Turkish War and the War of the Spanish Succession. He should not be confused with his contemporary Johann Philipp d'Arco, who fought on the opposite (Austrian) side in the latter conflict.

Fritz Lau

Fritz Lau 8 Fritz Lau (1872–1966) was Low German writer, playwright and lyricist.                               

Pablo Neruda

Pablo Neruda 8 Pablo Neruda was a Chilean poet-diplomat and politician who won the 1971 Nobel Prize in Literature. Neruda became known as a poet when he was 13 years old and wrote in a variety of styles, including surrealist poems, historical epics, political manifestos, a prose autobiography, and passionate love poems such as the ones in his collection Twenty Love Poems and a Song of Despair (1924).

Luise Büchner

Luise Büchner 8 Elisabeth Emma Louise "Luise" Büchner was a German women's rights activist and writer of essays, novels, travelogues and poetry.

Not found.

Not found. 8                                                                                                    

Joseph Beuys

Joseph Beuys 8 Joseph Heinrich Beuys was a German artist, teacher, performance artist, and art theorist whose work reflected concepts of humanism, sociology, and, with Heinrich Böll, Johannes Stüttgen, Caroline Tisdall, Robert McDowell, and Enrico Wolleb, created the Free International University for Creativity & Interdisciplinary Research (FIU). He previously in his talks and performances also formed The Party for Animals and The Organisation for Direct Democracy. He was a member of a Dadaist art movement Fluxus and singularly inspirational in developing of Performance Art, called Kunst Aktionen, alongside Wiener Aktionismus that Allan Kaprow and Carolee Schneemann termed Art Happenings. Today, internationally, the largest performance art group is BBeyond in Belfast, led by Alastair MacLennan who knew Beuys and like many adapts Beuys's ethos.

Emil Gött

Emil Gött 8 Emil Gött war ein deutscher Schriftsteller.                                                         

Josef Seliger

Josef Seliger 8 Josef Seliger war Textilarbeiter und Mitglied des Abgeordnetenhauses des österreichischen Reichsrats.

Elias Holl

Elias Holl 8 Elias Holl was the most important architect of late German Renaissance architecture.               

Thurn und Taxis

Thurn und Taxis 8 The Princely House of Thurn and Taxis is a family of German nobility that is part of the Briefadel. It was a key player in the postal services in Europe during the 16th century, until the end of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806, and became well known as the owner of breweries and commissioner of several castles. The family has resided in Regensburg since 1748 with their seat at St. Emmeram Castle from 1803. The family is one of the wealthiest in Germany, and the current head of the House is Albert, 12th Prince of Thurn and Taxis.

Otto Gessler

Otto Gessler 8 Otto Karl Gessler was a liberal German politician during the Weimar Republic. From 1910 until 1914, he was mayor of Regensburg and from 1913 to 1919 mayor of Nuremberg. He served in numerous Weimar cabinets, most notably as Reichswehrminister from 1920 to 1928.

Ernst Leitz II

Ernst Leitz II 8 Ernst Leitz II was a German business person and humanitarian. He was the second head of the optics company now known as Leica Camera and organized the Leica Freedom Train to allow people, most of whom were Jewish, to escape from Germany during Nazi times.

Joseph Haas

Joseph Haas 8 Joseph Haas was a German late romantic composer and music teacher.                                 

Karl Bunje

Karl Bunje 8 Karl Bunje war ein niederdeutscher Autor.                                                           

Kurt W. Fischer

Kurt W. Fischer 8 Kurt W. Fischer was an educator, author, and researcher in the field of neuroscience and education. Until his retirement in 2015, he was the Charles Bigelow Professor of Education and Director of the Mind, Brain, and Education Program at Harvard Graduate School of Education. Fischer studied cognitive and emotional development and learning. His work, called dynamic skill theory, is considered to be one of the Neo-Piagetian theories of cognitive development. It offers an explanation for both consistency and variability in developmental patterns.

Walter Kollo

Walter Kollo 8 Walter Kollo was a German composer of operettas, Possen mit Gesang, and Singspiele as well as popular songs. He was also a conductor and a music publisher.

Max Klinger

Max Klinger 8 Max Klinger was a German artist who produced significant work in painting, sculpture, prints and graphics, as well as writing a treatise articulating his ideas on art and the role of graphic arts and printmaking in relation to painting. He is associated with symbolism, the Vienna Secession, and Jugendstil the German manifestation of Art Nouveau. He is best known today for his many prints, particularly a series entitled Paraphrase on the Finding of a Glove and his monumental sculptural installation in homage to Beethoven at the Vienna Secession in 1902.

Cäsar Flaischlen

Cäsar Flaischlen 8 Cäsar Flaischlen was a German poet. He is best known as the author of "Hab' Sonne im Herzen", which has been translated into various languages. Composers such as Pauline Volkstein have set Flaischlen’s text to music.

Jean Monnet

Jean Monnet 8 Jean Omer Marie Gabriel Monnet was a French civil servant, entrepreneur, diplomat, financier, administrator, and political visionary. An influential supporter of European unity, he is considered one of the founding fathers of the European Union.

Arno Holz

Arno Holz 8 Arno Hermann Oscar Alfred Holz was a German naturalist poet and dramatist. He is best known for his poetry collection Phantasus (1898). He was nominated for a Nobel prize in literature nine times.

Arp Schnitger

Arp Schnitger 8 Arp Schnitger was an influential Northern German organ builder. Considered the paramount manufacturer of his time, Schnitger built or rebuilt over 150 organs. He was primarily active in Northern Europe, especially the Netherlands and Germany, where a number of his instruments still survive.

Louise Otto-Peters

Louise Otto-Peters 8 Louise Otto-Peters was a German suffragist and women's rights movement activist who wrote novels, poetry, essays, and libretti. She wrote for Der Wandelstern [The Wandering Star] and Sächsische Vaterlandsblätter [Saxon Fatherland Pages], and founded Frauen-Zeitung and Neue Bahnen specifically for women. She is best known as the founder in 1865 of the General German Women's Association.

Norbert of Xanten

Norbert of Xanten 8 Norbert of Xanten, O. Praem (Xanten-Magdeburg), also known as Norbert Gennep, was a bishop of the Catholic Church, founder of the Premonstratensian order of canons regular, and is venerated as a saint. Norbert was canonized by Pope Gregory XIII in the year 1582, and his statue appears above the Piazza colonnade of St. Peter's Square in Rome.

Wilhelm Blos

Wilhelm Blos 8 Wilhelm Josef Blos was a German journalist, historian, novelist, dramatist and politician (SPD). He served as a member of the imperial parliament (Reichstag) between 1877 and 1918, albeit with one three year break. After the end of World War I he served between 1918 and 1920 as the first president of the newly launched Free People's State of Württemberg.

Friedrich Krupp

Friedrich Krupp 8 Friedrich Carl Krupp was a German steel manufacturer and founder of the Krupp family commercial empire that is now subsumed into ThyssenKrupp AG.

Johanna Spyri

Johanna Spyri 8 Johanna Louise Spyri was a Swiss author of novels, notably children's stories. She wrote the popular book Heidi. Born in Hirzel, a rural area in the canton of Zürich, as a child she spent several summers near Chur in Graubünden, the setting she later would use in her novels.

Januarius Zick

Januarius Zick 8 Johann Rasso Januarius Zick was a German painter and architect. He is considered to be one of the main masters of the Late-Baroque.

Wilhelm von Polenz

Wilhelm von Polenz 8 Wilhelm Christoph Wolf von Polenz war ein deutscher Heimatschriftsteller, Romancier und Novellist. 

Hermann Burte

Hermann Burte 8 Hermann Burte war ein deutscher Dichter, Schriftsteller und Maler. Zu seinen bekanntesten literarischen Werken zählen der 1912 veröffentlichte Roman Wiltfeber, der ewige Deutsche und die 1914 veröffentlichte Tragödie Katte. Burte ist vor allem als alemannischer Mundartdichter bekannt. Burte war spätestens seit 1912 ein Verfechter der völkischen Ideologie und später ein Anhänger nationalsozialistischer Ideen.

Gustav Schönleber

Gustav Schönleber 8 Gustav Schönleber was a German landscape painter.                                                   

Johann Michael Fischer

Johann Michael Fischer 8 Johann Michael Fischer was a German architect in the late Baroque period.                           

Focko Ukena

Focko Ukena 8 Focko Ukena was an East Frisian chieftain (hovetling) who played an important part in the struggle between the Vetkopers and Schieringers in the provinces of Groningen and Friesland. Aside from this he was one of the leading figures in the resistance against the forts of stately authority in East-Frisia of the tom Brok family.

Hans Scholl

Hans Scholl 8 Hans Fritz Scholl was, along with Alexander Schmorell, one of the two founding members of the White Rose resistance movement in Nazi Germany. The principal author of the resistance movement's literature, he was found guilty of high treason for distributing anti-Nazi material and was executed by the Nazi regime in 1943 during World War II.

Werner Egk

Werner Egk 8 Werner Egk, born Werner Joseph Mayer, was a German composer.                                       

Peter Wust

Peter Wust 8 Peter Wust was a German existentialist philosopher who is unknown in the English realm, for his works has never been translated into English to this day.

Leo Wohleb

Leo Wohleb 7 Leo Joseph Wohleb war ein deutscher Philologe, Lehrer und Politiker. Von 1947 bis 1952 war er Staatspräsident des Landes Baden.

Therese Giehse

Therese Giehse 7 Therese Giehse, born Therese Gift, was a German actress. Born in Munich to German-Jewish parents, she first appeared on the stage in 1920. She became a major star on stage, in films, and in political cabaret. In the late 1920s through 1933, she was a leading actress at the Munich Kammerspiele.

Wulf Isebrand

Wulf Isebrand 7 Wulf Isebrand kämpfte 1500 in der Schlacht bei Hemmingstedt, wo die Dithmarscher ein dänisch-holsteinisches Heer besiegten. Während der Schlacht übernahm er die Führung einer Abteilung und hatte maßgeblichen Anteil am Dithmarscher Sieg. Bis heute ist er der Volksheld Dithmarschens.

Karl Barth

Karl Barth 7 Karl Barth was a Swiss Reformed theologian. Barth is best known for his commentary The Epistle to the Romans, his involvement in the Confessing Church, including his authorship of the Barmen Declaration, and especially his unfinished multi-volume theological summa the Church Dogmatics. Barth's influence expanded well beyond the academic realm to mainstream culture, leading him to be featured on the cover of Time on 20 April 1962.

Anton Pilgram

Anton Pilgram 7 Anton Pilgram was a late medieval Moravian and subsequently Austrian architect and sculptor active in the area of today's Czech Republic (Moravia), Austria and western (Germany) Swabia. Pilgram is known as the sculptor of the portal of Old City Hall and St. James church in Brno and craftsman of the pulpit in St. Stephen's Cathedral, Vienna. He spent a major part of his life in Brno, Moravia.

Hans Marchwitza

Hans Marchwitza 7 Hans Marchwitza was a German writer, proletarian poet, and communist.                               

William I, German Emperor

William I, German Emperor 7 William I, or Wilhelm I, was King of Prussia from 1861 and German Emperor from 1871 until his death in 1888. A member of the House of Hohenzollern, he was the first head of state of a united Germany. He was de facto head of state of Prussia from 1858, when he became regent for his brother Frederick William IV. During the reign of his grandson Wilhelm II, he was known as Wilhelm the Great.

Ludwig Bölkow

Ludwig Bölkow 7 Ludwig Bölkow was one of the aeronautical pioneers of Germany.                                     

Julian Marchlewski

Julian Marchlewski 7 Julian Baltazar Józef Marchlewski was a Polish communist politician, revolutionary activist and publicist who served as chairman of the Provisional Polish Revolutionary Committee. He was also known under the aliases Karski and Kujawiak.

Baruch Spinoza

Baruch Spinoza 7 Baruch (de) Spinoza, also known under his Latinized pen name Benedictus de Spinoza, was a philosopher of Portuguese-Jewish origin. As a forerunner of the Age of Reason, Spinoza significantly influenced modern biblical criticism, 17th-century Rationalism, and contemporary conceptions of the self and the universe, establishing himself as one of the most important and radical philosophers of the early modern period. He was influenced by Stoicism, Maimonides, Niccolò Machiavelli, René Descartes, Thomas Hobbes, and a variety of heterodox Christian thinkers of his day.

Archduke Karl Ludwig of Austria

Archduke Karl Ludwig of Austria 7 Archduke Karl Ludwig Josef Maria of Austria was the younger brother of both Franz Joseph I of Austria and Maximilian I of Mexico, and the father of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria (1863–1914), whose assassination ignited World War I. His grandson was the last emperor of Austria, Charles I.

Fyodor Dostoevsky

Fyodor Dostoevsky 7 Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoevsky, sometimes transliterated as Dostoyevsky, was a Russian novelist, short story writer, essayist and journalist. Numerous literary critics regard him as one of the greatest novelists in all of world literature, as many of his works are considered highly influential masterpieces.

Ferdinand Magellan

Ferdinand Magellan 7 Ferdinand Magellan was a Portuguese explorer best known for having planned and led the 1519 Spanish expedition to the East Indies across the Pacific Ocean to open a maritime trade route, during which he discovered the interoceanic passage thereafter bearing his name and achieved the first European navigation to Asia via the Pacific. After his death, this expedition was the first to circumnavigate the globe in 1519–22 in the service of Spain.

Egid Quirin Asam

Egid Quirin Asam 7 Egid Quirin Asam was a German plasterer, sculptor, architect, and painter. He was active during the Late Baroque and Rococo periods.

Karl-Hermann Flach

Karl-Hermann Flach 7 Karl-Hermann Flach was a German journalist of the Frankfurter Rundschau and a politician of the liberal Free Democrats (FDP).

Béla Bartók

Béla Bartók 7 Béla Viktor János Bartók was a Hungarian composer, pianist and ethnomusicologist. He is considered one of the most important composers of the 20th century; he and Franz Liszt are regarded as Hungary's greatest composers. Through his collection and analytical study of folk music, he was one of the founders of comparative musicology, which later became known as ethnomusicology.

Ignaz Günther

Ignaz Günther 7 Ignaz Günther was a German sculptor and woodcarver working in the Bavarian Rococo tradition.       

Hans-Dietrich Genscher

Hans-Dietrich Genscher 7 Hans-Dietrich Genscher was a German statesman and a member of the liberal Free Democratic Party (FDP), who served as Federal Minister of the Interior from 1969 to 1974, and as Federal Minister for Foreign Affairs and Vice Chancellor of Germany from 1974 to 1992, making him the longest-serving occupant of either post and the only person to have held one of these positions under two different Chancellors of the Federal Republic of Germany. In 1991 he was chairman of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE).

William Shakespeare

William Shakespeare 7 William Shakespeare was an English playwright, poet, and actor. He is widely regarded as the greatest writer in the English language and the world's pre-eminent dramatist. He is often called England's national poet and the "Bard of Avon". His extant works, including collaborations, consist of some 39 plays, 154 sonnets, three long narrative poems, and a few other verses, some of uncertain authorship. His plays have been translated into every major living language and are performed more often than those of any other playwright. Shakespeare remains one of the most influential writers in the English language, and his works continue to be studied and reinterpreted.

Alban Stolz

Alban Stolz 7 Alban Isidor Stolz was a German Roman Catholic theologian and popular author.                       

Friedrich Ebert Jr.

Friedrich Ebert Jr. 7 Friedrich "Fritz" Ebert Jr. was a German socialist and later Communist politician, the son of Germany's first president Friedrich Ebert.

Albert Schmidt (monk)

Albert Schmidt (monk) 7 Albert Schmidt OSB is a German Benedictine monk and presiding abbot of the Beuronese Congregation, an association of eighteen mostly German or German-speaking Benedictine monasteries and convents, headed by Beuron Abbey in the upper Danube Valley. This makes him the Congregation's highest ranking dignitary and a High Superior in church law terms.

Heinrich Kämpchen

Heinrich Kämpchen 7 Heinrich Wilhelm Kämpchen war ein deutscher Bergmann und Arbeiterdichter.                           

Joseph Wendel

Joseph Wendel 7 Joseph Wendel was a German Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church who served as Archbishop of Munich and Freising from 1952 until his death, and was elevated to the cardinalate in 1953 by Pope Pius XII.

Wilhelm Hoegner

Wilhelm Hoegner 7 Wilhelm Johann Harald Hoegner was the second Bavarian minister-president after World War II, and the father of the Bavarian constitution. He has been the only Social Democrat to hold this office since 1920.


Voltaire 7 François-Marie Arouet, known by his nom de plume M. de Voltaire, was a French Enlightenment writer, philosopher (philosophe), satirist, and historian. Famous for his wit and his criticism of Christianity and of slavery, Voltaire was an advocate of freedom of speech, freedom of religion, and separation of church and state.

Petra Kelly

Petra Kelly 7 Petra Karin Kelly was a German Green politician and ecofeminist activist. She was a founding member of the German Green Party, the first Green party to rise to prominence both nationally in Germany and worldwide. In 1982, she was awarded the Right Livelihood Award for "forging and implementing a new vision uniting ecological concerns with disarmament, social justice and human rights."

Erna Scheffler

Erna Scheffler 7 Erna Scheffler, born Friedental and later Haßlacher was a German senior judge.                     

Franz Joseph I of Austria

Franz Joseph I of Austria 7 Franz Joseph I or Francis Joseph I was Emperor of Austria, King of Hungary, and the ruler of the other states of the Habsburg monarchy from 2 December 1848 until his death in 1916. In the early part of his reign, his realms and territories were referred to as the Austrian Empire, but were reconstituted as the dual monarchy of the Austro-Hungarian Empire in 1867. From 1 May 1850 to 24 August 1866, he was also president of the German Confederation.

Gerhard Marcks

Gerhard Marcks 7 Gerhard Marcks was a German artist, known primarily as a sculptor, but who is also known for his drawings, woodcuts, lithographs and ceramics.

Adolf, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp

Adolf, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp 7 Adolf of Denmark or Adolf of Holstein-Gottorp was the first Duke of Holstein-Gottorp from the line of Holstein-Gottorp of the House of Oldenburg.

Henry Ford

Henry Ford 7 Henry Ford was an American industrialist and business magnate. As the founder of the Ford Motor Company he is credited as a pioneer in making automobiles affordable for middle-class Americans through the system that came to be known as Fordism. In 1911 he was awarded a patent for the transmission mechanism that would be used in the Model T and other automobiles.

Otto Buchwitz

Otto Buchwitz 7 Otto Buchwitz war ein deutscher Politiker (SPD/SED).                                               

Friedrich Friesen

Friedrich Friesen 7 Karl Friedrich Friesen was a German gymnast and soldier, one of the principal promoters of gymnastics in Germany.

René Schickele

René Schickele 7 René Schickele was a German-French writer, essayist and translator.                                 

Fritz Husemann

Fritz Husemann 7 Friedrich Ernst Husemann was a German trade union leader and politician.                           

Otfried Preußler

Otfried Preußler 7 Otfried Preußler was a German children's books author. More than 50 million copies of his books have been sold worldwide and they have been translated into 55 languages. His best-known works are The Robber Hotzenplotz and The Satanic Mill (Krabat).

Paul Bonatz

Paul Bonatz 7 Paul Bonatz was a German architect, member of the Stuttgart School and professor at the technical university in that city during part of World War II, and from 1954 until his death. He worked in many styles, but most often in a simplified neo-Romanesque, and designed important public buildings both in the Weimar Republic and under the Third Reich, including major bridges for the new autobahns. In 1943 he designed several buildings in Turkey, returning to Stuttgart in 1954.

Vincent Pallotti

Vincent Pallotti 7 Vincent Pallotti was an Italian cleric and a saint. Born in Rome, he was the founder of the Society of the Catholic Apostolate later to be known as the "Pious Society of Missions". The original name was restored in 1947. He is buried in the church of San Salvatore in Onda. He is considered the forerunner of Catholic Action. His feast day is 22 January.

Neil Armstrong

Neil Armstrong 7 Neil Alden Armstrong was an American astronaut and aeronautical engineer who in 1969 became the first person to walk on the Moon. He was also a naval aviator, test pilot, and university professor.

Johann Albrecht Bengel

Johann Albrecht Bengel 7 Johann Albrecht Bengel, also known as Bengelius, was a Lutheran pietist clergyman and Greek-language scholar known for his edition of the Greek New Testament and his commentaries on it.

Édouard Theis

Édouard Theis 7 Édouard Theis est un pasteur protestant français, qui durant la Seconde Guerre mondiale fut actif dans la Résistance au Chambon-sur-Lignon, où il sauve de nombreux Juifs. Il reçoit en 1981 la médaille de Juste parmi les nations de Yad Vashem.

Christian Mali

Christian Mali 7 Christian Friedrich Mali was a German painter and art professor. His older brother, Johannes Cornelis Jacobus Mali (1828–1865) was also a painter.

Heinrich Hoffmann (photographer)

Heinrich Hoffmann (photographer) 7 Heinrich Hoffmann was Adolf Hitler's official photographer, and a Nazi politician and publisher, who was a member of Hitler's intimate circle. Hoffmann's photographs were a significant part of Hitler's propaganda campaign to present himself and the Nazi Party as a significant mass phenomenon. He received royalties from all uses of Hitler's image, which made him a millionaire over the course of Hitler's rule. After the Second World War he was tried and sentenced to 10 years in prison for war profiteering. He was classified by the Allies' Art Looting Investigators to be a "major offender" in Nazi art plundering of Jews, as both art dealer and collector and his art collection, which contained many artworks looted from Jews, was ordered confiscated by the Allies.

Ida Kerkovius

Ida Kerkovius 7 Ida Kerkovius (1879–1970) was a Baltic German painter and weaver from Latvia.                       

Karl Herxheimer

Karl Herxheimer 7 Karl Herxheimer was a German-Jewish dermatologist who was a native of Wiesbaden.                   

Theophil Wurm

Theophil Wurm 7 Theophil Heinrich Wurm was the son of a pastor and was a leader in the German Protestant Church in the early twentieth century.

Willi Baumeister

Willi Baumeister 7 Willi Baumeister was a German painter, scenic designer, art professor, and typographer. His work was part of the art competitions at the 1928 Summer Olympics and the 1932 Summer Olympics.

Carl Vinnen

Carl Vinnen 6 Carl Vinnen was a German landscape painter. He was also a writer, on various topics of local interest, under the pseudonym "Johann Heinrich Fischbeck".

Simon Dach

Simon Dach 6 Simon Dach was a German lyrical poet and hymnwriter, born in Memel, Duchy of Prussia.               

Andreas von Schubert

Andreas von Schubert 6 Andreas Friedrich Hans von Schubert ist ein deutscher Maschinenbauingenieur und Wirtschaftswissenschaftler.

Alfons Goppel

Alfons Goppel 6 Alfons Goppel was a German politician of the CSU party and Prime Minister of Bavaria (1962–1978).   

Amalie Dietrich

Amalie Dietrich 6 Koncordie Amalie Dietrich was a German naturalist who was best known for her work in Australia from 1863 to 1872, collecting specimens for the Museum Godeffroy in Hamburg.

Nikola Tesla

Nikola Tesla 6 Nikola Tesla was a Serbian-American inventor, electrical engineer, mechanical engineer, and futurist. He is known for his contributions to the design of the modern alternating current (AC) electricity supply system.

Theodor Fischer

Theodor Fischer 6 Theodor Fischer was a German architect and teacher.                                                 

Edo Wiemken der Jüngere

Edo Wiemken der Jüngere 6 Edo Wiemken der Jüngere war ein Ostfriesischer Häuptling und der letzte männliche Regent der Herrschaft Jever aus dem Häuptlingsgeschlecht der Wiemkens. Er wurde rund 50 Jahre nach seinem Tod von seiner Tochter und Nachfolgerin in der Regentschaft, Maria von Jever, in einem prächtigen Grabmal in der Stadtkirche in Jever beigesetzt.

Gustav Meyer

Gustav Meyer 6 Gustav Meyer was a German linguist and Indo-European scholar, considered to be one of the most important Albanologists of his time, most importantly by proving that the Albanian language belongs to the Indo-European family.

Martha Brautzsch

Martha Brautzsch 6 Martha Brautzsch, geborene Ganzer war eine Funktionärin der KPD in der sowjetischen Besatzungszone. Sie wurde von einem marodierenden sowjetischen Soldaten ermordet.

Max Reimann

Max Reimann 6 Max Reimann was a German communist politician and member of the Bundestag.                         

Korl Biegemann

Korl Biegemann 6 Korl Biegemann, eigentlich Karl Ulrich Volkhausen, war ein lippischer Arzt und Mundartdichter.     

Franz Jakob Freystädtler

Franz Jakob Freystädtler 6 Franz Jakob Freystädtler, auch Freystädter oder Freystadler war ein österreichischer Komponist und Klavierpädagoge. Er war ein Schüler Wolfgang Amadeus Mozarts.

Lilly Reich

Lilly Reich 6 Lilly Reich was a German designer of textiles, furniture, interiors, and exhibition spaces. She was a close collaborator with Ludwig Mies van der Rohe for more than ten years during the Weimar period from 1925 until his emigration to the U.S. in 1938. Reich was an important figure in the early Modern Movement in architecture and design. Her fame was posthumous, as the significance of her contribution to the work of Mies van der Rohe and others with whom she collaborated with only became clear through the research of later historians of the field.

Ferdinand Dirichs

Ferdinand Dirichs 6 Ferdinand Dirichs was a German Roman Catholic bishop.                                               

Saint Cecilia

Saint Cecilia 6 Saint Cecilia, also spelled Cecelia, was a Roman virgin martyr and is venerated in Catholic, Orthodox, Anglican, and some Lutheran churches, such as the Church of Sweden. She became the patroness of music and musicians, it being written that, as the musicians played at her wedding, Cecilia "sang in her heart to the Lord". Musical compositions are dedicated to her, and her feast, on 22 November, is the occasion of concerts and musical festivals. She is also known as Cecilia of Rome.

Arnold Zweig

Arnold Zweig 6 Arnold Zweig was a German Jewish writer, pacifist and socialist. He is best known for his six-part cycle on World War I.

Max Reichpietsch

Max Reichpietsch 6 Max Reichpietsch was a German sailor executed in 1917 for socialist agitation in the Imperial German Navy.

Jann Berghaus

Jann Berghaus 6 Jann Janssen Berghaus war ein liberaler ostfriesischer Politiker. Er war von 1922 bis 1932 Regierungspräsident des preußischen Regierungsbezirks Aurich und nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg Präsident der Ostfriesischen Landschaft.

Karl Kaufmann

Karl Kaufmann 6 Karl Kaufmann was a German politician who served as a Nazi Party Gauleiter from 1925 to 1945 and as the Reichsstatthalter of Hamburg from 1933 to 1945.

Konrad Beste

Konrad Beste 6 Konrad Beste war ein deutscher Schriftsteller, der neben Lyrik, Erzählungen und Hörspielen vor allem Romane schrieb.

Albert Funk (Politiker)

Albert Funk (Politiker) 6 Albert Albin Funk war ein deutscher Politiker und Widerstandskämpfer.                               

Anna Siemsen

Anna Siemsen 6 Anna Marie Siemsen war eine deutsche Pädagogin, Politikerin, Autorin und Pazifistin. Sie war von 1928 bis 1930 Mitglied des Reichstages.

Friedrich Fischer

Friedrich Fischer 6 Friedrich Fischer from Schweinfurt, Germany is considered the father of the modern ball bearing, having invented the process for milling standard bearings in 1883.

Ulrich von Hassell

Ulrich von Hassell 6 Christian August Ulrich von Hassell was a German diplomat during World War II. A member of the German Resistance against German dictator Adolf Hitler, Hassell unsuccessfully proposed to the British that the resistance would overthrow Hitler if Germany kept all of its territorial conquests. He was executed in the aftermath of the failed 20 July plot.

Armin Knab

Armin Knab 6 Armin Knab was a German composer and musical writer.                                               

Josef Gockeln

Josef Gockeln 6 Josef Gockeln was a German politician of the Christian Democratic Union (CDU) and former member of the German Bundestag.

Gustave Whitehead

Gustave Whitehead 6 Gustave Albin Whitehead was an aviation pioneer who emigrated from Germany to the United States where he designed and built gliders, flying machines, and engines between 1897 and 1915. Controversy surrounds published accounts and Whitehead's own claims that he flew a powered machine successfully several times in 1901 and 1902, predating the first flights by the Wright Brothers in 1903.

Karl Jatho

Karl Jatho 6 Karl Jatho was a German inventor and aviation pioneer, performer and public servant of the city of Hanover.

Anni Albers

Anni Albers 6 Anni Albers was a German textile artist and printmaker credited with blurring the lines between traditional craft and art.Besides surface qualities, such as rough and smooth, dull and shiny, hard and soft, textiles also includes colour, and, as the dominating element, texture, which is the result of the construction of weaves. Like any craft it may end in producing useful objects, or it may rise to the level of art.

Magnus of Füssen

Magnus of Füssen 6 Magnus of Füssen, otherwise Magnoald or Mang, was a missionary saint in southern Germany, also known as the Apostle of the Allgäu. He is believed to have been a contemporary either of Gall or of Boniface and is venerated as the founder of St. Mang's Abbey, Füssen.

Karl Ernst

Karl Ernst 6 Karl Ernst was an SA-Gruppenführer who, from March 1933, was the SA Commander in Berlin. Prior to joining the Nazi Party, he had been a hotel bellhop and a bouncer at gay nightclubs. He was one of the chief participants in the extrajudicial execution of Albrecht Höhler. Ernst was himself extrajudicially executed in the Night of the Long Knives.

Karl Böhm

Karl Böhm 6 Karl August Leopold Böhm was an Austrian conductor. He was best known for his performances of the music of Mozart, Wagner, and Richard Strauss.

Ludwig Pfau

Ludwig Pfau 6 Karl Ludwig Pfau was a German poet, journalist, and revolutionary. He was born in Heilbronn and died, aged 72, in Stuttgart.

Henri Arnaud (pastor)

Henri Arnaud (pastor) 6 Henri Arnaud was a pastor of the Waldensians in Piedmont, who turned soldier in order to protect his co-religionists from persecution at the hands of Victor Amadeus II the Duke of Savoy. When the Waldensians were exiled a second time, Arnaud accompanied them in their exile to Schönenberg, and continued to act as their pastor until his death.

Anna of Oldenburg

Anna of Oldenburg 6 Anna of Oldenburg was a Countess consort of East Frisia as the spouse of Count Enno II of East Frisia. She was the Regent of East Frisia in 1542–1561 as the guardian for her minor sons, Johan II and Edzard II. Her reign lasted until 1561 and was generally supported by the Estates.

Gottfried Schenker

Gottfried Schenker 6 Gottfried Schenker was the founder of Schenker AG.                                                 

Friedrich Wilhelm Prinz von Hohenzollern

Friedrich Wilhelm Prinz von Hohenzollern 6 Friedrich Wilhelm Ferdinand Joseph Maria Manuel Georg Meinrad Fidelis Benedikt Michael Hubert Fürst von Hohenzollern was the head of the House of Hohenzollern for over 45 years.

Franz Sigel

Franz Sigel 6 Franz Sigel was a German American military officer, revolutionary and immigrant to the United States who was a teacher, newspaperman, politician, and served as a Union major general in the American Civil War. His ability to recruit German-speaking immigrants to the Union armies received the approval of President Abraham Lincoln, but he was strongly disliked by General-in-Chief Henry Halleck.

Saint Eligius

Saint Eligius 6 Eligius, venerated as Saint Eligius, was a Frankish goldsmith, courtier, and bishop who was chief counsellor to Dagobert I and later Bishop of Noyon–Tournai. His deeds were recorded in Vita Sancti Eligii, written by his friend Audoin of Rouen.

Peter Strasser

Peter Strasser 6 Peter Strasser was chief commander of German Imperial Navy Zeppelins during World War I, the main force operating bombing campaigns from 1915 to 1917. He was killed when flying the German Empire's last airship raid over the United Kingdom.

Jean-Jacques Rousseau

Jean-Jacques Rousseau 6 Jean-Jacques Rousseau was a Genevan philosopher (philosophe), writer, and composer. His political philosophy influenced the progress of the Age of Enlightenment throughout Europe, as well as aspects of the French Revolution and the development of modern political, economic, and educational thought.

Johannes Dürrner

Johannes Dürrner 6 Johannes Dürrner, eigentlich Johann Rupprecht Dürrner, war ein deutscher Komponist und Musikdirektor.


Agathius 6 Saint Acacius, also known as Agathius of Byzantium, Achatius, or Agathonas to Christian tradition, was a Cappadocian Greek centurion of the imperial army, martyred around 304. A church existed in Constantinople associated with Acacius and possibly named after him: the Church of St Acacius.

Pliny the Elder

Pliny the Elder 6 Gaius Plinius Secundus, called Pliny the Elder, was a Roman author, naturalist, natural philosopher, naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire, and a friend of the emperor Vespasian. He wrote the encyclopedic Naturalis Historia, which became an editorial model for encyclopedias. He spent most of his spare time studying, writing, and investigating natural and geographic phenomena in the field.

Käthe Niederkirchner

Käthe Niederkirchner 6 Käthe Niederkirchner was a German Communist resistance activist who was fatally shot by Nazi paramilitaries on the night of 27/28 September 1944 at Ravensbrück concentration camp.

Friedrich Spee

Friedrich Spee 6 Friedrich Spee was a German Jesuit priest, professor, and poet, most well known as a forceful opponent of witch trials and one who was an insider writing from the epicenter of the European witch-phobia. Spee argued strongly against the use of torture, and as an eyewitness he gathered a book full of details regarding its cruelty and unreliability. He wrote, "Torture has the power to create witches where none exist."

Wilhelmine Siefkes

Wilhelmine Siefkes 6 Wilhelmine Siefkes, Pseudonym Wilmke Anners, war eine deutsche Schriftstellerin vornehmlich niederdeutscher Sprache und galt als christliche soziale Demokratin aus Ostfriesland. Sie war zudem literarische Übersetzerin aus dem Niederländischen und Westfriesischen. Heute ist der wichtigste ostfriesische Preis für Verdienste um die plattdeutsche Sprache (Keerlke-Preis) nach Siefkes Romanfigur „Keerlke“ benannt.

Rudolf Clausius

Rudolf Clausius 6 Rudolf Julius Emanuel Clausius was a German physicist and mathematician and is considered one of the central founding fathers of the science of thermodynamics. By his restatement of Sadi Carnot's principle known as the Carnot cycle, he gave the theory of heat a truer and sounder basis. His most important paper, "On the Moving Force of Heat", published in 1850, first stated the basic ideas of the second law of thermodynamics. In 1865 he introduced the concept of entropy. In 1870 he introduced the virial theorem, which applied to heat.

Margarete von Wrangell

Margarete von Wrangell 6 Margarethe Mathilde von Wrangell, after 1928 Princess Andronikow, née Baroness von Wrangell was a Baltic German agricultural chemist and the first female full professor at a German university.

Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck

Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck 6 Paul Emil von Lettow-Vorbeck, popularly known as the Lion of Africa, was a general in the Imperial German Army and the commander of its forces in the German East Africa campaign. For four years, with a force of about 14,000, he held in check a much larger force of 300,000 British, Indian, Belgian, and Portuguese troops. He is known for never being defeated or captured in battle.

Lina Sommer

Lina Sommer 6 Karolina „Lina“ Sommer war eine pfälzische Kinderbuchautorin und Mundartdichterin. Zu ihren Lebzeiten war sie eine bekannte Autorin in ganz Deutschland und im deutschsprachigen Ausland.

Freda Wuesthoff

Freda Wuesthoff 6 Freda Wuesthoff war eine deutsche Patentanwältin und Pazifistin. Sie war eine der Mitbegründerinnen der organisierten Friedensbewegung in Deutschland.

Alcide De Gasperi

Alcide De Gasperi 6 Alcide Amedeo Francesco De Gasperi was an Italian politician who founded the Christian Democracy party and served as prime minister of Italy in eight successive coalition governments from 1945 to 1953.

Mark the Evangelist

Mark the Evangelist 6 Mark the Evangelist also known as John Mark or Saint Mark, is the person who is traditionally ascribed to be the author of the Gospel of Mark. Modern Bible scholars have concluded that the Gospel of Mark was written by an anonymous author rather than an identifiable historical figure. According to Church tradition, Mark founded the episcopal see of Alexandria, which was one of the five most important sees of early Christianity. His feast day is celebrated on April 25, and his symbol is the winged lion.

Paul Fleming (poet)

Paul Fleming (poet) 6 Paul Fleming was a German physician and poet.                                                       

Agnes Pockels

Agnes Pockels 6 Agnes Luise Wilhelmine Pockels was a German chemist whose research was fundamental in establishing the modern discipline known as surface science, which describes the properties of liquid and solid surfaces and interfaces.

Lord Kelvin

Lord Kelvin 6 William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin, was a British mathematician, mathematical physicist and engineer born in Belfast. He was the professor of Natural Philosophy at the University of Glasgow for 53 years, where he undertook significant research and mathematical analysis of electricity, the formulation of the first and second laws of thermodynamics, and contributed significantly to unifying physics, which was then in its infancy of development as an emerging academic discipline. He received the Royal Society's Copley Medal in 1883 and served as its president from 1890 to 1895. In 1892, he became the first British scientist to be elevated to the House of Lords.

August Brust

August Brust 6 August Brust war Gründer und Vorsitzender des christlichen Bergarbeiterverbandes.                   

Karl Drais

Karl Drais 6 Karl Freiherr von Drais was a noble German forest official and significant inventor in the Biedermeier period. He was born and died in Karlsruhe. He is seen as "the father of the bicycle".


Archimedes 6 Archimedes of Syracuse was an Ancient Greek mathematician, physicist, engineer, astronomer, and inventor from the ancient city of Syracuse in Sicily. Although few details of his life are known, he is regarded as one of the leading scientists in classical antiquity. Considered the greatest mathematician of ancient history, and one of the greatest of all time, Archimedes anticipated modern calculus and analysis by applying the concept of the infinitely small and the method of exhaustion to derive and rigorously prove a range of geometrical theorems. These include the area of a circle, the surface area and volume of a sphere, the area of an ellipse, the area under a parabola, the volume of a segment of a paraboloid of revolution, the volume of a segment of a hyperboloid of revolution, and the area of a spiral.

Annemarie Renger

Annemarie Renger 6 Annemarie Renger was a German politician for the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD).         

Otto Schmidt

Otto Schmidt 6 Otto Yulyevich Shmidt, better known as Otto Schmidt, was a Soviet scientist, mathematician, astronomer, geophysicist, statesman, and academician.

Charles Martel

Charles Martel 6 Charles Martel, Martel being a sobriquet in Old French for "The Hammer", was a Frankish political and military leader who, as Duke and Prince of the Franks and Mayor of the Palace, was the de facto ruler of the Franks from 718 until his death. He was a son of the Frankish statesman Pepin of Herstal and a noblewoman named Alpaida. Charles successfully asserted his claims to power as successor to his father as the power behind the throne in Frankish politics. Continuing and building on his father's work, he restored centralized government in Francia and began the series of military campaigns that re-established the Franks as the undisputed masters of all Gaul. According to a near-contemporary source, the Liber Historiae Francorum, Charles was "a warrior who was uncommonly ... effective in battle".

Franz Joseph Emil Fischer

Franz Joseph Emil Fischer 6 Franz Joseph Emil Fischer was a German chemist. He was the founder and first director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Coal Research. He is known for the discovery of the Fischer–Tropsch process.

Franz Beer

Franz Beer 6 Franz Beer, also known as Franz Beer von Blaichten, was an Austrian architect during the Baroque period, mainly working on church buildings at monasteries in southern Germany, chiefly in Upper Swabia, and Switzerland. His son Johann Michael Beer also was an architect.

Maria von Linden

Maria von Linden 6 Maria von Linden was a German bacteriologist and zoologist.                                         

Fritz Schupp

Fritz Schupp 6 Fritz Schupp was a German architect. He was educated from 1914 to 1917 at the Universities of Karlsruhe, München and Stuttgart. Despite mostly working alone, he formed a partnership based in Essen and Berlin with Martin Kremmer. From 1949, Schupp was a lecturer at the Technical University in Hannover. Between 1920 and 1974, he built 69 factories and plants. In the Bergbauarchiv (Bochum), 17500 sketches are at the disposal of researchers. His best-known work was the Zollverein Coal Mine Industrial Complex, a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 2001.

Leo Fall

Leo Fall 6 Leopold Fall was an Austrian Kapellmeister and composer of operettas.                               

Matthäus Günther

Matthäus Günther 6 Matthäus Günther was an important German painter and artist of the Baroque and Rococo era.         

Wilhelm Ludwig

Wilhelm Ludwig 5 Wilhelm Ludwig was a German zoologist and geneticist.                                               

Heinrich Plett

Heinrich Plett 5 Heinrich Plett war ein deutscher Manager und Vorstandsvorsitzender des Wohnungsunternehmens Neue Heimat.

Princess Victoria Louise of Prussia

Princess Victoria Louise of Prussia 5 Princess Victoria Louise of Prussia was the only daughter and the last child of Wilhelm II, German Emperor, and Augusta Victoria of Schleswig-Holstein. Through her father, Victoria Louise was a great-granddaughter of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom.

Friedrich Franz

Friedrich Franz 5 Friedrich Franz was a German Bohemian physicist. He was a professor of physics and applied mathematics at the Faculty of Philosophy of University of Olomouc, where he greatly influenced his student Gregor Johann Mendel, later known as "The Father of Genetics".

Max Müller

Max Müller 5 Friedrich Max Müller was a British philologist and Orientalist of German origin. He was one of the founders of the Western academic disciplines of Indian studies and religious studies. Müller wrote both scholarly and popular works on the subject of Indology. The Sacred Books of the East, a 50-volume set of English translations, was prepared under his direction. He also promoted the idea of a Turanian family of languages.

Wilhelm Schussen

Wilhelm Schussen 5 Wilhelm Schussen, eigentlich Wilhelm Frick, war ein deutscher Schriftsteller.                       

Fritz Walter

Fritz Walter 5 Friedrich "Fritz" Walter was a German footballer who spent his entire senior career at 1. FC Kaiserslautern. He usually played as an attacking midfielder or inside forward. In his time with the Germany and West Germany national teams, he appeared in 61 games and scored 33 goals, and was the captain of the team that won the 1954 FIFA World Cup. After his career, he was named honorary captain of the Germany national team.

Melitta Bentz

Melitta Bentz 5 Amalie Auguste Melitta Bentz, born Amalie Auguste Melitta Liebscher, was a German entrepreneur who invented the paper coffee filter in 1908. She founded the company Melitta, which still operates under family control.

Maria Grollmuß

Maria Grollmuß 5 Maria Karoline Elisabeth Grollmuß was a Catholic Sorbian publicist and a socialist resistance member against the Nazi government.

Giovanni Gabrieli

Giovanni Gabrieli 5 Giovanni Gabrieli was an Italian composer and organist. He was one of the most influential musicians of his time, and represents the culmination of the style of the Venetian School, at the time of the shift from Renaissance to Baroque idioms.

Peter Henrici (mathematician)

Peter Henrici (mathematician) 5 Peter Karl Henrici was a Swiss mathematician best known for his contributions to the field of numerical analysis.

Helmut Kohl

Helmut Kohl 5 Helmut Josef Michael Kohl was a German politician who served as Chancellor of Germany from 1982 to 1998 and Leader of the Christian Democratic Union (CDU) from 1973 to 1998. Kohl's 16-year tenure is the longest of any German chancellor since Otto von Bismarck, and oversaw the end of the Cold War, the German reunification and the creation of the European Union (EU). Furthermore, Kohl's tenure of 16 years, 26 days is the longest for any democratically elected chancellor of Germany.

Paolo Ruffini

Paolo Ruffini 5 Paolo Ruffini was an Italian mathematician and philosopher.                                         


Thomasius 5 Thomasius is a surname, and may refer to:Jakob Thomasius (1622–1684), German philosopher Christian Thomasius (1655–1728), German jurist and philosopher Gottfried Thomasius (1802–1875), German theologian

Charles Alexander, Grand Duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach

Charles Alexander, Grand Duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach 5 Charles Alexander was the ruler of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach as its grand duke from 1853 until his death.

Rudolf Renner

Rudolf Renner 5 Rudolf Renner war ein deutscher Politiker (KPD).                                                   

Agnes Bernauer

Agnes Bernauer 5 Agnes Bernauer was the mistress and perhaps also the first wife of Albert, later Albert III, Duke of Bavaria. Because his father, Ernest, ruling Duke of Bavaria at the time, considered this liaison with a commoner unbefitting his son's social standing, he clashed with his son over the matter and finally arranged to have Agnes condemned for witchcraft and drowned in the Danube in 1435. Her life and death have been depicted in numerous literary works, the most well known being Friedrich Hebbel's tragedy of the same name and the folk musical Die Bernauerin by the composer Carl Orff.

Ida Ehre

Ida Ehre 5 Ida Ehre was an Austrian-German actor, theatre director, and manager.                               

Hans Grundig

Hans Grundig 5 Hans Grundig was a German painter and graphic artist associated with the New Objectivity movement. 

Karl Ziegler

Karl Ziegler 5 Karl Waldemar Ziegler was a German chemist who won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1963, with Giulio Natta, for work on polymers. The Nobel Committee recognized his "excellent work on organometallic compounds [which]...led to new polymerization reactions and ... paved the way for new and highly useful industrial processes". He is also known for his work involving free-radicals, many-membered rings, and organometallic compounds, as well as the development of Ziegler–Natta catalyst. One of many awards Ziegler received was the Werner von Siemens Ring in 1960 jointly with Otto Bayer and Walter Reppe, for expanding the scientific knowledge of and the technical development of new synthetic materials.

Frederick II, Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel

Frederick II, Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel 5 Frederick II was Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel from 1760 to 1785. He ruled as an enlightened despot, and raised money by renting soldiers to Great Britain to help fight the American Revolutionary War. He combined Enlightenment ideas with Christian values, cameralist plans for central control of the economy, and a militaristic approach toward international diplomacy.


Homer 5 Homer was a Greek poet who is credited as the author of the Iliad and the Odyssey, two epic poems that are foundational works of ancient Greek literature. Homer is considered one of the most revered and influential authors in history.

Émile Zola

Émile Zola 5 Émile Édouard Charles Antoine Zola was a French novelist, journalist, playwright, the best-known practitioner of the literary school of naturalism, and an important contributor to the development of theatrical naturalism. He was a major figure in the political liberalization of France and in the exoneration of the falsely accused and convicted army officer Alfred Dreyfus, which is encapsulated in his renowned newspaper opinion headlined J'Accuse…!  Zola was nominated for the first and second Nobel Prize in Literature in 1901 and 1902.

Hermann Lange

Hermann Lange 5 Hermann Lange was a Roman Catholic priest and martyr of the Nazi period in Germany. He was guillotined in a Hamburg prison by the Nazi authorities in November 1943, along with the three other Lübeck martyrs. Lange was beatified by Pope Benedict XVI in 2011.

Simón Bolívar

Simón Bolívar 5 Simón José Antonio de la Santísima Trinidad Bolívar Palacios Ponte y Blanco was a Venezuelan military and political leader who led what are currently the countries of Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, Peru, Panama, and Bolivia to independence from the Spanish Empire. He is known colloquially as El Libertador, or the Liberator of America.

Fritz Winter

Fritz Winter 5 Fritz Winter was a German painter of the postwar period best known for his abstract works in the Art Informel style.

Nicholas of Flüe

Nicholas of Flüe 5 Nicholas of Flüe was a Swiss hermit and ascetic who is the patron saint of Switzerland. He is sometimes invoked as Brother Klaus. A farmer, military leader, member of the assembly, councillor, judge and mystic, he was respected as a man of complete moral integrity. He is known for having fasted for over twenty years. Brother Klaus's counsel to the Diet of Stans (1481) helped prevent war between the Swiss cantons.

James Cook

James Cook 5 Captain James Cook was a British explorer, cartographer and naval officer famous for his three voyages between 1768 and 1779 in the Pacific Ocean and to New Zealand and Australia in particular. He made detailed maps of Newfoundland prior to making three voyages to the Pacific, during which he achieved the first recorded European contact with the eastern coastline of Australia and the Hawaiian Islands and the first recorded circumnavigation of New Zealand.

Vincent de Paul

Vincent de Paul 5 Vincent de Paul, CM, commonly known as Saint Vincent de Paul, was an Occitan French Catholic priest who dedicated himself to serving the poor.

Anita Augspurg

Anita Augspurg 5 Anita Theodora Johanna Sophie Augspurg was a German jurist, actress, writer, activist of the radical feminist movement and a pacifist.

Wenzel Jaksch

Wenzel Jaksch 5 Wenzel Jaksch was a Sudeten German Social Democrat politician and the president of the Federation of Expellees in 1964 to 1966.

Tadeusz Kościuszko

Tadeusz Kościuszko 5 Andrzej Tadeusz Bonawentura Kościuszko was a Polish military engineer, statesman, and military leader who then became a national hero in Poland, the United States, and Belarus. He fought in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth's struggles against Russia and Prussia, and on the U.S. side in the American Revolutionary War. As Supreme Commander of the Polish National Armed Forces, he led the 1794 Kościuszko Uprising.

Claire Waldoff

Claire Waldoff 5 Claire Waldoff, born Clara Wortmann, was a German singer. She was a famous kabarett singer and entertainer in Berlin during the 1910s to the 1930s, chiefly known for performing ironic songs in the Berlin dialect and with lesbian undertones and themes.

Matthäus Merian the Elder

Matthäus Merian the Elder 5 Matthäus Merian der Ältere was a Swiss-born engraver who worked in Frankfurt, Germany for most of his career, where he also ran a publishing house. He was a member of the patrician Basel Merian family.

Albrecht Achilles

Albrecht Achilles 5 Albrecht Achilles may refer to:Albrecht III Achilles, Elector of Brandenburg (1414–1486) Albrecht Achilles (Korvettenkapitän) (1914–1943), U-boat commander

Charles Dickens

Charles Dickens 5 Charles John Huffam Dickens was an English novelist and social critic who created some of the world's best-known fictional characters, and is regarded by many as the greatest novelist of the Victorian era. His works enjoyed unprecedented popularity during his lifetime and, by the 20th century, critics and scholars had recognised him as a literary genius. His novels and short stories are widely read today.

Rudi Arndt

Rudi Arndt 5 Rudi Arndt was a German politician of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD). He served in several positions in the Hesse state government, and as the Mayor of Frankfurt between 1972 and 1977. At different points in his political career he was a member of the Landtag of Hesse and the European Parliament as well as the Frankfurt City Council.

Agnes Karll

Agnes Karll 5 Agnes Caroline Pauline Karll was a German nurse and a nursing reformer. She served as the third president of the International Council of Nurses from 1909 to 1912, and was an honorary member of the Association of Head Nurses in Great Britain and Ireland.

Arnold III, Count of Bentheim-Steinfurt-Tecklenburg-Limburg

Arnold III, Count of Bentheim-Steinfurt-Tecklenburg-Limburg 5 Arnold III of Bentheim-Tecklenburg-Steinfurt-Limburg was a German nobleman. He was Count of Bentheim, Tecklenburg and Steinfurt, and jure uxoris Count of Limburg. He ruled as Arnold IV in Bentheim and Tecklenburg, and as Arnold II in Steinfurt. In Limburg, he was the first Count named Arnold and hence just the name distinctive.

Ludwig Frank

Ludwig Frank 5 Ludwig Frank was a German lawyer and politician (SPD). He represented his party in the Baden Ständeversammlung in Karlsruhe between 1905 and 1914, as well as in the Imperial Parliament (Reichstag) in Berlin between 1907 and 1914.

Theodor von Cramer-Klett

Theodor von Cramer-Klett 5 Theodor Freiherr von Cramer-Klett was a German entrepreneur and banker.                             

Julius Theodor Schmidt

Julius Theodor Schmidt 5 Julius Theodor Schmidt war ein deutscher Politiker, Mitglied der Frankfurter Nationalversammlung sowie Bürgermeister von Wurzen.

Gustav Radbruch

Gustav Radbruch 5 Gustav Radbruch was a German legal scholar and politician. He served as Minister of Justice of Germany during the early Weimar period. Radbruch is also regarded as one of the most influential legal philosophers of the 20th century.

Bernhard Winter

Bernhard Winter 5 Bernhard Winter war ein deutscher Maler, Graphiker und Fotograf, der vor allem für den Raum Oldenburg bedeutend ist.

Maria Terwiel

Maria Terwiel 5 Maria "Mimi" Terwiel was a German resistance fighter against the Nazi regime. She was active in a group in Berlin that wrote and distributed anti-Nazi and anti-war appeals. As part of what they conceived as a broader action against a collection of anti-fascist resistance groups in Germany and occupied Europe that the Abwehr called the Red Orchestra, in September 1942 the Gestapo arrested Terwiel along with her fiancée Helmut Himpel. Among the leaflets and pamphlets they had copied and distributed for the group were the July and August 1941 sermons of Clemens August Graf von Galen which denounced the regime's Aktion T4 programme of involuntary euthanasia.

Ulrich II (bishop of Passau)

Ulrich II (bishop of Passau) 5 Ulrich II was the 34th Bishop of Passau from 1215 and the first prince-bishop from 1217. The Bischof-Ulrich-Straße in Passau is named after him.

Julius Fučík (journalist)

Julius Fučík (journalist) 5 Julius Fučík was a Czech journalist, critic, writer, and active member of Communist Party of Czechoslovakia. For his part at the forefront of the anti-Nazi resistance during the Second World War, he was imprisoned and tortured by the Gestapo in Prague, and executed in Berlin. While in prison, Fučík recorded his interrogation experiences on small pieces of paper, which were smuggled out and published after the war as Notes from the Gallows. The book established Fučík as a symbol of resistance to oppression, as well as an icon of communist propaganda.

Heinrich Rau

Heinrich Rau 5 Heinrich Gottlob "Heiner" Rau was a German communist politician during the time of the Weimar Republic; subsequently, during the Spanish Civil War, he was a leading member of the International Brigades and after World War II a leading East German statesman.

Ernst Alban

Ernst Alban 5 Johann Ernst Heinrich Alban war ein deutscher Chirurg und Augenarzt. Berühmt wurde er als Pionier des Dampfmaschinenbaus.

Victor Gollancz

Victor Gollancz 5 Sir Victor Gollancz was a British publisher and humanitarian. Gollancz was known as a supporter of left-wing politics. His loyalties shifted between liberalism and communism; he defined himself as a Christian socialist and an internationalist. He used his publishing house chiefly to promote pacifist and socialist non-fiction, and also launched the Left Book Club.

Elly Ney

Elly Ney 5 Elly Ney was a German romantic pianist who specialized in Beethoven, and was especially popular in Germany.

Eugen Kaiser

Eugen Kaiser 5 Eugen Kaiser war ein deutscher Politiker (SPD).                                                     

Jenny von Westphalen

Jenny von Westphalen 5 Johanna Bertha Julie Jenny Edle von Westphalen was a German theatre critic and political activist. She married the philosopher and political economist Karl Marx in 1843.

Heinrich Spoerl

Heinrich Spoerl 5 Heinrich Christian Johann Spoerl was a German author.                                               

Franz Weiß (Pfarrer)

Franz Weiß (Pfarrer) 5 Franz Weiß war ein katholischer Pfarrer und Widerstandskämpfer gegen den Nationalsozialismus.       

Faber-Castell family

Faber-Castell family 5 The House of Faber-Castell, originating from Stein near Nuremberg, Germany, is the name of an entrepreneurial noble family, morganatic branch of the House of Castell-Rüdenhausen, which founded the Faber-Castell AG in 1761 and the Nürnberger Versicherung in 1884. A.W. Faber, the original name of the company, is the oldest company brand in the USA.

Otto Bartning

Otto Bartning 5 Otto Bartning was a Modernist German architect, architectural theorist and teacher. In his early career he developed plans with Walter Gropius for the establishment of the Bauhaus. He was a member of Der Ring. In 1951, he was elected president of the Federation of German Architects.

Elsa Neumann

Elsa Neumann 5 Elsa Neumann was a German physicist. She was the first woman to receive a PhD in physics from the University of Berlin, in 1899.

Nelson Mandela

Nelson Mandela 5 Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela was a South African anti-apartheid activist, politician, and statesman who served as the first president of South Africa from 1994 to 1999. He was the country's first black head of state and the first elected in a fully representative democratic election. His government focused on dismantling the legacy of apartheid by fostering racial reconciliation. Ideologically an African nationalist and socialist, he served as the president of the African National Congress (ANC) party from 1991 to 1997.

Karl Schneider

Karl Schneider 5 Karl Schneider may refer to:Karl Schneider (cricketer) (1905–1928), Australian cricketer Karl Schneider (activist) (1869–1940), German ophthalmologist, activist, resistance fighter against Nazis Karl Schneider Karl Schneider, Swiss footballer Karl Max Schneider (1887–1955), East German zoologist Karl Schneider (1892–1945), German architect Karl Schneider (1884–1959), Swiss architect Karl Schneider (1916–1996), German film set designer Karl Schneider (philologist) (1912–1998), German philologist

Henry of the Palatinate

Henry of the Palatinate 5 Henry of the Palatinate was Bishop of Utrecht from 1524 to 1529, Bishop of Worms from 1523 to 1552 and Bishop of Freising from 1541 to 1552.

Albin Köbis

Albin Köbis 5 Albin Köbis was a German sailor executed in 1917 for incitement to rebellion in the Imperial German Navy.

Jürgen Ulderup

Jürgen Ulderup 5 Jürgen Ulderup war ein deutscher Unternehmer und Gründer der nach ihm benannten Dr.-Jürgen-Ulderup-Stiftung.

Friedrich Koenig

Friedrich Koenig 5 Friedrich Gottlob Koenig was a German inventor best known for his high-speed steam-powered printing press, which he built together with watchmaker Andreas Friedrich Bauer. This new style of printing press could print up to 69,000 sheets per hour, printing on both sides of the paper at the same time.

Marianne Brandt

Marianne Brandt 5 Marianne Brandt was a German painter, sculptor, photographer, metalsmith, and designer who studied at the Bauhaus art school in Weimar and later became head of the Bauhaus Metall-Werkstatt in Dessau in 1928. Today, Brandt's designs for household objects such as lamps and ashtrays are considered timeless examples of modern industrial design. Although she pursued painting early in life and attended a private art school and the Grand Ducal College of Art in Weimar from 1912-1917, where she produced many works in the Expressionists style and also studied sculpture, the artist is best known for her sleek and elegant industrial designs.Brandt also worked with photography at the Bauhaus, taking photographs that featured unusual angles—in particular, self-portraits—and disorienting and distorting reflections in glass and metal surfaces.She worked as head of the design department of the company Ruppelwerk Metallwarenfabrik GmbH in Gotha until 1932. In 1949, she worked at the University of Applied Arts until 1954. In the year, 1954 she also supervised the exhibition, The German applied art of the GDR) in Beijing and Shanghai in 1953-54. She also created photomontages.

Levi Strauss

Levi Strauss 5 Levi Strauss was a German-born American businessman who founded the first company to manufacture blue jeans. His firm of Levi Strauss & Co. (Levi's) began in 1853 in San Francisco, California.

Hermann Gebauer (Unternehmer)

Hermann Gebauer (Unternehmer) 5 Hermann Gebauer war ein deutscher Unternehmer. Er gilt als Begründer der Textilfirma MEWA.         

Otto Schlag

Otto Schlag 5 Otto Schlag war ein kommunistischer Politiker.                                                     

Wilhelm Fischer (politician)

Wilhelm Fischer (politician) 5 Wilhelm "Willy" Fischer was a German politician from the Social Democratic Party (SPD) and a member of the German Bundestag.

Paul-Henri Spaak

Paul-Henri Spaak 5 Paul-Henri Charles Spaak was an influential Belgian Socialist politician, diplomat and statesman. Along with Robert Schuman, Alcide De Gasperi and Konrad Adenauer he was a leader in the formation of the institutions that evolved into the European Union.

Jeanette Wolff

Jeanette Wolff 5 Jeanette Wolff, geborene Cohen war eine deutsche Politikerin der SPD.                               

Jakob Schegk

Jakob Schegk 5 Jakob Schegk was a polymath German Aristotelian philosopher and academic physician.                 

Dorothea Viehmann

Dorothea Viehmann 5 Dorothea Viehmann was a German storyteller. Her stories were an important source for the fairy tales collected by the Brothers Grimm. Most of Dorothea Viehmann's tales were published in the second volume of Grimms' Fairy Tales.

Adolf Wagner

Adolf Wagner 5 Adolf Wagner was a Nazi Party official and politician who served as the Party's Gauleiter in Munich and as the powerful Interior Minister of Bavaria throughout most of the Third Reich.

Wright brothers

Wright brothers 5 The Wright brothers, Orville Wright and Wilbur Wright, were American aviation pioneers generally credited with inventing, building, and flying the world's first successful airplane. They made the first controlled, sustained flight of an engine-powered, heavier-than-air aircraft with the Wright Flyer on December 17, 1903, four miles (6 km) south of Kitty Hawk, North Carolina, at what is now known as Kill Devil Hills. In 1904 the Wright brothers developed the Wright Flyer II, which made longer-duration flights including the first circle, followed in 1905 by the first truly practical fixed-wing aircraft, the Wright Flyer III.

Eduard Müller

Eduard Müller 5 Eduard Müller may refer to:Eduard Müller (philologist) (1804–1875), German gymnasium director Eduard Müller (1818–1895), German priest, member of the German Reichstag, co-founder of the German Catholic Centre Party Eduard Müller (sculptor) (1828–1895), German sculptor Eduard Müller (1848–1919), member of the Federal Council, President of the Confederation Eduard Müller (internist) (1876–1928), German internist and neurologist Eduard Müller (martyr) (1911–1943), German Catholic priest and anti-Nazi Lübeck martyr Eduard Müller, Swiss Olympic skier Eduard Müller, Minister of Finance

Herzog Ernst

Herzog Ernst 5 Herzog Ernst is a German epic from the early high Middle Ages, first written down by an anonymous author from the Rhine region.

Nikolaus Becker

Nikolaus Becker 5 Nikolaus Becker was a German lawyer and writer. His one poem of note was the 1840 "Rheinlied" which was set to music over 70 times, the most famous setting being Die Wacht am Rhein.

Hermann Joseph von Steinfeld

Hermann Joseph von Steinfeld 5 Hermann Joseph, was a German Premonstratensian canon regular and mystic. Never formally canonized, in 1958 his status as a saint of the Roman Catholic Church was formally recognized by Pope Pius XII.

Magnus Poser

Magnus Poser 5 Magnus Poser war ein deutscher kommunistischer Widerstandskämpfer gegen den Nationalsozialismus.   

Brigitte Reimann

Brigitte Reimann 5 Brigitte Reimann was a German writer who is best known for her posthumously published novel Franziska Linkerhand.

Ernst Müller (Pfarrer)

Ernst Müller (Pfarrer) 5 Ernst Albrecht Müller war ein Schweizer evangelischer Geistlicher und Bühnenautor in Berndeutsch.   

Andreas Paul Weber

Andreas Paul Weber 5 Andreas Paul Weber was a German lithographer and painter.                                           

Franz Schneider

Franz Schneider 5 Franz Schneider may refer to:Franz Schneider (engineer), Swiss engineer and aircraft designer Franz Schneider (chemist) (1812–1897), Austrian physician and chemist Franz Schneider (spy) Courier for the Soviet Red Orchestra

Konrad Wachsmann

Konrad Wachsmann 5 Konrad Wachsmann was a German Jewish modernist architect. He is notable for his contribution to the mass production of building components.

Georg Wolff (journalist)

Georg Wolff (journalist) 5 Georg Wolff was a German SS Hauptsturmführer and journalist. During the Second World War, Wolff was a Head of Division III for the Sicherheitspolizei command in Oslo. He was later a leading editor for news magazine Der Spiegel, from 1952 until his retirement in 1978. It was in this latter capacity that Wolff, along with Rudolf Augstein, conducted the 1966 interview with Martin Heidegger, "Only a God Can Save Us".

Emy Roeder

Emy Roeder 5 Emy Roeder was a modern German sculptor born in Würzburg, Germany. During the first third of the twentieth century she was one of a number of women that were associated with the German Expressionist movement of Modern art. She was the first woman to achieve Master Student of sculpture as a student at the Berlin Academy In 1937 her work was labeled Degenerate art by the Nazis. After World War II she was arrested in Italy by the Allies because she was a German citizen and then sent to an internment camp. She received the Villa Romana prize in 1936, and was awarded the Federal Cross of Merit for her life work in 1960. She died, aged 81, in Mainz.

Gustav Leutelt

Gustav Leutelt 5 Gustav Leutelt was a German Bohemian poet and writer. Most of his poetry concerned the area around his birthplace of Josefsthal causing him to be described as a "poet of the Jizera Mountains."

Mathilde Planck

Mathilde Planck 5 Mathilde Planck was a teacher who became the first female member of the regional parliament ("Landtag") of Württemberg. She championed education for girls and is considered to be one of the most important women in the feminist and peace movements in southwest Germany.

Franz Philipp

Franz Philipp 5 Franz Joseph Philipp was a German church musician and composer. He studied and later taught various instruments including organ, worked as a composer, directed a conservatory, and founded a school for organ, a chamber orchestra, an institute for church music, and a choir. In the 1930s he was highly valued by the Nazi regime as a composer, gaining a reputation he tried to undo after the war. Philipp was born and died in Freiburg im Breisgau, and worked in Basel and Karlsruhe as well.

Jakob Kneip

Jakob Kneip 5 Jakob Kneip war ein deutscher Schriftsteller und Dichter.                                           

Maria Goeppert Mayer

Maria Goeppert Mayer 5 Maria Goeppert Mayer was a German-born American theoretical physicist, and Nobel laureate in Physics for proposing the nuclear shell model of the atomic nucleus. She was the second woman to win a Nobel Prize in physics, the first being Marie Curie. In 1986, the Maria Goeppert-Mayer Award for early-career women physicists was established in her honor.

Max Frisch

Max Frisch 5 Max Rudolf Frisch was a Swiss playwright and novelist. Frisch's works focused on problems of identity, individuality, responsibility, morality, and political commitment. The use of irony is a significant feature of his post-war output. Frisch was one of the founders of Gruppe Olten. He was awarded the 1965 Jerusalem Prize, the 1973 Grand Schiller Prize, and the 1986 Neustadt International Prize for Literature.

Ernst Heilmann

Ernst Heilmann 5 Ernst Heilmann was a German jurist and politician of the Social Democratic Party of Germany.       

Paul Ernst (German writer)

Paul Ernst (German writer) 5 Karl Friedrich Paul Ernst was a German writer, dramatist, critic and journalist.                   

Eugen Langen

Eugen Langen 5 Carl Eugen Langen was a German entrepreneur, engineer and inventor, involved in the development of the petrol engine and the Wuppertal Suspension Railway. In 1857 he worked in his father's sugar factory, JJ Langen & Söhne, and after extensive technical training at the Polytechnic institute in Karlsruhe, patented a method for producing sugar cubes. In 1870 he co-founded Pfeifer & Langen, still in operation today. He sold this method in 1872 to Sir Henry Tate of England, founder of the Tate Gallery in London.

Irmgard Keun

Irmgard Keun 5 Irmgard Keun was a German novelist. Noted for her portrayals of the life of women, she is described as "often reduced to the bold sexuality of her writing, [yet] a significant author of the late Weimar period and die Neue Sachlichkeit." She was born into an affluent family and was given the autonomy to explore her passions. After her attempts at acting ended at the age of 16, Keun began working as a writer after years of working in Hamburg and Greifswald. Her books were banned by Nazi authorities but gained recognition during the final years of her life.

Lina Hähnle

Lina Hähnle 5 Emilie Karoline "Lina" Hähnle was a German pioneer of bird conservation. She founded the Swabian league for bird protection in Germany which would later merge into what became the Naturschutzbund Deutschland (NABU).

Killing of Peter Fechter

Killing of Peter Fechter 5 Peter Fechter was a German bricklayer who became the twenty-seventh known person to die at the Berlin Wall. Fechter was 18 years old when he was shot and killed by East German border guards while trying to cross over to West Berlin.

Wilhelm Schäfer

Wilhelm Schäfer 5 Wilhelm Schäfer was a German writer.                                                               

Lorenz Jaeger

Lorenz Jaeger 5 Lorenz Jaeger was a German cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church, who served as Archbishop of Paderborn from 1941 to 1973, and was elevated to the cardinalate in 1965.

Simone de Beauvoir

Simone de Beauvoir 4 Simone Lucie Ernestine Marie Bertrand de Beauvoir was a French existentialist philosopher, writer, social theorist, and feminist activist. Though she did not consider herself a philosopher, nor was she considered one at the time of her death, she had a significant influence on both feminist existentialism and feminist theory.

Ludwig Wittgenstein

Ludwig Wittgenstein 4 Ludwig Josef Johann Wittgenstein was an Austrian philosopher who worked primarily in logic, the philosophy of mathematics, the philosophy of mind, and the philosophy of language.

Lina Morgenstern

Lina Morgenstern 4 Lina Morgenstern was a German writer, educator, feminist and pacifist.                             

Franklin D. Roosevelt

Franklin D. Roosevelt 4 Franklin Delano Roosevelt, commonly known by his initials FDR, was an American statesman and politician who served as the 32nd president of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945. He was a member of the Democratic Party and is the only U.S. president to have served more than two terms. His initial two terms were centered on combating the Great Depression, while his third and fourth saw him shift his focus to America's involvement in World War II.

Michael Faraday

Michael Faraday 4 Michael Faraday was a British scientist who contributed to the study of electromagnetism and electrochemistry. His main discoveries include the principles underlying electromagnetic induction, diamagnetism and electrolysis. Although Faraday received little formal education, as a self-made man, he was one of the most influential scientists in history. It was by his research on the magnetic field around a conductor carrying a direct current that Faraday established the concept of the electromagnetic field in physics. Faraday also established that magnetism could affect rays of light and that there was an underlying relationship between the two phenomena. He similarly discovered the principles of electromagnetic induction, diamagnetism, and the laws of electrolysis. His inventions of electromagnetic rotary devices formed the foundation of electric motor technology, and it was largely due to his efforts that electricity became practical for use in technology.


Virgil 4 Publius Vergilius Maro, usually called Virgil or Vergil in English, was an ancient Roman poet of the Augustan period. He composed three of the most famous poems in Latin literature: the Eclogues, the Georgics, and the epic Aeneid. A number of minor poems, collected in the Appendix Vergiliana, were attributed to him in ancient times, but modern scholars consider his authorship of these poems to be dubious.

Philipp Otto Runge

Philipp Otto Runge 4 Philipp Otto Runge was a German artist, draftsman, painter, and color theorist. Runge and Caspar David Friedrich are often regarded as the leading painters of the German Romantic movement. He is frequently compared with William Blake by art historians, although Runge's short ten-year career is not easy to equate to Blake's career. By all accounts he had a brilliant mind and was well versed in the literature and philosophy of his time. He was a prolific letter writer and maintained correspondences and friendships with contemporaries such as Carl Ludwig Heinrich Berger, Caspar David Friedrich, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling, Henrik Steffens, and Ludwig Tieck. His paintings are often laden symbolism and allegories. For eight years he planned and refined his seminal project, Tageszeiten, four monumental paintings 50 square meters each, which in turn were only part of a larger collaborative Gesamtkunstwerk that was to include poetry, music, and architecture, but remained unrealized at the time of his death. With it he aspired to abandon the traditional iconography of Christianity in European art and find a new expression for spiritual values through symbolism in landscapes. One historian stated "In Runge's painting we are clearly dealing with the attempt to present contemporary philosophy in art." He wrote an influential volume on color theory in 1808, Sphere of Colors, that was published the same year he died.

Louis Ferdinand, Prince of Prussia

Louis Ferdinand, Prince of Prussia 4 Louis Ferdinand, Prince of Prussia was a member of the princely House of Hohenzollern, which occupied the Prussian and German thrones until the abolition of those monarchies in 1918. He was also noteworthy as a businessman and patron of the arts.

Hans in Luck

Hans in Luck 4 "Hans in Luck" is a fairy tale of Germanic origin, recorded by the Brothers Grimm. It is Aarne-Thompson type 1415.

Josef Frings

Josef Frings 4 Josef Richard Frings, was a German Cardinal of the Catholic Church. He served as Archbishop of Cologne from 1942 to 1969. Considered a significant figure in Catholic resistance to Nazism, he was elevated to the cardinalate in 1946 by Pope Pius XII.

Christoph, Duke of Württemberg

Christoph, Duke of Württemberg 4 Christoph of Württemberg, ruled as Duke of Württemberg from 1550 until his death in 1568.           

Walter Hallstein

Walter Hallstein 4 Walter Hallstein was a German academic, diplomat and statesman who was the first president of the Commission of the European Economic Community and one of the founding fathers of the European Union.

Johanna Kinkel

Johanna Kinkel 4 Johanna Kinkel, born Maria Johanna Mockel, was a German composer, writer, pedagogue, and revolutionary.

Ferdinand Schmitz

Ferdinand Schmitz 4 Ferdinand Schmitz was a German wrestler who competed at the 1952 Summer Olympics. In Helsinki he participated in both the freestyle and Greco-Roman bantamweight competitions, eventually withdrawing from the former and finishing sixth in the latter. He had two podium results at the European Championships, placing third in 56 kg Greco-Roman event in 1938 and second in the 61-kg Greco-Roman event in 1939. He was born in Cologne and was a member of ESV Olympia Köln. His brother Heini Nettesheim was also an Olympic wrestler who competed in the 1936 and 1952 Summer Olympics.

Hans Adlhoch

Hans Adlhoch 4 Hans Adlhoch was a German politician, representative of the Bavarian People's Party. He was a member of the City Council at Augsburg, and from January–March 1933 was Reichstag deputy. He was imprisoned at Dachau concentration camp on 21 September 1944 in his connection with the 20 July Plot to assassinate Adolf Hitler. He died shortly after the camp's liberation in a Munich hospital, aged 62. He is commemorated in the Memorial to the Murdered Members of the Reichstag at Berlin, Germany.

Gottfried von Cramm

Gottfried von Cramm 4 Gottfried Alexander Maximilian Walter Kurt Freiherr[A] von Cramm was a German tennis player who won the French Championships twice and reached the final of a Grand Slam singles tournament on five other occasions. He was ranked number 2 in the world in 1934 and 1936, and number 1 in the world in 1937. He was inducted into the International Tennis Hall of Fame in 1977, which states that he is "most remembered for a gallant effort in defeat against Don Budge in the 1937 Interzone Final at Wimbledon".

Hanns Braun

Hanns Braun 4 Hanns Braun was a German athlete.                                                                   

Heinrich Schütte

Heinrich Schütte 4 Heinrich Schütte war ein deutscher Lehrer und Heimatforscher, der als Pionier der Marschenforschung an der Nordsee gilt.

Willi Schröder

Willi Schröder 4 Willi Schröder was a German footballer who played as a forward.                                     

Ida Noddack

Ida Noddack 4 Ida Noddack, née Tacke, was a German chemist and physicist. In 1934 she was the first to mention the idea later named nuclear fission. With her husband Walter Noddack, and Otto Berg, she discovered element 75, rhenium. She was nominated three times for the Nobel Prize in Chemistry.

Wilhelm Schickard

Wilhelm Schickard 4 Wilhelm Schickard was a German professor of Hebrew and astronomy who became famous in the second part of the 20th century after Franz Hammer, a biographer of Johannes Kepler, claimed that the drawings of a calculating clock, predating the public release of Pascal's calculator by twenty years, had been discovered in two unknown letters written by Schickard to Johannes Kepler in 1623 and 1624.

Marcus Aurelius

Marcus Aurelius 4 Marcus Aurelius Antoninus was Roman emperor from 161 to 180 and a Stoic philosopher. He was a member of the Nerva–Antonine dynasty, the last of the rulers later known as the Five Good Emperors and the last emperor of the Pax Romana, an age of relative peace, calm, and stability for the Roman Empire lasting from 27 BC to 180 AD. He served as Roman consul in 140, 145, and 161.

Karl Longin Zeller

Karl Longin Zeller 4 Karl Longin Zeller was a German mathematician and computer scientist who worked in numerical analysis and approximation theory. He is the namesake of Zeller operators.

Asam brothers

Asam brothers 4 The Asam brothers were sculptors, painters, and architects, who worked mostly together and in southern Germany. They are among the most important representatives of the German late Baroque.

Gebhard Müller

Gebhard Müller 4 Gebhard Müller was a German lawyer and politician (CDU). He was President of Württemberg-Hohenzollern (1948–1952), Minister President of Baden-Württemberg (1953–1958) and President of the Federal Constitutional Court of Germany (1959-1971). He was born in Füramoos and died in Stuttgart.

Christian Peter Wilhelm Stolle

Christian Peter Wilhelm Stolle 4 Christian Peter Wilhelm Stolle was a German decorative painter.                                     

Barbara Uthmann

Barbara Uthmann 4 Barbara Uthmann was considered to be one of the greatest supporters of bobbin lace making and was a successful businesswoman in the Ore Mountains. Her last name has sometimes been spelled Uttmann, but the spelling Uthmann is generally considered to be correct today.

Francis de Sales

Francis de Sales 4 Francis de Sales, C.O., O.M. was a Savoyard Catholic prelate who served as Bishop of Geneva and is a saint of the Catholic Church. He became noted for his deep faith and his gentle approach to the religious divisions in his land resulting from the Protestant Reformation. He is known also for his writings on the topic of spiritual direction and spiritual formation, particularly the Introduction to the Devout Life and the Treatise on the Love of God.

Joseph Freundorfer

Joseph Freundorfer 4 Joseph Freundorfer war Neutestamentler und von 1949 bis 1963 Bischof von Augsburg.                 

Wilhelm Bauer

Wilhelm Bauer 4 Wilhelm Bauer was a German inventor and engineer who built several hand-powered submarines.         

Lisa Tetzner

Lisa Tetzner 4 Lisa Tetzner was a German