Famous people on Italy's street names


Giuseppe Garibaldi

Giuseppe Garibaldi 1098 Giuseppe Maria Garibaldi was an Italian general, patriot, revolutionary and republican. He contributed to Italian unification (Risorgimento) and the creation of the Kingdom of Italy. He is considered to be one of Italy's "fathers of the fatherland", along with Camillo Benso, Count of Cavour, Victor Emmanuel II of Italy and Giuseppe Mazzini. Garibaldi is also known as the "Hero of the Two Worlds" because of his military enterprises in South America and Europe.

Guglielmo Marconi

Guglielmo Marconi 1070 Guglielmo Giovanni Maria Marconi, 1st Marquis of Marconi was an Italian inventor and electrical engineer, known for his creation of a practical radio wave–based wireless telegraph system. This led to Marconi's being credited as the inventor of radio, and he shared the 1909 Nobel Prize in Physics with Karl Ferdinand Braun "in recognition of their contributions to the development of wireless telegraphy".

Giacomo Matteotti

Giacomo Matteotti 867 Giacomo Matteotti was an Italian socialist politician. On 30 May 1924, he openly spoke in the Italian Parliament alleging the Italian fascists committed fraud in the 1924 Italian general election, and denounced the violence they used to gain votes. Eleven days later, he was kidnapped and killed by Fascists.

Giuseppe Mazzini

Giuseppe Mazzini 796 Giuseppe Mazzini was an Italian politician, journalist, and activist for the unification of Italy (Risorgimento) and spearhead of the Italian revolutionary movement. His efforts helped bring about the independent and unified Italy in place of the several separate states, many dominated by foreign powers, that existed until the 19th century. An Italian nationalist in the historical radical tradition and a proponent of a republicanism of social-democratic inspiration, Mazzini helped define the modern European movement for popular democracy in a republican state.

Dante Alighieri

Dante Alighieri 778 Dante Alighieri, most likely baptized Durante di Alighiero degli Alighieri and often referred to as Dante, was an Italian poet, writer, and philosopher. His Divine Comedy, originally called Comedìa and later christened Divina by Giovanni Boccaccio, is widely considered one of the most important poems of the Middle Ages and the greatest literary work in the Italian language.

Camillo Benso, Count of Cavour

Camillo Benso, Count of Cavour 616 Camillo Paolo Filippo Giulio Benso, Count of Cavour, Isolabella and Leri, generally known as the Count of Cavour or simply Cavour, was an Italian politician, businessman, economist and noble, and a leading figure in the movement towards Italian unification. He was one of the leaders of the Historical Right and Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Sardinia, a position he maintained throughout the Second Italian War of Independence and Giuseppe Garibaldi's campaigns to unite Italy. After the declaration of a united Kingdom of Italy, Cavour took office as the first Prime Minister of Italy; he died after only three months in office and did not live to see the Roman Question solved through the complete unification of the country after the Capture of Rome in 1870.

Giuseppe Verdi

Giuseppe Verdi 583 Giuseppe Fortunino Francesco Verdi was an Italian composer best known for his operas. He was born near Busseto to a provincial family of moderate means, receiving a musical education with the help of a local patron, Antonio Barezzi. Verdi came to dominate the Italian opera scene after the era of Gioachino Rossini, Vincenzo Bellini, and Gaetano Donizetti, whose works significantly influenced him.

Antonio Gramsci

Antonio Gramsci 578 Antonio Francesco Gramsci was an Italian Marxist philosopher, linguist, journalist, writer, and politician. He wrote on philosophy, political theory, sociology, history, and linguistics. He was a founding member and one-time leader of the Italian Communist Party. A vocal critic of Benito Mussolini and fascism, he was imprisoned in 1926 where he remained until his death in 1937.

Aldo Moro

Aldo Moro 530 Aldo Romeo Luigi Moro was an Italian statesman and prominent member of Christian Democracy (DC) and its centre-left wing. He served as prime minister of Italy in five terms from December 1963 to June 1968 and from November 1974 to July 1976.

Cesare Battisti (politician)

Cesare Battisti (politician) 525 Cesare Battisti was an Italian patriot, geographer, socialist politician and journalist of Austrian citizenship, who became a prominent Irredentist at the start of World War I.

Pope John XXIII

Pope John XXIII 504 Pope John XXIII was head of the Catholic Church and sovereign of the Vatican City State from 28 October 1958 until his death in June 1963.

Alcide De Gasperi

Alcide De Gasperi 468 Alcide Amedeo Francesco De Gasperi was an Italian politician who founded the Christian Democracy party and served as prime minister of Italy in eight successive coalition governments from 1945 to 1953.

Alessandro Manzoni

Alessandro Manzoni 465 Alessandro Francesco Tommaso Antonio Manzoni was an Italian poet, novelist and philosopher. He is famous for the novel The Betrothed (1827), generally ranked among the masterpieces of world literature. The novel is also a symbol of the Italian Risorgimento, both for its patriotic message and because it was a fundamental milestone in the development of the modern, unified Italian language. Manzoni also contributed to the stabilization of the modern Italian language and helped to ensure linguistic unity throughout Italy. He was an influential proponent of Liberal Catholicism in Italy. His work and thinking has often been contrasted with that of his younger contemporary Giacomo Leopardi by critics.

Victor Emmanuel II

Victor Emmanuel II 447 Victor Emmanuel II was King of Sardinia from 23 March 1849 until 17 March 1861, when he assumed the title of King of Italy and became the first king of an independent, united Italy since the 6th century, a title he held until his death in 1878. Borrowing from the old Latin title Pater Patriae of the Roman emperors, the Italians gave him the epithet of Father of the Fatherland.

Umberto I of Italy

Umberto I of Italy 426 Umberto I was King of Italy from 9 January 1878 until his assassination in 1900. His reign saw Italy's expansion into the Horn of Africa, as well as the creation of the Triple Alliance among Italy, Germany and Austria-Hungary.

Damiano Chiesa

Damiano Chiesa 399 Damiano Chiesa è stato un militare e patriota italiano.                                             

John Bosco

John Bosco 391 John Melchior Bosco, SDB, popularly known as Don Bosco, was an Italian Catholic priest, educator and writer of the 19th century. While working in Turin, where the population suffered many of the ill effects of industrialization and urbanization, he dedicated his life to the betterment and education of street children, juvenile delinquents, and other disadvantaged youth. He developed teaching methods based on love rather than punishment, a method that became known as the Salesian Preventive System.

Leonardo da Vinci

Leonardo da Vinci 377 Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci was an Italian polymath of the High Renaissance who was active as a painter, draughtsman, engineer, scientist, theorist, sculptor, and architect. While his fame initially rested on his achievements as a painter, he has also become known for his notebooks, in which he made drawings and notes on a variety of subjects, including anatomy, astronomy, botany, cartography, painting, and paleontology. Leonardo is widely regarded to have been a genius who epitomized the Renaissance humanist ideal, and his collective works comprise a contribution to later generations of artists matched only by that of his younger contemporary Michelangelo.

Giosuè Carducci

Giosuè Carducci 376 Giosuè Alessandro Giuseppe Carducci was an Italian poet, writer, literary critic and teacher. He was noticeably influential, and was regarded as the official national poet of modern Italy. In 1906, he became the first Italian to receive the Nobel Prize in Literature. The Swedish Academy's motivation was that "not only in consideration of his deep learning and critical research, but above all as a tribute to the creative energy, freshness of style, and lyrical force which characterize his poetic masterpieces."

Alessandro Volta

Alessandro Volta 376 Alessandro Giuseppe Antonio Anastasio Volta was an Italian physicist and chemist who was a pioneer of electricity and power and is credited as the inventor of the electric battery and the discoverer of methane. He invented the voltaic pile in 1799, and reported the results of his experiments in 1800 in a two-part letter to the president of the Royal Society. With this invention Volta proved that electricity could be generated chemically and debunked the prevalent theory that electricity was generated solely by living beings. Volta's invention sparked a great amount of scientific excitement and led others to conduct similar experiments, which eventually led to the development of the field of electrochemistry.

Mary, mother of Jesus

Mary, mother of Jesus 354 Mary was a first-century Jewish woman of Nazareth, the wife of Joseph and the mother of Jesus. She is a central figure of Christianity, venerated under various titles such as virgin or queen, many of them mentioned in the Litany of Loreto. The Eastern and Oriental Orthodox, Church of the East, Catholic, Anglican, and Lutheran churches believe that Mary, as mother of Jesus, is the Mother of God. Other Protestant views on Mary vary, with some holding her to have lesser status.

Christopher Columbus

Christopher Columbus 324 Christopher Columbus was an Italian explorer and navigator from the Republic of Genoa who completed four Spanish-based voyages across the Atlantic Ocean sponsored by the Catholic Monarchs, opening the way for the widespread European exploration and European colonization of the Americas. His expeditions were the first known European contact with the Caribbean and Central and South America.

Giacomo Leopardi

Giacomo Leopardi 313 Count Giacomo Taldegardo Francesco di Sales Saverio Pietro Leopardi was an Italian philosopher, poet, essayist, and philologist. He is considered the greatest Italian poet of the nineteenth century and one of the most important figures in the literature of the world, as well as one of the principals of literary romanticism; his constant reflection on existence and on the human condition—of sensuous and materialist inspiration—has also earned him a reputation as a deep philosopher. He is widely seen as one of the most radical and challenging thinkers of the 19th century but routinely compared by Italian critics to his older contemporary Alessandro Manzoni despite expressing "diametrically opposite positions." Although he lived in a secluded town in the conservative Papal States, he came into contact with the main ideas of the Enlightenment, and, through his own literary evolution, created a remarkable and renowned poetic work, related to the Romantic era. The strongly lyrical quality of his poetry made him a central figure on the European and international literary and cultural landscape.

Francis of Assisi

Francis of Assisi 312 Giovanni di Pietro di Bernardone, known as Francis of Assisi, was an Italian mystic, poet and Catholic friar who founded the religious order of the Franciscans. He was inspired to lead a Christian life of poverty as a beggar and itinerant preacher. One of the most venerated figures in Christianity, Francis was canonized by Pope Gregory IX on 16 July 1228. He is commonly portrayed wearing a brown habit with a rope tied around his waist, featuring three knots that symbolize the three Franciscan vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience.

Enrico Fermi

Enrico Fermi 311 Enrico Fermi was an Italian and later naturalized American physicist, renowned for being the creator of the world's first nuclear reactor, the Chicago Pile-1, and a member of the Manhattan Project. He has been called the "architect of the nuclear age" and the "architect of the atomic bomb". He was one of very few physicists to excel in both theoretical physics and experimental physics. Fermi was awarded the 1938 Nobel Prize in Physics for his work on induced radioactivity by neutron bombardment and for the discovery of transuranium elements. With his colleagues, Fermi filed several patents related to the use of nuclear power, all of which were taken over by the US government. He made significant contributions to the development of statistical mechanics, quantum theory, and nuclear and particle physics.

Giacomo Puccini

Giacomo Puccini 307 Giacomo Puccini was an Italian composer known primarily for his operas. Regarded as the greatest and most successful proponent of Italian opera after Verdi, he was descended from a long line of composers, stemming from the late-Baroque era. Though his early work was firmly rooted in traditional late-19th-century Romantic Italian opera, he later developed his work in the realistic verismo style, of which he became one of the leading exponents.

Galileo Galilei

Galileo Galilei 301 Galileo di Vincenzo Bonaiuti de' Galilei, commonly referred to as Galileo Galilei or simply Galileo, was an Italian astronomer, physicist and engineer, sometimes described as a polymath. He was born in the city of Pisa, then part of the Duchy of Florence. Galileo has been called the father of observational astronomy, modern-era classical physics, the scientific method, and modern science.

Giovanni Minzoni

Giovanni Minzoni 283 Giovanni Minzoni was an Italian anti-fascist Catholic priest who was killed by a fascist squad in 1923.

Saint Roch

Saint Roch 278 Roch, also called Rock in English, was a Majorcan Catholic confessor whose death is commemorated on 16 August and 9 September in Italy; he was especially invoked against the plague. He has the designation of Rollox in Glasgow, Scotland, said to be a corruption of Roch's Loch, which referred to a small loch once near a chapel dedicated to Roch in 1506.

John F. Kennedy

John F. Kennedy 273 John Fitzgerald Kennedy, often referred to as JFK, was an American politician who served as the 35th president of the United States from 1961 until his assassination in 1963. He was the youngest person elected president. Kennedy served at the height of the Cold War, and the majority of his foreign policy concerned relations with the Soviet Union and Cuba. A Democrat, Kennedy represented Massachusetts in both houses of the United States Congress prior to his presidency.

Gioachino Rossini

Gioachino Rossini 270 Gioachino Antonio Rossini was an Italian composer who gained fame for his 39 operas, although he also wrote many songs, some chamber music and piano pieces and some sacred music. He set new standards for both comic and serious opera before retiring from large-scale composition while still in his thirties, at the height of his popularity.

Giovanni Pascoli

Giovanni Pascoli 270 Giovanni Placido Agostino Pascoli was an Italian poet, classical scholar and an emblematic figure of Italian literature in the late nineteenth century. Alongside Gabriele D'Annunzio, he was one of the greatest Italian decadent poets.

Sandro Pertini

Sandro Pertini 243 Alessandro "Sandro" Pertini was an Italian socialist politician and statesman who served as the president of Italy from 1978 to 1985.

Giuseppe Di Vittorio

Giuseppe Di Vittorio 238 Giuseppe Di Vittorio, also known as Mario Nicoletti, was an Italian trade union leader and communist politician. He was one of the most influential trade union leaders of the labour movement after World War I.

Martin of Tours

Martin of Tours 237 Martin of Tours, also known as Martin the Merciful, was the third bishop of Tours. He has become one of the most familiar and recognizable Christian saints in France, heralded as the patron saint of the Third Republic, and is patron saint of many communities and organizations across Europe. A native of Pannonia, he converted to Christianity at a young age. He served in the Roman cavalry in Gaul, but left military service at some point prior to 361, when he became a disciple of Hilary of Poitiers, establishing the monastery at Ligugé. He was consecrated as Bishop of Caesarodunum (Tours) in 371. As bishop, he was active in the suppression of the remnants of Gallo-Roman religion, but he opposed the violent persecution of the Priscillianist sect of ascetics.

Anthony of Padua

Anthony of Padua 236 Anthony of Padua, OFM or Anthony of Lisbon was a Portuguese Catholic priest and friar of the Franciscan Order.

Ugo Foscolo

Ugo Foscolo 231 Ugo Foscolo, born Niccolò Foscolo, was a Greek-Italian writer, revolutionary and poet.             

Nazario Sauro

Nazario Sauro 230 Nazario Sauro was an Austrian-born Italian irredentist and sailor.                                 

Armando Diaz

Armando Diaz 224 Armando Diaz, 1st Duke della Vittoria, was an Italian general and a Marshal of Italy. He is mostly known for his role as Chief of Staff of the Regio Esercito during World War I from November 1917. He managed to stop the Austro-Hungarian advance along the Piave River in the First Battle of Monte Grappa. In June 1918, he led the Italian forces to a major victory at the Second Battle of the Piave River. A few months later, he achieved a decisive victory in the Battle of Vittorio Veneto, which ended the war on the Italian Front. He is celebrated as one of the greatest generals of the war.


Michelangelo 217 Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni, known mononymously as Michelangelo, was an Italian sculptor, painter, architect, and poet of the High Renaissance. Born in the Republic of Florence, his work was inspired by models from classical antiquity and had a lasting influence on Western art. Michelangelo's creative abilities and mastery in a range of artistic arenas define him as an archetypal Renaissance man, along with his rival and elder contemporary, Leonardo da Vinci. Given the sheer volume of surviving correspondence, sketches, and reminiscences, Michelangelo is one of the best-documented artists of the 16th century. He was lauded by contemporary biographers as the most accomplished artist of his era.


Petrarch 216 Francis Petrarch, born Francesco di Petracco, was a scholar and poet of the early Italian Renaissance and one of the earliest humanists.

Vincenzo Bellini

Vincenzo Bellini 197 Vincenzo Salvatore Carmelo Francesco Bellini was an Italian opera composer, who was known for his long-flowing melodic lines for which he was named "the Swan of Catania". Many years later, in 1898, Giuseppe Verdi "praised the broad curves of Bellini's melody: 'there are extremely long melodies as no-one else had ever made before'."

Silvio Pellico

Silvio Pellico 194 Silvio Pellico was an Italian writer, poet, dramatist and patriot active in the Italian unification.

Cervi Brothers

Cervi Brothers 190 The Cervi Brothers were the seven sons of Alcide Cervi (1875–1970) and Genoeffa Cocconi (1876–1944), born in Campegine, Emilia-Romagna. The brothers and their father became renowned for their activities in the organized resistance to Italian fascism.

Palmiro Togliatti

Palmiro Togliatti 186 Palmiro Michele Nicola Togliatti was an Italian politician and leader of Italy's Communist party for nearly forty years, from 1927 until his death. Born into a middle-class family, Togliatti received an education in law at the University of Turin, later served as an officer and was wounded in World War I, and became a tutor. Described as "severe in approach but extremely popular among the Communist base" and "a hero of his time, capable of courageous personal feats", his supporters gave him the nickname il Migliore. In 1930, Togliatti renounced Italian citizenship, and he became a citizen of the Soviet Union. Upon his death, Togliatti had a Soviet city named after him. Considered one of the founding fathers of the Italian Republic, he led Italy's Communist party from a few thousand members in 1943 to two million members in 1946.

Grazia Deledda

Grazia Deledda 182 Grazia Maria Cosima Damiana Deledda was an Italian writer who received the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1926 "for her idealistically inspired writings which with plastic clarity picture the life on her native island [i.e. Sardinia] and with depth and sympathy deal with human problems in general". She was the first Italian woman to receive the prize, and only the second woman in general after Selma Lagerlöf was awarded hers in 1909.

Filippo Turati

Filippo Turati 181 Filippo Turati was an Italian sociologist, criminologist, poet and socialist politician.           

Nello Rosselli

Nello Rosselli 175 Sabatino Enrico 'Nello' Rosselli was an Italian Socialist leader and historian.                     

Salvo D'Acquisto

Salvo D'Acquisto 172 Salvo D'Acquisto was a member of the Italian Carabinieri during the Second World War.               

Pietro Nenni

Pietro Nenni 172 Pietro Sandro Nenni was an Italian socialist politician, the national secretary of the Italian Socialist Party (PSI) and senator for life since 1970. He was a recipient of the Lenin Peace Prize in 1951. He was one of the founders of the Italian Republic and a central figure of the Italian political left from the 1920s to the 1960s.

Gaetano Donizetti

Gaetano Donizetti 167 Domenico Gaetano Maria Donizetti was an Italian composer, best known for his almost 70 operas. Along with Gioachino Rossini and Vincenzo Bellini, he was a leading composer of the bel canto opera style during the first half of the nineteenth century and a probable influence on other composers such as Giuseppe Verdi. Donizetti was born in Bergamo in Lombardy. At an early age he was taken up by Simon Mayr who enrolled him with a full scholarship in a school which he had set up. There he received detailed musical training. Mayr was instrumental in obtaining a place for Donizetti at the Bologna Academy, where, at the age of 19, he wrote his first one-act opera, the comedy Il Pigmalione, which may never have been performed during his lifetime.

Goffredo Mameli

Goffredo Mameli 166 Goffredo Mameli was an Italian patriot, poet, writer and a notable figure in the Risorgimento. He is also the author of the lyrics of "Il Canto degli Italiani", the national anthem of Italy.


Raphael 164 Raffaello Sanzio da Urbino, now generally known in English as Raphael, was an Italian painter and architect of the High Renaissance. His work is admired for its clarity of form, ease of composition, and visual achievement of the Neoplatonic ideal of human grandeur. Together with Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo, he forms the traditional trinity of great masters of that period.

Bruno Buozzi

Bruno Buozzi 163 Bruno Buozzi è stato un sindacalista, politico, operaio e antifascista italiano.                   

Saint Peter

Saint Peter 163 Saint Peter, also known as Peter the Apostle, Simon Peter, Simeon, Simon, or Cephas, was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus Christ and one of the first leaders of the early Christian Church. He appears repeatedly and prominently in all four New Testament gospels as well as the Acts of the Apostles. Catholic tradition accredits Peter as the first bishop of Rome‍—‌or pope‍—‌and also as the first bishop of Antioch.

Amerigo Vespucci

Amerigo Vespucci 155 Amerigo Vespucci was an Italian explorer and navigator from the Republic of Florence, from whose name the term "America" is derived.

Luigi Sturzo

Luigi Sturzo 152 Luigi Sturzo was an Italian Catholic priest and prominent politician. He was known in his lifetime as a Christian socialist and is considered one of the fathers of the Christian democratic platform. He was also the founder of the Luigi Sturzo Institute in 1951. Sturzo was one of the founders of the Italian People's Party (PPI) in 1919 but was forced into exile in 1924 with the rise of Italian fascism, and later in 1943 Christian Democracy, although he was never a party member. In exile in London and later New York City, he published over 400 articles critical of fascism. Sturzo's cause for canonization opened on 23 March 2002 and he is titled as a Servant of God.

Edmondo De Amicis

Edmondo De Amicis 150 Edmondo De Amicis was an Italian novelist, journalist, poet, and short-story writer. His best-known book is Cuore, a children's novel translated into English as Heart.

Pietro Mascagni

Pietro Mascagni 150 Pietro Mascagni was an Italian composer primarily known for his operas. His 1890 masterpiece Cavalleria rusticana caused one of the greatest sensations in opera history and single-handedly ushered in the Verismo movement in Italian dramatic music. While it was often held that Mascagni, like Ruggero Leoncavallo, was a "one-opera man" who could never repeat his first success, L'amico Fritz and Iris have remained in the repertoire in Europe since their premieres.

Guglielmo Oberdan

Guglielmo Oberdan 145 Guglielmo Oberdan was an Italian irredentist. He was executed after a failed attempt to assassinate Austrian Emperor Franz Joseph, becoming a martyr of the Italian unification movement.


Giotto 143 Giotto di Bondone, known mononymously as Giotto and Latinised as Giottus, was an Italian painter and architect from Florence during the Late Middle Ages. He worked during the Gothic and Proto-Renaissance period. Giotto's contemporary, the banker and chronicler Giovanni Villani, wrote that Giotto was "the most sovereign master of painting in his time, who drew all his figures and their postures according to nature" and of his publicly recognized "talent and excellence". Giorgio Vasari described Giotto as making a decisive break from the prevalent Byzantine style and as initiating "the great art of painting as we know it today, introducing the technique of drawing accurately from life, which had been neglected for more than two hundred years".

Michael (archangel)

Michael (archangel) 140 Michael, also called Saint Michael the Archangel, Archangel Michael and Saint Michael the Taxiarch is an archangel in Judaism, Christianity, Islam, and the Baha'i faith. The earliest surviving mentions of his name are in third- and second-century-BC Jewish works, often but not always apocalyptic, where he is the chief of the angels and archangels, and he is the guardian prince of Israel and is responsible for the care of Israel. Christianity conserved nearly all the Jewish traditions concerning him, and he is mentioned explicitly in Revelation 12:7–12, where he does battle with Satan, and in the Epistle of Jude, where the author denounces heretics by contrasting them with Michael.

Achille Grandi

Achille Grandi 140 Achille Grandi was an Italian politician and catholic syndicalist.                                 

Vittorio Alfieri

Vittorio Alfieri 139 Count Vittorio Alfieri was an Italian dramatist and poet, considered the "founder of Italian tragedy." He wrote nineteen tragedies, sonnets, satires, and a notable autobiography.

Ludovico Ariosto

Ludovico Ariosto 137 Ludovico Ariosto was an Italian poet. He is best known as the author of the romance epic Orlando Furioso (1516). The poem, a continuation of Matteo Maria Boiardo's Orlando Innamorato, describes the adventures of Charlemagne, Orlando, and the Franks as they battle against the Saracens with diversions into many sideplots. The poem is transformed into a satire of the chivalric tradition. Ariosto composed the poem in the ottava rima rhyme scheme and introduced narrative commentary throughout the work.

Gabriele D'Annunzio

Gabriele D'Annunzio 132 General Gabriele D'Annunzio, Prince of Montenevoso, sometimes written d'Annunzio as he used to sign himself, was an Italian poet, playwright, orator, journalist, aristocrat, and Royal Italian Army officer during World War I.

Giovanni Amendola

Giovanni Amendola 130 Giovanni Amendola was an Italian journalist, professor, and politician. He is noted as an opponent of Italian fascism.

Marco Polo

Marco Polo 130 Marco Polo was a Venetian merchant, explorer and writer who travelled through Asia along the Silk Road between 1271 and 1295. His travels are recorded in The Travels of Marco Polo, a book that described to Europeans the then-mysterious culture and inner workings of the Eastern world, including the wealth and great size of the Mongol Empire and China under the Yuan dynasty, giving their first comprehensive look into China, Persia, India, Japan, and other locations throughout Asia.

Bandiera brothers

Bandiera brothers 129 The brothers Attilio (1811–1844) and Emilio Bandiera (1819–1844) were Italian nationalists during the Risorgimento.

Nino Bixio

Nino Bixio 126 Gerolamo "Nino" Bixio was an Italian general, patriot and politician, one of the most prominent figures in the Italian unification.

Luigi Einaudi

Luigi Einaudi 125 Luigi Numa Lorenzo Einaudi was an Italian politician and economist. He served as the president of Italy from 1948 to 1955 and one of the founding fathers of the Italian Republic.

Mark the Evangelist

Mark the Evangelist 124 Mark the Evangelist also known as John Mark or Saint Mark, is the person who is traditionally ascribed to be the author of the Gospel of Mark. Modern Bible scholars have concluded that the Gospel of Mark was written by an anonymous author rather than an identifiable historical figure. According to Church tradition, Mark founded the episcopal see of Alexandria, which was one of the five most important sees of early Christianity. His feast day is celebrated on April 25, and his symbol is the winged lion.

Enrico Toti

Enrico Toti 123 Enrico Toti was an Italian cyclist, patriot and hero of World War I.                               

Luigi Galvani

Luigi Galvani 122 Luigi Galvani was an Italian physician, physicist, biologist and philosopher, who studied animal electricity. In 1780, he discovered that the muscles of dead frogs' legs twitched when struck by an electrical spark. This was an early study of bioelectricity, following experiments by John Walsh and Hugh Williamson.

Carlo Alberto dalla Chiesa

Carlo Alberto dalla Chiesa 122 Carlo Alberto dalla Chiesa was an Italian Carabinieri general, notable for campaigning against terrorism during the Years of Lead. He was assassinated in the Via Carini massacre by the Sicilian Mafia in Palermo.

Saint George

Saint George 122 Saint George, also George of Lydda, was an early Christian martyr who is venerated as a saint in Christianity. According to tradition, he was a soldier in the Roman army. Of Cappadocian Greek origin, he became a member of the Praetorian Guard for Roman emperor Diocletian, but was sentenced to death for refusing to recant his Christian faith. He became one of the most venerated saints, heroes and megalomartyrs in Christianity, and he has been especially venerated as a military saint since the Crusades. He is respected by Christians, Druze, as well as some Muslims as a martyr of monotheistic faith.

Ippolito Nievo

Ippolito Nievo 121 Ippolito Nievo was an Italian writer, journalist and patriot. His Confessions of an Italian is widely considered the most important novel about the Italian Risorgimento.

Saint Lawrence

Saint Lawrence 121 Saint Lawrence or Laurence was one of the seven deacons of the city of Rome under Pope Sixtus II who were martyred in the persecution of the Christians that the Roman Emperor Valerian ordered in 258.

Fabio Filzi

Fabio Filzi 120 Fabio Filzi was an ethnic-Italian who was born in the Austria-Hungarian Empire but was a irredentist patriot whose firm belief was that the Italian portions of Austria-Hungarian Empire should be united with Italy. He was captured and executed by the Austria-Hungarian Army with his superior Cesare Battisti.

Saint Joseph

Saint Joseph 120 Joseph was a 1st-century Jewish man of Nazareth who, according to the canonical Gospels, was married to Mary, the mother of Jesus, and was the legal father of Jesus.

Torquato Tasso

Torquato Tasso 119 Torquato Tasso was an Italian poet of the 16th century, known for his 1591 poem Gerusalemme liberata, in which he depicts a highly imaginative version of the combats between Christians and Muslims at the end of the First Crusade, during the Siege of Jerusalem of 1099.

Antonio Vivaldi

Antonio Vivaldi 115 Antonio Lucio Vivaldi was an Italian composer, virtuoso violinist and impresario of Baroque music. Along with Johann Sebastian Bach and George Frideric Handel, Vivaldi ranks amongst the greatest Baroque composers and his influence during his lifetime was widespread across Europe, giving origin to many imitators and admirers. He pioneered many developments in orchestration, violin technique and programmatic music. He consolidated the emerging concerto form into a widely accepted and followed idiom.

Giovanni Boccaccio

Giovanni Boccaccio 113 Giovanni Boccaccio was an Italian writer, poet, correspondent of Petrarch, and an important Renaissance humanist. Born in the town of Certaldo, he became so well known as a writer that he was sometimes simply known as "the Certaldese" and one of the most important figures in the European literary panorama of the fourteenth century. Some scholars define him as the greatest European prose writer of his time, a versatile writer who amalgamated different literary trends and genres, making them converge in original works, thanks to a creative activity exercised under the banner of experimentalism.

Margherita of Savoy

Margherita of Savoy 113 Margherita of Savoy was Queen of Italy by marriage to her first cousin King Umberto I of Italy. She was the daughter of Prince Ferdinand of Savoy, Duke of Genoa and Princess Elisabeth of Saxony, and the mother of the King Victor Emmanuel III of Italy.

Catherine of Siena

Catherine of Siena 112 Caterina di Jacopo di Benincasa, known as Catherine of Siena, was an Italian mystic and pious laywoman who engaged in papal and Italian politics through extensive letter-writing and advocacy. Canonized in 1461, she is revered as a saint and as a Doctor of the Church due to her extensive theological authorship. She is also considered to have influenced Italian literature.

Arturo Toscanini

Arturo Toscanini 111 Arturo Toscanini was an Italian conductor. He was one of the most acclaimed and influential musicians of the late 19th and early 20th century, renowned for his intensity, his perfectionism, his ear for orchestral detail and sonority, and his eidetic memory. He was at various times the music director of La Scala in Milan and the New York Philharmonic. Later in his career, he was appointed the first music director of the NBC Symphony Orchestra (1937–1954), and this led to his becoming a household name, especially in the United States, through his radio and television broadcasts and many recordings of the operatic and symphonic repertoire.

Enrico Berlinguer

Enrico Berlinguer 110 Enrico Berlinguer was an Italian politician. Considered the most popular leader of the Italian Communist Party (PCI), he led the PCI as the national secretary from 1972 until his death during a tense period in Italy's history, which was marked by the Years of Lead and social conflicts, such as the Hot Autumn of 1969–1970. Berlinguer was born into a middle-class family; his father was a socialist who became a deputy and later senator. After leading the party's youth wing in his hometown, he led the PCI's youth wing, the Italian Communist Youth Federation (FGCI), at the national level from 1949 to 1956. In 1968, he was elected to the country's Chamber of Deputies, and he became the leader of the PCI in 1972; he remained a deputy until his death in 1984. Under his leadership, the number of votes for the PCI peaked. The PCI's results in 1976 remain the highest for any Italian left-wing or centre-left party both in terms of votes and vote share, and the party's results in 1984, just after his death, remain the best result for an Italian left-wing party in European elections, and were toppled, in terms of vote share in a lower-turnout election, in the 2014 European Parliament election in Italy.

Felice Cavallotti

Felice Cavallotti 110 Felice Cavallotti was an Italian politician, poet and dramatic author.                             

Giuseppe Parini

Giuseppe Parini 109 Giuseppe Parini was an Italian enlightenment satirist and poet of the neoclassic period.           

Saint Anne

Saint Anne 109 According to apocrypha, as well as Christian and Islamic tradition, Saint Anne was the mother of Mary, the wife of Joachim and the maternal grandmother of Jesus. Mary's mother is not named in the Bible's canonical gospels. In writing, Anne's name and that of her husband Joachim come only from New Testament apocrypha, of which the Gospel of James seems to be the earliest that mentions them. The mother of Mary is mentioned but not named in the Quran.

Giuseppe Giusti

Giuseppe Giusti 105 Giuseppe Giusti was an Italian poet and satirist.                                                   

Charles Borromeo

Charles Borromeo 105 Charles Borromeo was the Archbishop of Milan from 1564 to 1584 and a cardinal of the Catholic Church. He was a leading figure of the Counter-Reformation combat against the Protestant Reformation together with Ignatius of Loyola and Philip Neri. In that role he was responsible for significant reforms in the Catholic Church, including the founding of seminaries for the education of priests. He is honoured as a saint by the Catholic Church, with a feast day on 4 November.

Antonio Meucci

Antonio Meucci 105 Antonio Santi Giuseppe Meucci was an Italian inventor and an associate of Giuseppe Garibaldi, a major political figure in the history of Italy. Meucci is best known for developing a voice-communication apparatus that several sources credit as the first telephone.

Luigi Cadorna

Luigi Cadorna 104 Marshal of Italy Luigi Cadorna, was an Italian general, Marshal of Italy and Count, most famous for being the Chief of Staff of the Italian Army from 1914 until 1917 during World War I. During this period, commanding the Italian army in the Alpine front and along the Isonzo river, he acquired a reputation for rigid discipline and the harsh treatment of his troops. Cadorna achieved successes in containing the Strafexpedition and capturing Gorizia but, following a major defeat at the Battle of Caporetto in late 1917, he was relieved as Chief of Staff.


Titian 102 Tiziano Vecelli or Vecellio, Latinized as Titianus, hence known in English as Titian, was an Italian (Venetian) Renaissance painter of Lombard origin, considered the most important member of the 16th-century Venetian school. He was born in Pieve di Cadore, near Belluno. During his lifetime he was often called da Cadore, 'from Cadore', taken from his native region.

Piero Gobetti

Piero Gobetti 101 Piero Gobetti was an Italian journalist, intellectual, and anti-fascist. A radical and revolutionary liberal, he was an exceptionally active campaigner and critic in the crisis years in Italy after the First World War and into the early years of Fascist Italy.

Giovanni Falcone

Giovanni Falcone 101 Giovanni Falcone was an Italian judge and prosecuting magistrate. From his office in the Palace of Justice in Palermo, Sicily, he spent most of his professional life trying to overthrow the power of the Sicilian Mafia. After a long and distinguished career, culminating in the Maxi Trial in 1986–1987, on 23 May 1992, Falcone was assassinated by the Corleonesi Mafia in the Capaci bombing, on the A29 motorway near the town of Capaci.

Francesco Baracca

Francesco Baracca 100 Count Francesco Baracca was Italy's top fighter ace of World War I. He was credited with 34 aerial victories. The emblem he wore side by side on his plane of a black horse prancing on its two rear hooves inspired Enzo Ferrari to use it on his racing car and later in his automotive company.

Benedetto Croce

Benedetto Croce 99 Benedetto Croce, OCI, COSML was an Italian idealist philosopher, historian, and politician who wrote on numerous topics, including philosophy, history, historiography, and aesthetics. A political liberal in most regards, he formulated a distinction between liberalism and "liberism". Croce had considerable influence on other Italian intellectuals, from Marxists to Italian fascists, such as Antonio Gramsci and Giovanni Gentile, respectively.

Saint Lucy

Saint Lucy 99 Lucia of Syracuse (283–304), also called Saint Lucia was a Roman Christian martyr who died during the Diocletianic Persecution. She is venerated as a saint in Catholic, Anglican, Lutheran, and Eastern Orthodox Christianity. She is one of eight women explicitly commemorated by Catholics in the Canon of the Mass. Her traditional feast day, known in Europe as Saint Lucy's Day, is observed by Western Christians on 13 December. Lucia of Syracuse was honored in the Middle Ages and remained a well-known saint in early modern England. She is one of the best known virgin martyrs, along with Agatha of Sicily, Agnes of Rome, Cecilia of Rome, and Catherine of Alexandria.

James the Great

James the Great 97 James the Great was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus. According to the New Testament, he was the second of the apostles to die, and the first to be martyred. Saint James is the patron saint of Spain and, according to tradition, his remains are held in Santiago de Compostela in Galicia.

Enrico Mattei

Enrico Mattei 96 Enrico Mattei was an Italian public administrator. After World War II, he was given the task of dismantling the Italian petroleum agency Agip, a state enterprise established by Fascist Italy. Instead, Mattei enlarged and reorganized it into the National Fuel Trust. Under his direction, ENI negotiated important oil concessions in the Middle East as well as a significant trade agreement with the Soviet Union, which helped break the oligopoly of the "Seven Sisters" that dominated the mid-20th-century oil industry. He also introduced the principle whereby the country that owned exploited oil reserves received 75% of the profits.

Evangelista Torricelli

Evangelista Torricelli 94 Evangelista Torricelli was an Italian physicist and mathematician, and a student of Galileo. He is best known for his invention of the barometer, but is also known for his advances in optics and work on the method of indivisibles. The torr is named after him.

Alfonso Ferrero La Marmora

Alfonso Ferrero La Marmora 90 Alfonso Ferrero La Marmora was an Italian general and statesman. His older brothers include soldier and naturalist Alberto della Marmora and Alessandro Ferrero La Marmora, founder of the branch of the Italian army now called the Bersaglieri.

Andrew the Apostle

Andrew the Apostle 90 Andrew the Apostle, also called Saint Andrew, was an apostle of Jesus. According to the New Testament, he was a fisherman and one of the Twelve Apostles chosen by Jesus. The title First-Called stems from the Gospel of John, where Andrew, initially a disciple of John the Baptist, follows Jesus and, recognizing him as the Messiah, introduces his brother Simon Peter to him.

Niccolò Paganini

Niccolò Paganini 90 Niccolò Paganini was an Italian violinist and composer. He was the most celebrated violin virtuoso of his time, and left his mark as one of the pillars of modern violin technique. His 24 Caprices for Solo Violin Op. 1 are among the best known of his compositions and have served as an inspiration for many prominent composers.

Francesco Crispi

Francesco Crispi 89 Francesco Crispi was an Italian patriot and statesman. He was among the main protagonists of the Risorgimento, a close friend and supporter of Giuseppe Mazzini and Giuseppe Garibaldi, and one of the architects of Italian unification in 1860. Crispi served as Prime Minister of Italy for six years, from 1887 to 1891, and again from 1893 to 1896, and was the first prime minister from Southern Italy. Crispi was internationally famous and often mentioned along with world statesmen such as Otto von Bismarck, William Ewart Gladstone, and Lord Salisbury.

Daniele Manin

Daniele Manin 89 Daniele Manin was an Italian patriot, statesman and leader of the Risorgimento in Venice.           

Massimo d'Azeglio

Massimo d'Azeglio 88 Massimo Taparelli, Marquess of Azeglio, commonly called Massimo d'Azeglio, was a Piedmontese-Italian statesman, novelist, and painter. He was Prime Minister of Sardinia for almost three years until succeeded by his rival Camillo Benso, Count of Cavour. D'Azeglio was a moderate liberal and member of the Moderate Party associated with the Historical Right. He hoped for a federal union between Italian states.

Paolo Borsellino

Paolo Borsellino 87 Paolo Emanuele Borsellino was an Italian judge and prosecuting magistrate. From his office in the Palace of Justice in Palermo, Sicily, he spent most of his professional life trying to overthrow the power of the Sicilian Mafia. After a long and distinguished career, culminating in the Maxi Trial in 1986–1987, on 19 July 1992, Borsellino was killed by a car bomb in Via D'Amelio, near his mother's house in Palermo.

Giovanni Verga

Giovanni Verga 86 Giovanni Carmelo Verga di Fontanabianca was an Italian realist (verista) writer, best known for his depictions of life in his native Sicily, especially the short story and later play Cavalleria rusticana and the novel I Malavoglia.

Guido Rossa

Guido Rossa 86 Guido Rossa was an Italian worker and syndicalist who was born in Cesiomaggiore, Veneto, and lived for several years in Turin. His first job was at the age of 14 as a worker in a ball bearing factory, then at Fiat in Turin as a milling machine worker. In 1961 he moved to Genoa to work for Italsider and, the following year, was elected to the labor union FIOM-CGIL. As a member of the Italian Communist Party, he was a trade unionist for the labor union CGIL at Italsider in Genoa-Cornigliano. He denounced to the Italian police a colleague, Francesco Berardi, who produced propaganda at Italsider on behalf of the Red Brigades. In retaliation, Rossa was killed by the Red Brigades on 24 January 1979, during the Years of Lead.

Antonio Pacinotti

Antonio Pacinotti 85 Antonio Pacinotti was an Italian physicist, who was Professor of Physics at the University of Pisa. 

Giovanni Prati

Giovanni Prati 84 Giovanni Prati was an Italian poet and politician.                                                 

Andrea Costa

Andrea Costa 84 Andrea Costa was an Italian politician who was initiated on September 25, 1883 to the Masonic Lodge "Rienzi" in Rome and progressively become 32nd-degree Mason and adjunctive Great Master of the Grande Oriente of Italy.

Giordano Bruno

Giordano Bruno 83 Giordano Bruno was an Italian philosopher, poet, cosmological theorist and esotericist. He is known for his cosmological theories, which conceptually extended to include the then-novel Copernican model. He proposed that the stars were distant suns surrounded by their own planets (exoplanets), and he raised the possibility that these planets might foster life of their own, a cosmological position known as cosmic pluralism. He also insisted that the universe is infinite and could have no center.

Salvador Allende

Salvador Allende 83 Salvador Guillermo Allende Gossens was a Chilean socialist politician who served as the 28th president of Chile from 1970 until his death in 1973. As a democratic socialist committed to democracy, he has been described as the first Marxist to be elected president in a liberal democracy in Latin America.

Luigi Pirandello

Luigi Pirandello 82 Luigi Pirandello was an Italian dramatist, novelist, poet, and short story writer whose greatest contributions were his plays. He was awarded the 1934 Nobel Prize in Literature "for his bold and ingenious revival of dramatic and scenic art" Pirandello's works include novels, hundreds of short stories, and about 40 plays, some of which are written in Sicilian. Pirandello's tragic farces are often seen as forerunners of the Theatre of the Absurd.

Antonio Canova

Antonio Canova 81 Antonio Canova was an Italian Neoclassical sculptor, famous for his marble sculptures. Often regarded as the greatest of the Neoclassical artists, his sculpture was inspired by the Baroque and the classical revival, and has been characterised as having avoided the melodramatics of the former, and the cold artificiality of the latter.

Lorenzo Milani

Lorenzo Milani 80 Lorenzo Carlo Domenico Milani Comparetti was an Italian Catholic priest. He was an educator of poor children and an advocate of conscientious objection.

Helen of Greece and Denmark

Helen of Greece and Denmark 79 Helen of Greece and Denmark was the queen mother of Romania during the reign of her son King Michael I (1940–1947). She was noted for her humanitarian efforts to save Romanian Jews during World War II, which led to her being awarded by the State of Israel with the honorific of Righteous Among the Nations in 1993.

Vincenzo Monti

Vincenzo Monti 79 Vincenzo Monti was an Italian poet, playwright, translator, and scholar, the greatest interpreter of Italian neoclassicism in all of its various phases. His verse translation of the Iliad is considered one of the greatest of them all, with its iconic opening becoming an extremely recognizable phrase among Italians.

Saint Sebastian

Saint Sebastian 79 Sebastian was an early Christian saint and martyr. According to traditional belief, he was killed during the Diocletianic Persecution of Christians. He was initially tied to a post or tree and shot with arrows, though this did not kill him. He was, according to tradition, rescued and healed by Irene of Rome, which became a popular subject in 17th-century painting. In all versions of the story, shortly after his recovery he went to Diocletian to warn him about his sins, and as a result was clubbed to death. He is venerated in the Catholic Church and the Orthodox Church.

Carlo Pisacane

Carlo Pisacane 78 Carlo Pisacane, Duke of San Giovanni was an Italian patriot and one of the first Italian socialist thinkers. He argued that violence was necessary not only to draw attention to, or generate publicity for, a cause, but also to inform, educate, and ultimately rally the masses behind the revolution. These ideas are called propaganda of the deed and have exerted compelling influence on rebels and terrorists alike ever since.

Eugenio Curiel

Eugenio Curiel 78 Eugenio Curiel was an Italian-Jewish physicist, a prominent figure of the Italian resistance movement. He was awarded a gold medal (posthumously) for military valour.

Martin Luther King Jr.

Martin Luther King Jr. 75 Martin Luther King Jr. was an American Christian minister, activist, and political philosopher who was one of the most prominent leaders in the civil rights movement from 1955 until his assassination in 1968. A black church leader and a son of early civil rights activist and minister Martin Luther King Sr., King advanced civil rights for people of color in the United States through the use of nonviolent resistance and nonviolent civil disobedience against Jim Crow laws and other forms of legalized discrimination.

Carlo Cattaneo

Carlo Cattaneo 75 Carlo Cattaneo was an Italian philosopher, writer, and activist, famous for his role in the Five Days of Milan in March 1848, when he led the city council during the rebellion.

Eugenio Montale

Eugenio Montale 75 Eugenio Montale was an Italian poet, prose writer, editor and translator, and recipient of the 1975 Nobel Prize in Literature.

Aurelia gens

Aurelia gens 74 The gens Aurelia was a plebeian family at ancient Rome, which flourished from the third century BC to the latest period of the Empire. The first of the Aurelian gens to obtain the consulship was Gaius Aurelius Cotta in 252 BC. From then to the end of the Republic, the Aurelii supplied many distinguished statesmen, before entering a period of relative obscurity under the early emperors. In the latter part of the first century, a family of the Aurelii rose to prominence, obtaining patrician status, and eventually the throne itself. A series of emperors belonged to this family, through birth or adoption, including Marcus Aurelius and the members of the Severan dynasty.

Arrigo Boito

Arrigo Boito 73 Arrigo Boito was an Italian librettist, composer, poet and critic whose only completed opera was Mefistofele. Among the operas for which he wrote the libretti are Giuseppe Verdi's monumental last two operas Otello and Falstaff as well as Amilcare Ponchielli's La Gioconda.

Sebastiano Satta

Sebastiano Satta 73 Sebastiano Satta was an Italian poet, writer, lawyer, and journalist.                               

Saint Stephen

Saint Stephen 72 Stephen is traditionally venerated as the protomartyr or first martyr of Christianity. According to the Acts of the Apostles, he was a deacon in the early church at Jerusalem who angered members of various synagogues by his teachings. Accused of blasphemy at his trial, he made a speech denouncing the Jewish authorities who were sitting in judgment on him and was then stoned to death. Saul of Tarsus, later known as Paul the Apostle, a Pharisee and Roman citizen who would later become an apostle, participated in Stephen's martyrdom.

Niccolò Machiavelli

Niccolò Machiavelli 72 Niccolò di Bernardo dei Machiavelli was a Florentine diplomat, author, philosopher and historian who lived during the Renaissance. He is best known for his political treatise The Prince, written around 1513 but not published until 1532, five years after his death. He has often been called the father of modern political philosophy and political science.

Eleanor of Arborea

Eleanor of Arborea 72 Eleanor of Arborea or Eleanor De Serra Bas was one of the most powerful and important, and one of the last, judges of the Judicate of Arborea in Sardinia, and Sardinia's most famous heroine. She is also known for updating of the Carta de Logu, promulgated by her father Marianus IV and revisited by her brother Hugh III.

Filippo Corridoni

Filippo Corridoni 71 Filippo Corridoni was an Italian trade unionist and syndicalist. Born in Pausula, today Corridonia, he was a friend of future Italian fascist dictator Benito Mussolini. Between 24 and 25 January 1915, the Fasci d'Azione Rivoluzionaria were founded in the presence of Corridoni and Mussolini, among others. That same year, numerous left-interventionists were called up, including Corridoni and Mussolini themselves. In October 1915, Corridoni died during the Great War, being hit in the head by an Austrian-Hungarian Army bullet at the Trincea delle Frasche in San Martino del Carso. Between 1914 and 1915, he had been part of the left-interventionism movement that supported the Kingdom of Italy entry into the Great War, and was pictured taking part to a 1915 interventionist demonstration in Milan. This stance costed him, among others, the expulsion from the Unione Sindacale Italiana, whose Milanese section he was leading. These went on to join with Futurist interventionism, which was already creating unrest in the squares with Filippo Tommaso Marinetti and Umberto Boccioni.

Paul the Apostle

Paul the Apostle 70 Paul, commonly known as Paul the Apostle and Saint Paul, was a Christian apostle who spread the teachings of Jesus in the first-century world. For his contributions towards the New Testament, he is generally regarded as one of the most important figures of the Apostolic Age, and he also founded several Christian communities in Asia Minor and Europe from the mid-40s to the mid-50s AD.

Pietro Zorutti

Pietro Zorutti 69 Pietro Zorutti was an Italian poet. His fame is mainly due to the publication each year from 1821 to 1867 of Friulian language poetry. Much of his Friulian poetry was based around the middle class dialect of Udine, where he spent much of his life.

Ciro Menotti

Ciro Menotti 69 Ciro Menotti was an Italian patriot.                                                               

Enrico De Nicola

Enrico De Nicola 68 Enrico De Nicola, was an Italian jurist, journalist, politician, and provisional head of state of republican Italy from 1946 to 1948. Afterwards, he became the first president of Italy on 1 January 1948.

Giacomo Brodolini

Giacomo Brodolini 68 Giacomo Brodolini was an Italian socialist politician and trade unionist. He served as the minister of labour and social security between December 1968 and 1969.

Giuseppe Ungaretti

Giuseppe Ungaretti 67 Giuseppe Ungaretti was an Italian modernist poet, journalist, essayist, critic, academic, and recipient of the inaugural 1970 Neustadt International Prize for Literature. A leading representative of the experimental trend known as Ermetismo ("Hermeticism"), he was one of the most prominent contributors to 20th century Italian literature. Influenced by symbolism, he was briefly aligned with futurism. Like many futurists, he took an irredentist position during World War I. Ungaretti debuted as a poet while fighting in the trenches, publishing one of his best-known pieces, L'allegria.

Nicolaus Copernicus

Nicolaus Copernicus 67 Nicolaus Copernicus was a Renaissance polymath, active as a mathematician, astronomer, and Catholic canon, who formulated a model of the universe that placed the Sun rather than Earth at its center. In all likelihood, Copernicus developed his model independently of Aristarchus of Samos, an ancient Greek astronomer who had formulated such a model some eighteen centuries earlier.

Ugo La Malfa

Ugo La Malfa 67 Ugo La Malfa was an Italian politician and an important leader of the Italian Republican Party.     

Charles Albert of Sardinia

Charles Albert of Sardinia 66 Charles Albert was the King of Sardinia and ruler of the Savoyard state from 27 April 1831 until his abdication in 1849. His name is bound up with the first Italian constitution, the Albertine Statute, and with the First Italian War of Independence (1848–1849).

Fratelli Cairoli

Fratelli Cairoli 66 I fratelli Cairoli sono stati dei patrioti italiani, di Gropello Cairoli (PV), e figure di spicco del Risorgimento.

Pope John Paul II

Pope John Paul II 66 Pope John Paul II was head of the Catholic Church and sovereign of the Vatican City State from 1978 until his death in 2005.


Caravaggio 65 Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio, known mononymously as Caravaggio, was an Italian painter active in Rome for most of his artistic life. During the final four years of his life, he moved between Naples, Malta, and Sicily until his death. His paintings have been characterized by art critics as combining a realistic observation of the human state, both physical and emotional, with a dramatic use of lighting, which had a formative influence on Baroque painting.

Carlo Goldoni

Carlo Goldoni 65 Carlo Osvaldo Goldoni was an Italian playwright and librettist from the Republic of Venice. His works include some of Italy's most famous and best-loved plays. Audiences have admired the plays of Goldoni for their ingenious mix of wit and honesty. His plays offered his contemporaries images of themselves, often dramatizing the lives, values, and conflicts of the emerging middle classes. Though he wrote in French and Italian, his plays make rich use of the Venetian language, regional vernacular, and colloquialisms. Goldoni also wrote under the pen name and title Polisseno Fegeio, Pastor Arcade, which he claimed in his memoirs the "Arcadians of Rome" bestowed on him.

Ferdinand Magellan

Ferdinand Magellan 65 Ferdinand Magellan was a Portuguese explorer best known for having planned and led the 1519 Spanish expedition to the East Indies across the Pacific Ocean to open a maritime trade route, during which he discovered the interoceanic passage thereafter bearing his name and achieved the first European navigation to Asia via the Pacific. After his death, this expedition was the first to circumnavigate the globe in 1519–22 in the service of Spain.

Aurelio Saffi

Aurelio Saffi 63 Aurelio Saffi was a Roman and Italian politician, active during the period of Italian unification. He was an important figure in the radical republican current within the Risorgimento movement and close to its leader and chief inspiration, Giuseppe Mazzini.

Duke of Aosta

Duke of Aosta 63 Duke of Aosta was a title in the Italian nobility. It was established in the 13th century when Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, made the County of Aosta a duchy. The region was part of the Savoyard state and the title was granted to various princes of the House of Savoy, second sons of the reigning king of Sardinia or king of Italy.

Ruggero Leoncavallo

Ruggero Leoncavallo 63 Ruggero Leoncavallo was an Italian opera composer and librettist. Although he produced numerous operas and songs throughout his career it is his opera Pagliacci (1892) that remained his lasting contribution, despite attempts to escape the shadow of his greatest success.

Victor Emmanuel III

Victor Emmanuel III 62 Victor Emmanuel III, born Vittorio Emanuele Ferdinando Maria Gennaro di Savoia, was King of Italy from 29 July 1900 until his abdication on 9 May 1946. A member of the House of Savoy, he also reigned as Emperor of Ethiopia (1936–1941) and King of the Albanians (1939–1943). During his reign of nearly 46 years, which began after the assassination of his father Umberto I, the Kingdom of Italy became involved in two world wars. His reign also encompassed the birth, rise, and fall of the Fascist regime in Italy.

Amilcare Ponchielli

Amilcare Ponchielli 62 Amilcare Ponchielli was an Italian opera composer, best known for his opera La Gioconda. He was married to the soprano Teresina Brambilla.

Emilio Lussu

Emilio Lussu 62 Emilio Lussu was an Italian soldier, politician, anti-fascist, and writer.                         

Pietro Micca

Pietro Micca 61 Pietro Micca, also known as Pierre Micha, was an Italian soldier who became a national hero of the Duchy of Savoy for his sacrifice in the defence of Turin against the French troops.

Augustine of Hippo

Augustine of Hippo 61 Augustine of Hippo, also known as Saint Augustine, was a theologian and philosopher of Berber origin and the bishop of Hippo Regius in Numidia, Roman North Africa. His writings influenced the development of Western philosophy and Western Christianity, and he is viewed as one of the most important Church Fathers of the Latin Church in the Patristic Period. His many important works include The City of God, On Christian Doctrine, and Confessions.

Salvatore Quasimodo

Salvatore Quasimodo 60 Salvatore Quasimodo was an Italian poet and translator, awarded the 1959 Nobel Prize in Literature "for his lyrical poetry, which with classical fire expresses the tragic experience of life in our own times". Along with Giuseppe Ungaretti and Eugenio Montale, he was one of the foremost Italian poets of the 20th century.

Galileo Ferraris

Galileo Ferraris 59 Galileo Ferraris was an Italian university professor, physicist and electrical engineer, one of the pioneers of AC power system and inventor of the induction motor although he never patented his work. Many newspapers touted that his work on the induction motor and power transmission systems were some of the greatest inventions of all ages. He published an extensive and complete monograph on the experimental results obtained with open-circuit transformers of the type designed by the power engineers Lucien Gaulard and John Dixon Gibbs.

Cesare Pavese

Cesare Pavese 59 Cesare Pavese was an Italian novelist, poet, short story writer, translator, literary critic, and essayist. He is often referred to as one of the most influential Italian writers of his time.

Saint Vitus

Saint Vitus 58 Vitus, whose name is sometimes rendered Guy or Guido, was a Christian martyr from Sicily. His surviving hagiography is pure legend. The dates of his actual life are unknown. He has for long been tied to the Sicilian martyrs Modestus and Crescentia but in the earliest sources it is clear that these were originally different traditions that later became combined. The figures of Modestus and Crescentia are probably fictitious.

Giovanni Battista Tiepolo

Giovanni Battista Tiepolo 58 Giovanni Battista Tiepolo, also known as Giambattista Tiepolo, was an Italian painter and printmaker from the Republic of Venice who painted in the Rococo style, considered an important member of the 18th-century Venetian school. He was prolific, and worked not only in Italy, but also in Germany and Spain.

Vincenzo Gioberti

Vincenzo Gioberti 58 Vincenzo Gioberti was an Italian Catholic priest, philosopher, publicist and politician who served as the Prime Minister of Sardinia from 1848 to 1849. He was a prominent spokesman for liberal Catholicism.

Domenico Cimarosa

Domenico Cimarosa 56 Domenico Cimarosa was an Italian composer of the Neapolitan School and of the Classical period. He wrote more than eighty operas, the best known of which is Il matrimonio segreto (1792); most of his operas are comedies. He also wrote instrumental works and church music.

Thomas Edison

Thomas Edison 56 Thomas Alva Edison was an American inventor and businessman. He developed many devices in fields such as electric power generation, mass communication, sound recording, and motion pictures. These inventions, which include the phonograph, the motion picture camera, and early versions of the electric light bulb, have had a widespread impact on the modern industrialized world. He was one of the first inventors to apply the principles of organized science and teamwork to the process of invention, working with many researchers and employees. He established the first industrial research laboratory.

Benvenuto Cellini

Benvenuto Cellini 56 Benvenuto Cellini was an Italian goldsmith, sculptor, and author. His best-known extant works include the Cellini Salt Cellar, the sculpture of Perseus with the Head of Medusa, and his autobiography, which has been described as "one of the most important documents of the 16th century".

Quintino Sella

Quintino Sella 56 Quintino Sella was an Italian politician, economist and mountaineer.                               

Gaetano Giardino

Gaetano Giardino 55 Gaetano Giardino was an Italian soldier that rose to the rank of Marshal of Italy and Italian Representative to the Allied War Council during World War I.

Bartholomew the Apostle

Bartholomew the Apostle 55 Bartholomew was one of the twelve apostles of Jesus according to the New Testament. Most scholars today identify Bartholomew as Nathanael or Nathaniel, who appears in the Gospel of John.

Rodolfo Morandi

Rodolfo Morandi 54 Rodolfo Morandi was an Italian socialist politician and economist. He was a member of the Socialist Party and was one of its leading figures following World War II. He served as the minister of industry and commerce in the cabinets led by Prime Minister Alcide De Gasperi in the period 1946–1947.

Piero Maroncelli

Piero Maroncelli 53 Piero Maroncelli è stato un patriota, musicista e scrittore italiano, noto anche per essere stato processato in quanto carbonaro e imprigionato allo Spielberg con Silvio Pellico.

Donato Bramante

Donato Bramante 53 Donato Bramante, born as Donato di Pascuccio d'Antonio and also known as Bramante Lazzari, was an Italian architect and painter. He introduced Renaissance architecture to Milan and the High Renaissance style to Rome, where his plan for St. Peter's Basilica formed the basis of the design executed by Michelangelo. His Tempietto marked the beginning of the High Renaissance in Rome (1502) when Pope Julius II appointed him to build a sanctuary over the spot where Peter was martyred.

Pier Paolo Pasolini

Pier Paolo Pasolini 53 Pier Paolo Pasolini was an Italian poet, film director, writer, screenwriter, actor and playwright. He is considered one of the defining public intellectuals in 20th-century Italian history, influential both as an artist and a political figure. He is known for directing the movies from Trilogy of Life.


Virgil 52 Publius Vergilius Maro, usually called Virgil or Vergil in English, was an ancient Roman poet of the Augustan period. He composed three of the most famous poems in Latin literature: the Eclogues, the Georgics, and the epic Aeneid. A number of minor poems, collected in the Appendix Vergiliana, were attributed to him in ancient times, but modern scholars consider his authorship of these poems to be dubious.


Cimabue 52 Cimabue, c. 1240 – 1302, was an Italian painter and designer of mosaics from Florence. He was also known as Cenni di Pepo or Cenni di Pepi.

Margaret of Cortona

Margaret of Cortona 52 Margaret of Cortona was an Italian penitent of the Third Order of Saint Francis. She was born in Laviano, near Perugia, and died in Cortona. She was canonised in 1728.

Saint Blaise

Saint Blaise 52 Blaise of Sebaste was a physician and bishop of Sebastea in historical Lesser Armenia who is venerated as a Christian saint and martyr. He is counted as one of the Fourteen Holy Helpers.

Niccolò Tommaseo

Niccolò Tommaseo 51 Niccolò Tommaseo was a Dalmatian Italian linguist, journalist and essayist, the editor of a Dizionario della Lingua Italiana in eight volumes (1861–74), of a dictionary of synonyms (1830) and other works. He is considered a precursor of the Italian irredentism.

Giuseppe Saragat

Giuseppe Saragat 51 Giuseppe Saragat was an Italian politician who served as the president of Italy from 1964 to 1971. 

Sandro Botticelli

Sandro Botticelli 51 Alessandro di Mariano di Vanni Filipepi, better known as Sandro Botticelli or simply Botticelli, was an Italian painter of the Early Renaissance. Botticelli's posthumous reputation suffered until the late 19th century, when he was rediscovered by the Pre-Raphaelites who stimulated a reappraisal of his work. Since then, his paintings have been seen to represent the linear grace of late Italian Gothic and some Early Renaissance painting, even though they date from the latter half of the Italian Renaissance period.

Maria Montessori

Maria Montessori 51 Maria Tecla Artemisia Montessori was an Italian physician and educator best known for her philosophy of education and her writing on scientific pedagogy. At an early age, Montessori enrolled in classes at an all-boys technical school, with hopes of becoming an engineer. She soon had a change of heart and began medical school at the Sapienza University of Rome, becoming one of the first women to attend medical school in Italy; she graduated with honors in 1896. Her educational method is in use today in many public and private schools globally.

Andrea Doria

Andrea Doria 50 Andrea Doria, Prince of Melfi was a Genoese statesman, condottiero, and admiral, who played a key role in the Republic of Genoa during his lifetime.

Anne Frank

Anne Frank 50 Annelies Marie Frank was a German-born Jewish girl who kept a diary in which she documented life in hiding under Nazi persecution during the German occupation of the Netherlands. She is a celebrated diarist who described everyday life from her family hiding place in an Amsterdam attic. One of the most-discussed Jewish victims of the Holocaust, she gained fame posthumously with the 1947 publication of The Diary of a Young Girl, in which she documents her life in hiding from 1942 to 1944 — it is one of the world's best-known books and has been the basis for several plays and films.

Prince Luigi Amedeo, Duke of the Abruzzi

Prince Luigi Amedeo, Duke of the Abruzzi 49 Prince Luigi Amedeo, Duke of the Abruzzi, was an Italian mountaineer and explorer, briefly Infante of Spain as son of Amadeo I of Spain, member of the royal House of Savoy and cousin of the Italian King Victor Emmanuel III. He is known for his Arctic explorations and for his mountaineering expeditions, particularly to Mount Saint Elias and K2. He also served as an Italian admiral during World War I. He created Villaggio Duca degli Abruzzi in Italian Somalia during his last years of life.

Pope Pius X

Pope Pius X 49 Pope Pius X was head of the Catholic Church from 4 August 1903 to his death in August 1914. Pius X is known for vigorously opposing modernist interpretations of Catholic doctrine, and for promoting liturgical reforms and scholastic theology. He initiated the preparation of the 1917 Code of Canon Law, the first comprehensive and systemic work of its kind. He is venerated as a saint in the Catholic Church. The Society of Saint Pius X, a traditionalist Catholic fraternity formed decades after his death, is named after him.

Antonio Fogazzaro

Antonio Fogazzaro 49 Antonio Fogazzaro was an Italian novelist and proponent of Liberal Catholicism. He was nominated for the Nobel Prize in Literature seven times.

Giulio Cesare

Giulio Cesare 48 Giulio Cesare in Egitto, commonly known as Giulio Cesare, is a dramma per musica in three acts composed by George Frideric Handel for the Royal Academy of Music in 1724. The libretto was written by Nicola Francesco Haym who used an earlier libretto by Giacomo Francesco Bussani, which had been set to music by Antonio Sartorio (1676). The opera was a success at its first performances, was frequently revived by Handel in his subsequent opera seasons and is now one of the most often performed Baroque operas.

Ugo Bassi

Ugo Bassi 48 Ugo Bassi was a Roman Catholic priest and Italian nationalist. Bassi was born at Cento, Emilia-Romagna, and received his early education at University of Bologna.

Gian Lorenzo Bernini

Gian Lorenzo Bernini 48 Gian Lorenzo Bernini was an Italian sculptor and architect. While a major figure in the world of architecture, he was more prominently the leading sculptor of his age, credited with creating the Baroque style of sculpture. As one scholar has commented, "What Shakespeare is to drama, Bernini may be to sculpture: the first pan-European sculptor whose name is instantaneously identifiable with a particular manner and vision, and whose influence was inordinately powerful ..." In addition, he was a painter and a man of the theatre: he wrote, directed and acted in plays, for which he designed stage sets and theatrical machinery. He produced designs as well for a wide variety of decorative art objects including lamps, tables, mirrors, and even coaches.

Luciano Manara

Luciano Manara 48 Luciano Manara was a Milanese soldier and politician of the Risorgimento era, who took part in the Roman Republic.


Tintoretto 48 Jacopo Robusti, best known as Tintoretto, was an Italian painter identified with the Venetian school. His contemporaries both admired and criticized the speed with which he painted, and the unprecedented boldness of his brushwork. For his phenomenal energy in painting he was termed il Furioso. His work is characterised by his muscular figures, dramatic gestures and bold use of perspective, in the Mannerist style.

Andrea Mantegna

Andrea Mantegna 47 Andrea Mantegna was an Italian painter, a student of Roman archeology, and son-in-law of Jacopo Bellini.

Andrea Palladio

Andrea Palladio 47 Andrea Palladio was an Italian Renaissance architect active in the Venetian Republic. Palladio, influenced by Roman and Greek architecture, primarily Vitruvius, is widely considered to be one of the most influential individuals in the history of architecture. While he designed churches and palaces, he was best known for country houses and villas. His teachings, summarized in the architectural treatise, The Four Books of Architecture, gained him wide recognition.

Claudio Monteverdi

Claudio Monteverdi 47 Claudio Giovanni Antonio Monteverdi was an Italian composer, choirmaster and string player. A composer of both secular and sacred music, and a pioneer in the development of opera, he is considered a crucial transitional figure between the Renaissance and Baroque periods of music history.

Mary Magdalene

Mary Magdalene 46 Mary Magdalene was a woman who, according to the four canonical gospels, traveled with Jesus as one of his followers and was a witness to his crucifixion and resurrection. She is mentioned by name twelve times in the canonical gospels, more than most of the apostles and more than any other woman in the gospels, other than Jesus's family. Mary's epithet Magdalene may be a toponymic surname, meaning that she came from the town of Magdala, a fishing town on the western shore of the Sea of Galilee in Roman Judea.

Vittorio Bachelet

Vittorio Bachelet 46 Vittorio Bachelet was an Italian academic and politician, former vice president of the High Council of the Judiciary.


Ambrose 46 Ambrose of Milan, venerated as Saint Ambrose, was a theologian and statesman who served as Bishop of Milan from 374 to 397. He expressed himself prominently as a public figure, fiercely promoting Roman Christianity against Arianism and paganism. He left a substantial collection of writings, of which the best known include the ethical commentary De officiis ministrorum (377–391), and the exegetical Exameron (386–390). His preachings, his actions and his literary works, in addition to his innovative musical hymnography, made him one of the most influential ecclesiastical figures of the 4th century.

Saint Nicholas

Saint Nicholas 46 Saint Nicholas of Myra, also known as Nicholas of Bari, was an early Christian bishop of Greek descent from the maritime city of Patara in Anatolia during the time of the Roman Empire. Because of the many miracles attributed to his intercession, he is also known as Nicholas the Wonderworker. Saint Nicholas is the patron saint of sailors, merchants, archers, repentant thieves, children, brewers, pawnbrokers, toymakers, unmarried people, and students in various cities and countries around Europe. His reputation evolved among the pious, as was common for early Christian saints, and his legendary habit of secret gift-giving gave rise to the traditional model of Santa Claus through Sinterklaas.

Leonard of Port Maurice

Leonard of Port Maurice 46 Leonard of Port Maurice, O.F.M., was an Italian Franciscan preacher and ascetic writer.             

Luigi Settembrini

Luigi Settembrini 45 Luigi Settembrini was an Italian man of letters and politician.                                     

Giovanni Giolitti

Giovanni Giolitti 45 Giovanni Giolitti was an Italian statesman. He was the prime minister of Italy five times between 1892 and 1921. He is the longest-serving democratically elected prime minister in Italian history, and the second-longest serving overall after Benito Mussolini. A prominent leader of the Historical Left and the Liberal Union, he is widely considered one of the most powerful and important politicians in Italian history; due to his dominant position in Italian politics, Giolitti was accused by critics of being an authoritarian leader and a parliamentary dictator.

Cesare Beccaria

Cesare Beccaria 45 Cesare Bonesana di Beccaria, Marquis of Gualdrasco and Villareggio was an Italian criminologist, jurist, philosopher, economist and politician, who is widely considered one of the greatest thinkers of the Age of Enlightenment. He is well remembered for his treatise On Crimes and Punishments (1764), which condemned torture and the death penalty, and was a founding work in the field of penology and the Classical School of criminology. Beccaria is considered the father of modern criminal law and the father of criminal justice.

Caterina Percoto

Caterina Percoto 45 Caterina Marianna Percoto was a writer from the Austrian Empire and later Austria-Hungary, best remembered for her short stories and fables in Friulian, most notably her collection of Friulian fables titled Racconti (1863).

Giovanni Battista Pergolesi

Giovanni Battista Pergolesi 44 Giovanni Battista Draghi, usually referred to as Giovanni Battista Pergolesi, was an Italian Baroque composer, violinist, and organist, leading exponent of the Baroque; he is considered one of the greatest Italian musicians of the first half of the 18th century and one of the most important representatives of the Neapolitan school.

Antonio Segni

Antonio Segni 44 Antonio Segni was an Italian politician and statesman who served as the president of Italy from May 1962 to December 1964, and as the prime minister of Italy in two distinct terms between 1955 and 1960.

Mahatma Gandhi

Mahatma Gandhi 44 Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was an Indian lawyer, anti-colonial nationalist and political ethicist who employed nonviolent resistance to lead the successful campaign for India's independence from British rule. He inspired movements for civil rights and freedom across the world. The honorific Mahātmā, first applied to him in South Africa in 1914, is now used throughout the world.

Mother Teresa

Mother Teresa 43 Mary Teresa Bojaxhiu MC, better known as Mother Teresa, was an Albanian-Indian Catholic nun and the founder of the Missionaries of Charity. Born in Skopje, then part of the Ottoman Empire, at the age of 18 she moved to Ireland and later to India, where she lived most of her life. On 4 September 2016, she was canonised by the Catholic Church as Saint Teresa of Calcutta. The anniversary of her death, 5 September, is her feast day.

Umberto Giordano

Umberto Giordano 43 Umberto Menotti Maria Giordano was an Italian composer, mainly of operas. His best-known work in that genre was Andrea Chénier (1896).

Giovanni Maria Angioy

Giovanni Maria Angioy 43 Giovanni Maria Angioy was a Sardinian politician and patriot and is considered to be a national hero by Sardinian nationalists. Although best known for his political activities, Angioy was a university lecturer, a judge for the Reale Udienza, an entrepreneur and a banker.

Gaetano Salvemini

Gaetano Salvemini 42 Gaetano Salvemini was an Italian socialist and anti-fascist politician, historian, and writer. Born in a family of modest means, he became an acclaimed historian both in Italy and abroad, particularly in the United States, after he was forced into exile by Benito Mussolini's Italian fascist regime.

Benedict of Nursia

Benedict of Nursia 42 Benedict of Nursia, often known as Saint Benedict, was an Italian Christian monk, writer, and theologian. He is venerated in the Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Oriental Orthodox Churches, the Anglican Communion, and Old Catholic Churches. In 1964 Pope Paul VI declared Benedict a patron saint of Europe.

Giorgio Amendola

Giorgio Amendola 42 Giorgio Amendola was an Italian writer and politician. He is regarded and often cited as one of the main precursors of the Olive Tree. Born in Rome in 1907, Amendola was the son of Lithuanian intellectual Eva Kühn and Giovanni Amendola, a liberal anti-fascist who died in 1926 in Cannes after having been attacked by killers hired by Benito Mussolini. He secretly joined the Italian Communist Party (PCI) in 1929. After graduating in law, he started to propagandize opposition to the Mussolini regime.


Pythagoras 42 Pythagoras of Samos was an ancient Ionian Greek philosopher, polymath and the eponymous founder of Pythagoreanism. His political and religious teachings were well known in Magna Graecia and influenced the philosophies of Plato, Aristotle, and, through them, the West in general. Knowledge of his life is clouded by legend; modern scholars disagree regarding Pythagoras's education and influences, but they do agree that, around 530 BC, he travelled to Croton in southern Italy, where he founded a school in which initiates were sworn to secrecy and lived a communal, ascetic lifestyle. This lifestyle entailed a number of dietary prohibitions, traditionally said to have included aspects of vegetarianism.

Alfredo Catalani

Alfredo Catalani 42 Alfredo Catalani was an Italian operatic composer. He is best remembered for his operas Loreley (1890) and La Wally (1892). La Wally was composed to a libretto by Luigi Illica, and features Catalani's most famous aria "Ebben? Ne andrò lontana." This aria, sung by American soprano Wilhelmenia Fernandez, was at the heart of Jean-Jacques Beineix's 1981 film Diva. Catalani's other operas were much less successful.

Ada Negri

Ada Negri 42 Ada Negri was an Italian poet and writer. She was the only woman to be admitted to the Academy of Italy.

Francesco Cilea

Francesco Cilea 41 Francesco Cilea was an Italian composer. Today he is particularly known for his operas L'arlesiana and Adriana Lecouvreur.

Saint Valentine

Saint Valentine 41 Saint Valentine was a 3rd-century Roman saint, commemorated in Western Christianity on February 14 and in Eastern Orthodoxy on July 6. From the High Middle Ages, his feast day has been associated with a tradition of courtly love. He is also a patron saint of Terni, epilepsy and beekeepers. Saint Valentine was a clergyman – either a priest or a bishop – in the Roman Empire who ministered to persecuted Christians. He was martyred and his body buried on the Via Flaminia on February 14, which has been observed as the Feast of Saint Valentine since at least the eighth century.

Beniamino Gigli

Beniamino Gigli 41 Beniamino Gigli was an Italian opera singer. He is widely regarded as one of the greatest tenors of his generation.

Albert Einstein

Albert Einstein 40 Albert Einstein was a German-born theoretical physicist who is widely held to be one of the greatest and most influential scientists of all time. Best known for developing the theory of relativity, Einstein also made important contributions to quantum mechanics, and was thus a central figure in the revolutionary reshaping of the scientific understanding of nature that modern physics accomplished in the first decades of the twentieth century. His mass–energy equivalence formula E = mc2, which arises from relativity theory, has been called "the world's most famous equation". He received the 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics "for his services to theoretical physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect", a pivotal step in the development of quantum theory. His work is also known for its influence on the philosophy of science. In a 1999 poll of 130 leading physicists worldwide by the British journal Physics World, Einstein was ranked the greatest physicist of all time. His intellectual achievements and originality have made the word Einstein broadly synonymous with genius.

Alexander Fleming

Alexander Fleming 39 Sir Alexander Fleming was a Scottish physician and microbiologist, best known for discovering the world's first broadly effective antibiotic substance, which he named penicillin. His discovery in 1928 of what was later named benzylpenicillin from the mould Penicillium rubens has been described as the "single greatest victory ever achieved over disease". For this discovery, he shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1945 with Howard Florey and Ernst Boris Chain.

Arturo Malignani

Arturo Malignani 38 Arturo Malignani è stato un imprenditore e inventore italiano che si segnalò in particolare per i brevetti nel campo dell'illuminazione elettrica, per lo sviluppo e le applicazioni in Friuli dell'energia elettrica e dei cementifici.

Ludovico Antonio Muratori

Ludovico Antonio Muratori 38 Lodovico Antonio Muratori was an Italian Catholic priest, notable as historian and a leading scholar of his age, and for his discovery of the Muratorian fragment, the earliest known list of New Testament books.

Filippo Brunelleschi

Filippo Brunelleschi 38 Filippo di ser Brunellesco di Lippo Lapi, commonly known as Filippo Brunelleschi and also nicknamed Pippo by Leon Battista Alberti, was an Italian architect, designer, goldsmith and sculptor. He is considered to be a founding father of Renaissance architecture. He is recognized as the first modern engineer, planner, and sole construction supervisor. In 1421, Brunelleschi became the first person to receive a patent in the Western world. He is most famous for designing the dome of the Florence Cathedral, and for the mathematical technique of linear perspective in art which governed pictorial depictions of space until the late 19th century and influenced the rise of modern science. His accomplishments also include other architectural works, sculpture, mathematics, engineering, and ship design. Most surviving works can be found in Florence.


Donatello 38 Donato di Niccolò di Betto Bardi, known mononymously as Donatello, was an Italian sculptor of the Renaissance period. Born in Florence, he studied classical sculpture and used his knowledge to develop an Early Renaissance style of sculpture. He spent time in other cities, where he worked on commissions and taught others; his periods in Rome, Padua, and Siena introduced to other parts of Italy the techniques he had developed in the course of a long and productive career. His David was the first freestanding nude male sculpture since antiquity; like much of his work it was commissioned by the Medici family.

Domenico Alberto Azuni

Domenico Alberto Azuni 38 Domenico Alberto Azuni was a Sardinian jurist.                                                     

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart 37 Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was a prolific and influential composer of the Classical period. Despite his short life, his rapid pace of composition resulted in more than 800 works representing virtually every Western classical genre of his time. Many of these compositions are acknowledged as pinnacles of the symphonic, concertante, chamber, operatic, and choral repertoire. Mozart is widely regarded as being one of the greatest composers in the history of Western music, with his music admired for its "melodic beauty, its formal elegance and its richness of harmony and texture".

Augusto Righi

Augusto Righi 37 Augusto Righi was an Italian physicist and a pioneer in the study of electromagnetism. He was born and died in Bologna.

Luigi Orione

Luigi Orione 36 Luigi Giovanni Orione was an Italian priest who was active in answering the social needs of his nation as it faced the social upheavals of the late 19th century. To this end, he founded a religious institute of men. He has been declared a saint by the Catholic Church.

Antonio Rosmini

Antonio Rosmini 36 Antonio Francesco Davide Ambrogio Rosmini-Serbati, IC was an Italian Catholic priest and philosopher. He founded the Rosminians, officially the Institute of Charity, and pioneered the concept of social justice and Italian Liberal Catholicism.

Umberto II of Italy

Umberto II of Italy 36 Umberto II was the last King of Italy. Umberto's reign lasted for 34 days, from 9 May 1946 until his formal deposition on 12 June 1946, although he had been the de facto head of state since 1944. Due to his short reign, he was nicknamed the May King.

Pablo Neruda

Pablo Neruda 36 Pablo Neruda was a Chilean poet-diplomat and politician who won the 1971 Nobel Prize in Literature. Neruda became known as a poet when he was 13 years old and wrote in a variety of styles, including surrealist poems, historical epics, political manifestos, a prose autobiography, and passionate love poems such as the ones in his collection Twenty Love Poems and a Song of Despair (1924).

Emilio Alessandrini

Emilio Alessandrini 36 Emilio Alessandrini è stato un magistrato italiano, assassinato durante gli anni di piombo da un commando del gruppo terroristico Prima Linea.

Walter Tobagi

Walter Tobagi 36 Walter Tobagi was an Italian journalist and writer. He was killed in a terrorist attack by the Brigade XXVIII March, a left-wing terrorist group.

Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina

Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina 36 Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina was an Italian composer of late Renaissance music. The central representative of the Roman School, with Orlande de Lassus and Tomás Luis de Victoria, Palestrina is considered the leading composer of late 16th-century Europe.

Giovanni da Verrazzano

Giovanni da Verrazzano 36 Giovanni da Verrazzano was an Italian (Florentine) explorer of North America, in the service of King Francis I of France.

Carlo Porta

Carlo Porta 36 Carlo Porta was an Italian poet, the most famous writer in Milanese.                               

Giorgio La Pira

Giorgio La Pira 36 Giorgio La Pira, TOSD was an Italian Catholic politician who served as the Mayor of Florence. He also served as a deputy for Christian Democracy and participated in the assembly that wrote the Italian Constitution following World War II. In his public and private life he was a tireless champion of peace and human rights who worked for the betterment of the poor and disenfranchised. La Pira belonged to the Third Order of Saint Dominic. From 1934 until his death he lived in the San Marco complex.

Giovanni Segantini

Giovanni Segantini 35 Giovanni Segantini was an Italian painter known for his large pastoral landscapes of the Alps. He was one of the most famous artists in Europe in the late 19th century, and his paintings were collected by major museums. In later life, he combined a Divisionist painting style with Symbolist images of nature. He was active in Switzerland during the last period of his life.

Carlo Collodi

Carlo Collodi 35 Carlo Lorenzini, better known by the pen name Carlo Collodi, was an Italian author, humourist, and journalist, widely known for his fairy tale novel The Adventures of Pinocchio.

Karl Marx

Karl Marx 35 Karl Marx was a German-born philosopher, economist, political theorist, historian, sociologist, journalist, and revolutionary socialist. His best-known works are the 1848 pamphlet The Communist Manifesto and the three-volume Das Kapital (1867–1894); the latter employs his critical approach of historical materialism in an analysis of capitalism and is the culmination of his intellectual efforts. Marx's ideas and theories and their subsequent development, collectively known as Marxism, have exerted enormous influence on modern intellectual, economic and political history.

Amedeo Modigliani

Amedeo Modigliani 35 Amedeo Clemente Modigliani was an Italian painter and sculptor of the École de Paris who worked mainly in France. He is known for portraits and nudes in a modern style characterized by a surreal elongation of faces, necks, and figures — works that were not received well during his lifetime, but later became much sought-after. Modigliani spent his youth in Italy, where he studied the art of antiquity and the Renaissance. In 1906, he moved to Paris, where he came into contact with such artists as Pablo Picasso and Constantin Brâncuși. By 1912, Modigliani was exhibiting highly stylized sculptures with Cubists of the Section d'Or group at the Salon d'Automne.

Saint Christopher

Saint Christopher 34 Saint Christopher is venerated by several Christian denominations as a martyr killed in the reign of the 3rd-century Roman emperor Decius, or alternatively under the emperor Maximinus Daia. There appears to be confusion due to the similarity in names "Decius" and "Daia". Churches and monasteries were named after him by the 7th century.

Piero della Francesca

Piero della Francesca 34 Piero della Francesca was an Italian painter of the early Renaissance. To contemporaries he was also known as a mathematician and geometer. Nowadays Piero della Francesca is chiefly appreciated for his art. His painting is characterized by its serene humanism, its use of geometric forms and perspective. His most famous work is the cycle of frescoes The History of the True Cross in the church of San Francesco in the Tuscan town of Arezzo.

Giulio Pastore

Giulio Pastore 34 Giulio Pastore è stato un sindacalista e politico italiano, Ministro con delega al Mezzogiorno in tutti i governi tra il 1958 e il 1968 nonché fondatore e primo segretario nazionale della CISL, che ha guidato dal 1950 al 1958.

Riccardo Zandonai

Riccardo Zandonai 34 Riccardo Zandonai was an Italian composer and conductor.                                           

Vittorio Bottego

Vittorio Bottego 34 Vittorio Bottego was an Italian army officer and one of the first Western explorers of Jubaland in the Horn of Africa, where he led two expeditions. He was an artillery captain in the Italian Army.

Daniel of Padua

Daniel of Padua 34 Saint Daniel of Padua is venerated as the deacon of Saint Prosdocimus, the first Bishop of Padua. Said to have been of Jewish extraction, he aided Prosdocimus, who evangelized northeastern Nava. Daniel was later martyred.

Luigi Monza

Luigi Monza 33 Blessed Luigi Monza was an Italian Roman Catholic priest and the founder of the Secular Institute of the Little Apostles of Charity. Monza's pastoral mission was defined with catering to the needs of the poor and the sick and used his new congregation as a means of spreading this mission.

Tommaso Campanella

Tommaso Campanella 33 Tommaso Campanella, baptized Giovanni Domenico Campanella, was an Italian Dominican friar, philosopher, theologian, astrologer, and poet.

Luigi Carlo Farini

Luigi Carlo Farini 33 Luigi Carlo Farini was an Italian physician, statesman and historian.                               

Umberto Saba

Umberto Saba 33 Umberto Saba was an Italian poet and novelist, born Umberto Poli in the cosmopolitan Mediterranean port of Trieste when it was the fourth largest city of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Poli assumed the pen name "Saba" in 1910, and his name was officially changed to Umberto Saba in 1928. From 1919 he was the proprietor of an antiquarian bookshop in Trieste. He suffered from depression for all of his adult life.

Giuseppe Zanardelli

Giuseppe Zanardelli 33 Giuseppe Zanardelli was an Italian jurist and political figure. He served as the Prime Minister of Italy from 15 February 1901 to 3 November 1903. An eloquent orator, he was also a Grand Master freemason. Zanardelli, representing the bourgeoisie from Lombardy, personified the classical 19th-century liberalism, committed to suffrage expansion, anticlericalism, civil liberties, free trade and laissez-faire economics. Throughout his long political career, he was among the most ardent advocates of freedom of conscience and divorce.

Tito Speri

Tito Speri 33 Tito Speri was an Italian patriot and hero of the Risorgimento.                                     

Olof Palme

Olof Palme 33 Sven Olof Joachim Palme was a Swedish politician and statesman who served as Prime Minister of Sweden from 1969 to 1976 and 1982 to 1986. Palme led the Swedish Social Democratic Party from 1969 until his assassination in 1986.

Bernardino of Siena

Bernardino of Siena 33 Bernardino of Siena, OFM, was an Italian Catholic priest and Franciscan missionary preacher in Italy. He was a systematizer of scholastic economics.

Carlo Gnocchi

Carlo Gnocchi 32 Carlo Gnocchi was an Italian priest, educator and writer. He is venerated as a blessed by the Catholic Church.

Enzo Ferrari

Enzo Ferrari 32 Enzo Anselmo Giuseppe Maria Ferrari was an Italian motor racing driver and entrepreneur, the founder of the Scuderia Ferrari Grand Prix motor racing team, and subsequently of the Ferrari automobile marque. He was widely known as Il Commendatore or Il Drake. In his final years he was often referred to as L'Ingegnere or Il Grande Vecchio.

Dominic Savio

Dominic Savio 32 Dominic Savio was an Italian student of John Bosco. He was studying to be a priest when he became ill and died at the age of 14, possibly from pleurisy. He was noted for his piety and devotion to the Catholic faith, and was canonized a saint by Pope Pius XII in 1954.

Cesare Cantù

Cesare Cantù 32 Cesare Cantù was an Italian historian, writer, archivist and politician. An immensely prolific writer, Cantù was one of Italy's best-known and most important Romantic scholars.

Camillo Prampolini

Camillo Prampolini 32 Camillo Prampolini è stato un politico socialista italiano.                                         

Benedetto Cairoli

Benedetto Cairoli 31 Benedetto Cairoli was an Italian politician, who served as Prime Minister of Italy for 2 years.     

Giacomo Zanella

Giacomo Zanella 31 Giacomo Zanella was an Italian poet.                                                               

Lorenzo Perosi

Lorenzo Perosi 31 Monsignor Lorenzo Perosi was an Italian composer of sacred music and the only member of the Giovane Scuola who did not write opera. In the late 1890s, while he was still only in his twenties, Perosi was an internationally celebrated composer of sacred music, especially large-scale oratorios. Nobel Prize winner Romain Rolland wrote, "It's not easy to give you an exact idea of how popular Lorenzo Perosi is in his native country." Perosi's fame was not restricted to Europe. A 19 March 1899 New York Times article entitled "The Genius of Don Perosi" began, "The great and ever-increasing success which has greeted the four new oratorios of Don Lorenzo Perosi has placed this young priest-composer on a pedestal of fame which can only be compared with that which has been accorded of late years to the idolized Pietro Mascagni by his fellow-countrymen." Gianandrea Gavazzeni made the same comparison: "The sudden clamors of applause, at the end of the [19th] century, were just like those a decade earlier for Mascagni." Perosi worked for five Popes, including Pope Pius X who greatly fostered his rise.

Saint Barbara

Saint Barbara 31 Saint Barbara, known in the Eastern Orthodox Church as the Great Martyr Barbara, was an early Christian Greek saint and martyr.

Amadeo I of Spain

Amadeo I of Spain 31 Amadeo I, also known as Amadeus, was an Italian prince who reigned as King of Spain from 1870 to 1873. The only king of Spain to come from the House of Savoy, he was the second son of Victor Emmanuel II of Italy and was known for most of his life as the Duke of Aosta, the usual title for a second son in the Savoyard dynasty.

Ferruccio Parri

Ferruccio Parri 31 Ferruccio Parri was an Italian partisan and anti-fascist politician who served as the 29th Prime Minister of Italy, and the first to be appointed after the end of World War II. During the war, he was also known by his nom de guerre Maurizio.

Cornelius Gallus

Cornelius Gallus 31 Gaius Cornelius Gallus was a Roman poet, orator, politician and military commander, at one time appointed by the Emperor Augustus as prefect of Egypt. Although only nine lines of his poetry are extant today, he was considered by Ovid as one of the major Latin poets of the 1st century BC.

Giovanni Bovio

Giovanni Bovio 30 Giovanni Bovio was an Italian philosopher and a politician of the Italian Republican Party.         

Leon Battista Alberti

Leon Battista Alberti 30 Leon Battista Alberti was an Italian Renaissance humanist author, artist, architect, poet, priest, linguist, philosopher, and cryptographer; he epitomised the nature of those identified now as polymaths. He is considered the founder of Western cryptography, a claim he shares with Johannes Trithemius.

Girolamo Savonarola

Girolamo Savonarola 30 Girolamo Savonarola, OP or Jerome Savonarola was an ascetic Dominican friar from Ferrara and a preacher active in Renaissance Florence. He became known for his prophecies of civic glory, his advocacy of the destruction of secular art and culture, and his calls for Christian renewal. He denounced clerical corruption, despotic rule, and the exploitation of the poor.

Pope Paul VI

Pope Paul VI 30 Pope Paul VI was head of the Catholic Church and sovereign of the Vatican City State from 21 June 1963 to his death in August 1978. Succeeding John XXIII, he continued the Second Vatican Council, which he closed in 1965, implementing its numerous reforms. He fostered improved ecumenical relations with Eastern Orthodox and Protestant churches, which resulted in many historic meetings and agreements. In January 1964, he flew to Jordan, the first time a reigning pontiff had left Italy in more than a century.

Alessandro Tassoni

Alessandro Tassoni 30 Alessandro Tassoni was an Italian poet and writer, from Modena, best known as the author of the mock-heroic poem La secchia rapita.

John the Baptist

John the Baptist 30 John the Baptist was a Jewish preacher active in the area of the Jordan River in the early 1st century AD. He is also known as Saint John the Forerunner in Eastern Orthodoxy, John the Immerser in some Baptist Christian traditions, Saint John by certain Catholic churches, and Prophet Yahya in Islam. He is sometimes alternatively referred to as John the Baptiser.

John Cabot

John Cabot 30 John Cabot was an Italian navigator and explorer. His 1497 voyage to the coast of North America under the commission of Henry VII, King of England is the earliest known European exploration of coastal North America since the Norse visits to Vinland in the eleventh century. To mark the celebration of the 500th anniversary of Cabot's expedition, both the Canadian and British governments declared Cape Bonavista, Newfoundland as representing Cabot's first landing site. However, alternative locations have also been proposed.

Giambattista Vico

Giambattista Vico 30 Giambattista Vico was an Italian philosopher, rhetorician, historian, and jurist during the Italian Enlightenment. He criticized the expansion and development of modern rationalism, finding Cartesian analysis and other types of reductionism impractical to human life, and he was an apologist for classical antiquity and the Renaissance humanities, in addition to being the first expositor of the fundamentals of social science and of semiotics. He is recognised as one of the first Counter-Enlightenment figures in history.

Francesco de Sanctis

Francesco de Sanctis 30 Francesco de Sanctis was an Italian literary critic, scholar and politician, leading critic and historian of Italian language and literature during the 19th century.

Flavio Gioja

Flavio Gioja 30 Flavio Gioia or Gioja, also known as Ioannes Gira Amalphensis is reputed to have been an Italian mariner, inventor, and supposedly a marine pilot. He has traditionally been credited with developing the sailor's compass, but this has been debated. However, he is credited with perfecting it by suspending its needle over a wind rose design with north designed by a fleur-de-lys, and enclosing it in a box with a glass cover. He was also said to have introduced such design, which pointed North, to defend against Charles of Anjou, the French king of Naples.

Paul the Deacon

Paul the Deacon 30 Paul the Deacon, also known as Paulus Diaconus, Warnefridus, Barnefridus, or Winfridus, and sometimes suffixed Cassinensis, was a Benedictine monk, scribe, and historian of the Lombards.

Ennio Porrino

Ennio Porrino 30 Ennio Porrino was an Italian composer and teacher. Amongst his compositions were orchestral works, an oratorio and several operas and ballets. His best known work is the symphonic poem Sardegna, a tribute to his native Sardinia, which premiered in Florence in 1933.

Arturo Zardini

Arturo Zardini 30 Arturo Zardini è stato un compositore italiano.                                                     

Paolo Veronese

Paolo Veronese 29 Paolo Caliari, known as Paolo Veronese, was an Italian Renaissance painter based in Venice, known for extremely large history paintings of religion and mythology, such as The Wedding at Cana (1563) and The Feast in the House of Levi (1573). Included with Titian, a generation older, and Tintoretto, a decade senior, Veronese is one of the "great trio that dominated Venetian painting of the cinquecento" and the Late Renaissance in the 16th century. Known as a supreme colorist, and after an early period with Mannerism, Paolo Veronese developed a naturalist style of painting, influenced by Titian.

Antonio Locatelli

Antonio Locatelli 29 Antonio Locatelli was a pioneering Italian aviator and National Fascist Party legislator. He served in Gabriele d'Annunzio's air squadron during the war against Austria and was decorated. After the war, he became a deputy to Parliament. In 1924 he attempted a transatlantic flight but was forced down into the seas off Greenland, whence he was rescued. He was killed during the Second Italo-Ethiopian War.

Giuseppe Cesare Abba

Giuseppe Cesare Abba 29 Giuseppe Cesare Abba was an Italian patriot and writer. As a participant on the expedition of i Mille he fought next to Giuseppe Garibaldi in his conquest of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies in 1860.

Antonio Stoppani

Antonio Stoppani 29 Antonio Stoppani was an Italian Catholic priest, patriot, geologist and palaeontologist. He studied the geology of the Italian region and wrote a popular treatise, Il Bel Paese, on geology and natural history. He was among the first to propose a geological epoch dominated by human activities that altered the shape of the land.

Francesco Domenico Guerrazzi

Francesco Domenico Guerrazzi 29 Francesco Domenico Guerrazzi was an Italian writer and politician involved in the Italian Risorgimento.

Renato Fucini

Renato Fucini 29 Renato Fucini (1843–1921) was an Italian writer and poet.                                           

Fra Angelico

Fra Angelico 29 Fra Angelico, OP was a Dominican friar and Italian painter of the Early Renaissance, described by Giorgio Vasari in his Lives of the Artists as having "a rare and perfect talent". He earned his reputation primarily for the series of frescoes he made for his own friary, San Marco, in Florence, then worked in Rome and other cities. All his known work is of religious subjects.

Vasco da Gama

Vasco da Gama 29 Vasco da Gama, 1st Count of Vidigueira, was a Portuguese explorer and the first European to reach India by sea.

Pope Sylvester I

Pope Sylvester I 29 Pope Sylvester I was the bishop of Rome from 31 January 314 until his death on 31 December 335. He filled the See of Rome at an important era in the history of the Western Church, though very little is known of his life.

Alessandro Scarlatti

Alessandro Scarlatti 29 Pietro Alessandro Gaspare Scarlatti was an Italian Baroque composer, known especially for his operas and chamber cantatas. He is considered the most important representative of the Neapolitan school of opera.

Alfredo Oriani

Alfredo Oriani 28 Alfredo Oriani was an Italian author, writer and social critic. He is often considered a precursor of Fascism, and in 1940 his books were placed on the Index Librorum Prohibitorum of the Catholic Church.

Sacco and Vanzetti

Sacco and Vanzetti 28 Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti were Italian immigrants and anarchists who were controversially convicted of murdering Alessandro Berardelli and Frederick Parmenter, a guard and a paymaster, during the April 15, 1920, armed robbery of the Slater and Morrill Shoe Company in Braintree, Massachusetts, United States. Seven years later, they were executed in the electric chair at Charlestown State Prison.

Giuseppe Motta

Giuseppe Motta 28 Giuseppe Motta was a Swiss politician. He was a member of the Swiss Federal Council (1911–1940) and President of the League of Nations (1924–1925). He was a Catholic-conservative foreign minister and a staunch opponent of communism and Stalinism.

Giuseppe Massarenti

Giuseppe Massarenti 28 Giuseppe Massarenti è stato un politico e sindacalista italiano. Pioniere delle lotte sindacali nella pianura bolognese, organizzò e guidò il movimento dei lavoratori agricoli di Molinella, comune di cui fu tre volte sindaco e che durante la sua amministrazione divenne un modello del socialismo riformista italiano. Perseguitato dal fascismo, fu inviato al confino per cinque anni. Fu poi rinchiuso in un manicomio con una perizia falsa. Per la sua vita, interamente dedicata alla redenzione dei contadini di Molinella, venne chiamato il Santo delle paludi.

Guido Reni

Guido Reni 28 Guido Reni was an Italian painter of the Baroque period, although his works showed a classical manner, similar to Simon Vouet, Nicolas Poussin, and Philippe de Champaigne. He painted primarily religious works, but also mythological and allegorical subjects. Active in Rome, Naples, and his native Bologna, he became the dominant figure in the Bolognese School that emerged under the influence of the Carracci.

Piersanti Mattarella

Piersanti Mattarella 28 Piersanti Mattarella was an Italian politician who was assassinated by the Mafia while he held the position of President of the Regional Government of Sicily. A member of Christian Democracy, he was the older brother of Sergio Mattarella, who has been President of Italy since 2015.

Cesare Balbo

Cesare Balbo 27 Cesare Balbo, Conte di Vinadio, was an Italian writer and statesman.                               

Giuseppe Toniolo

Giuseppe Toniolo 27 Giuseppe Toniolo was an Italian Roman Catholic economist, sociologist, and pioneer of Christian democracy. A leading political and social economist, Toniolo condemned both socialism and laissez-faire capitalism, advocating instead for an economic system in which social, judicial, and economic forces cooperate proportionately for the common good. Toniolo was an early Catholic advocate of labour unions and social reform. Describing the economy as an "integral part of the operative design of God," his work was inspired by Catholic social teaching.

Amedeo Avogadro

Amedeo Avogadro 27 Lorenzo Romano Amedeo Carlo Avogadro, Count of Quaregna and Cerreto (, also, Italian: [ameˈdɛːo avoˈɡaːdro]; 9 August 1776 – 9 July 1856) was an Italian scientist, most noted for his contribution to molecular theory now known as Avogadro's law, which states that equal volumes of gases under the same conditions of temperature and pressure will contain equal numbers of molecules. In tribute to him, the ratio of the number of elementary entities (atoms, molecules, ions or other particles) in a substance to its amount of substance (the latter having the unit mole), 6.02214076×1023 mol−1, is known as the Avogadro constant. This constant is denoted NA, and is one of the seven defining constants of the SI.

Padre Pio

Padre Pio 27 Pio of Pietrelcina, widely known as Padre Pio, was an Italian Capuchin friar, priest, stigmatist, and mystic. He is venerated as a saint in the Catholic Church, celebrated on 23 September.

Italo Svevo

Italo Svevo 26 Aron Hector Schmitz, better known by the pseudonym Italo Svevo, was an Italian and Austro-Hungarian writer, businessman, novelist, playwright, and short story writer.

Antonio Labriola

Antonio Labriola 26 Antonio Labriola was an Italian Marxist theoretician and philosopher. Although an academic philosopher and never an active member of any Marxist political party, his thought exerted influence on many political theorists in Italy during the early 20th century, including the founder of the Italian Liberal Party, Benedetto Croce, as well as the leaders of the Italian Communist Party, Antonio Gramsci and Amadeo Bordiga. He also influenced the Russian revolutionary and Soviet politician Leon Trotsky.

Antonio Pigafetta

Antonio Pigafetta 26 Antonio Pigafetta was a Venetian scholar and explorer. He joined the Spanish expedition to the Spice Islands led by Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan, the world's first circumnavigation, and is best known for being the chronicler of the voyage. During the expedition, he served as Magellan's assistant until Magellan's death in the Philippine Islands, and kept an accurate journal, which later assisted him in translating the Cebuano language. It is the first recorded document concerning the language.

Manfredo Fanti

Manfredo Fanti 25 Manfredo Fanti was an Italian general; he is known as the founder of the Royal Italian Army.       

Giuseppe Romita

Giuseppe Romita 25 Giuseppe Romita was an Italian socialist politician. He served several times as a cabinet minister and member of the Italian Parliament.

Guido of Arezzo

Guido of Arezzo 25 Guido of Arezzo was an Italian music theorist and pedagogue of High medieval music. A Benedictine monk, he is regarded as the inventor—or by some, developer—of the modern staff notation that had a massive influence on the development of Western musical notation and practice. Perhaps the most significant European writer on music between Boethius and Johannes Tinctoris, after the former's De institutione musica, Guido's Micrologus was the most widely distributed medieval treatise on music.

Guido Gozzano

Guido Gozzano 25 Guido Gustavo Gozzano was an Italian poet and writer.                                               

Agatha of Sicily

Agatha of Sicily 25 Agatha of Sicily is a Christian saint. Her feast is on 5 February. Agatha was born in Catania, part of the Roman Province of Sicily, and was martyred c. 251. She is one of several virgin martyrs who are commemorated by name in the Canon of the Mass.

Pablo Picasso

Pablo Picasso 25 Pablo Ruiz Picasso was a Spanish painter, sculptor, printmaker, ceramicist, and theatre designer who spent most of his adult life in France. One of the most influential artists of the 20th century, he is known for co-founding the Cubist movement, the invention of constructed sculpture, the co-invention of collage, and for the wide variety of styles that he helped develop and explore. Among his most famous works are the proto-Cubist Les Demoiselles d'Avignon (1907) and the anti-war painting Guernica (1937), a dramatic portrayal of the bombing of Guernica by German and Italian air forces during the Spanish Civil War.

Giovanni Paisiello

Giovanni Paisiello 25 Giovanni Paisiello was an Italian composer of the Classical era, and was the most popular opera composer of the late 1700s. His operatic style influenced Mozart and Rossini.

Giorgio Asproni (politico)

Giorgio Asproni (politico) 25 Giorgio Asproni è stato un politico italiano, tra le massime figure della storia moderna sarda, autonomista, federalista e repubblicano.

Thomas the Apostle

Thomas the Apostle 24 Thomas the Apostle, also known as Didymus, was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus according to the New Testament. Thomas is commonly known as "Doubting Thomas" because he initially doubted the resurrection of Jesus Christ when he was told of it ; he later confessed his faith on seeing the places where the wounds had healed on the holy body of Jesus after the Crucifixion of Jesus. While it is often assumed he touched the wounds in art and poetry, the scriptures do not say that he touched the wounds.

Vitalis of Milan

Vitalis of Milan 24 Vitalis of Milan was an early Christian martyr and saint.                                           


Jesus 24 Jesus, also referred to as Jesus Christ, Jesus of Nazareth, and many other names and titles, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader. He is the central figure of Christianity, the world's largest religion. Most Christians believe Jesus to be the incarnation of God the Son and the awaited messiah, the Christ that is prophesied in the Old Testament.

Arcangelo Corelli

Arcangelo Corelli 24 Arcangelo Corelli was an Italian composer and violinist of the Baroque era. His music was key in the development of the modern genres of sonata and concerto, in establishing the preeminence of the violin, and as the first coalescing of modern tonality and functional harmony.

Giovanni Falcone

Giovanni Falcone 24 Giovanni Salvatore Augusto Falcone è stato un magistrato italiano.                                 

Umberto Terracini

Umberto Terracini 24 Umberto Elia Terracini was an Italian politician.                                                   

Pietro Fortunato Calvi

Pietro Fortunato Calvi 24 Pietro Fortunato Calvi, noto anche come Pier Fortunato Calvi, è stato un patriota italiano, uno dei Martiri di Belfiore.

Federico Confalonieri

Federico Confalonieri 24 Count Federico Confalonieri was an Italian revolutionist.                                           

Francesco Ciusa

Francesco Ciusa 24 Francesco Ciusa was an Italian sculptor.                                                           

Matteo Maria Boiardo

Matteo Maria Boiardo 23 Matteo Maria Boiardo was an Italian Renaissance poet, best known for his epic poem Orlando innamorato.


Giorgione 23 Giorgione was an Italian painter of the Venetian school during the High Renaissance, who died in his thirties. He is known for the elusive poetic quality of his work, though only about six surviving paintings are firmly attributed to him. The uncertainty surrounding the identity and meaning of his work has made Giorgione one of the most mysterious figures in European art.

Tommaso Grossi

Tommaso Grossi 23 Tommaso Grossi was an Italian poet and novelist.                                                   

Gianni Rodari

Gianni Rodari 23 Giovanni Francesco "Gianni" Rodari was an Italian writer and journalist, most famous for his works of children's literature, notably Il romanzo di Cipollino. For his lasting contribution as a children's author, he received the biennial Hans Christian Andersen Medal in 1970. He is considered as Italy's most important 20th-century children's author and his books have been translated into many languages, though few have been published in English.

Marco Minghetti

Marco Minghetti 23 Marco Minghetti was an Italian economist and statesman.                                             

Louis Pasteur

Louis Pasteur 23 Louis Pasteur was a French chemist, pharmacist, and microbiologist renowned for his discoveries of the principles of vaccination, microbial fermentation, and pasteurization, the last of which was named after him. His research in chemistry led to remarkable breakthroughs in the understanding of the causes and preventions of diseases, which laid down the foundations of hygiene, public health and much of modern medicine. Pasteur's works are credited with saving millions of lives through the developments of vaccines for rabies and anthrax. He is regarded as one of the founders of modern bacteriology and has been honored as the "father of bacteriology" and the "father of microbiology".

Fabrizio De André

Fabrizio De André 23 Fabrizio Cristiano De André was an Italian singer-songwriter and the most-prominent cantautore of his time. His 40-year career reflects his interests in concept albums, literature, poetry, political protest, and French music. He is considered a prominent member of the Genoese School. Because of the success of his music in Italy and its impact on the Italian collective memory, many public places such as roads, squares, and schools in Italy are named after De André.

Matthew the Apostle

Matthew the Apostle 23 Matthew the Apostle is named in the New Testament as one of the twelve apostles of Jesus. According to Christian traditions, he was also one of the four Evangelists as author of the Gospel of Matthew, and thus is also known as Matthew the Evangelist.

Ignazio Silone

Ignazio Silone 23 Secondino Tranquilli, best known by the pseudonym Ignazio Silone, was an Italian politician, novelist, essayist, playwright, and short-story writer, world-famous during World War II for his powerful anti-fascist novels. Considered among the most well-known and read Italian intellectuals in Europe and in the world, his most famous novel, Fontamara, became emblematic for its denunciation of the condition of poverty, injustice, and social oppression of the lower classes, has been translated into numerous languages. From 1946 to 1963, he was nominated for the Nobel Prize in Literature.

Rita of Cascia

Rita of Cascia 23 Rita of Cascia, OSA, was an Italian widow and Augustinian nun. After Rita's husband died, she joined an Augustinian community of religious sisters, where she was known both for practicing mortification of the flesh and for the efficacy of her prayers. Various miracles are attributed to her intercession, and she is often portrayed with a bleeding wound on her forehead, which is understood to indicate a partial stigmata.

Ezio Vanoni

Ezio Vanoni 23 Ezio Vanoni was an Italian economist and politician who served as Minister of Finance from May 1948 to January 1954 and Minister Budget from January 1954 until February 1956.

Piero Calamandrei

Piero Calamandrei 23 Piero Calamandrei was an Italian author, jurist, soldier, university professor, and politician. He was one of Italy's leading authorities on the law of civil procedure.

Giovanni Battista Tuveri

Giovanni Battista Tuveri 23 Giovanni Battista Tuveri è stato un filosofo, scrittore e politico italiano.                       

Federico Fellini

Federico Fellini 22 Federico Fellini was an Italian film director and screenwriter. He is known for his distinctive style, which blends fantasy and baroque images with earthiness. He is recognized as one of the greatest and most influential filmmakers of all time. His films have ranked highly in critical polls such as that of Cahiers du Cinéma and Sight & Sound, which lists his 1963 film 8+1⁄2 as the 10th-greatest film.

Philip Neri

Philip Neri 22 Philip Romolo Neri, known as the "Second Apostle of Rome" after Saint Peter, was an Italian Catholic priest noted for founding the Congregation of the Oratory, a society of secular clergy.

Alberto da Giussano

Alberto da Giussano 22 Alberto da Giussano is a legendary character of the 12th century who would have participated, as a protagonist, in the battle of Legnano on 29 May 1176. In reality, according to historians, the actual military leader of the Lombard League in the famous military battle with Frederick Barbarossa was Guido da Landriano. Historical analyses made over time have indeed shown that the figure of Alberto da Giussano never existed.

Ludwig van Beethoven

Ludwig van Beethoven 22 Ludwig van Beethoven was a German composer and pianist. He is one of the most revered figures in the history of Western music; his works rank among the most performed of the classical music repertoire and span the transition from the Classical period to the Romantic era in classical music. Beethoven's career has conventionally been divided into early, middle, and late periods. His early period, during which he forged his craft, is typically considered to have lasted until 1802. From 1802 to around 1812, his middle period showed an individual development from the styles of Joseph Haydn and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, and is sometimes characterized as heroic. During this time, he began to grow increasingly deaf. In his late period, from 1812 to 1827, he extended his innovations in musical form and expression.

Guido Cavalcanti

Guido Cavalcanti 22 Guido Cavalcanti was an Italian poet. He was also a friend and intellectual influence on Dante Alighieri.

Rosa Luxemburg

Rosa Luxemburg 22 Rosa Luxemburg was a Polish and naturalised-German revolutionary socialist, orthodox Marxist, and anti-War activist during the First World War. She became a key figure of the revolutionary socialist movements of Poland and Germany during the late 19th and early 20th century, particularly the Spartacist uprising.

Primo Levi

Primo Levi 22 Primo Michele Levi was a Jewish-Italian chemist, partisan, writer, and Holocaust survivor. He was the author of several books, collections of short stories, essays, poems and one novel. His best-known works include If This Is a Man, his account of the year he spent as a prisoner in the Auschwitz concentration camp in Nazi-occupied Poland; and The Periodic Table (1975), a collection of mostly autobiographical short stories each named after a chemical element as it played a role in each story, which the Royal Institution named the best science book ever written.

Agnes of Rome

Agnes of Rome 22 Agnes of Rome is a virgin martyr, venerated as a saint in the Catholic Church, Oriental Orthodox Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church, as well as the Anglican Communion and Lutheran Churches. She is one of several virgin martyrs commemorated by name in the Canon of the Mass, and one of many Christians martyred during the reign of the Roman emperor Diocletian.

Francesco Guicciardini

Francesco Guicciardini 22 Francesco Guicciardini was an Italian historian and statesman. A friend and critic of Niccolò Machiavelli, he is considered one of the major political writers of the Italian Renaissance. In his masterpiece, The History of Italy, Guicciardini paved the way for a new style in historiography with his use of government sources to support arguments and the realistic analysis of the people and events of his time.

Nilde Iotti

Nilde Iotti 22 Leonilde Iotti, commonly known as Nilde Iotti was an Italian politician, member of the Italian Communist Party (PCI). She was the first and only woman member of the PCI to become the president of the Chamber of Deputies, an office she held for three consecutive legislatures from 1979 to 1992, becoming the longest-serving post-war president of the Chamber.

Bernardino Luini

Bernardino Luini 22 Bernardino Luini was a north Italian painter from Leonardo's circle during the High Renaissance. Both Luini and Giovanni Antonio Boltraffio were said to have worked with Leonardo directly; he was described as having taken "as much from Leonardo as his native roots enabled him to comprehend". Consequently, many of his works were attributed to Leonardo. He was known especially for his graceful female figures with elongated eyes, called Luinesque by Vladimir Nabokov.


Cicero 21 Marcus Tullius Cicero was a Roman statesman, lawyer, scholar, philosopher, writer and Academic skeptic, who tried to uphold optimate principles during the political crises that led to the establishment of the Roman Empire. His extensive writings include treatises on rhetoric, philosophy and politics. He is considered one of Rome's greatest orators and prose stylists and the innovator of what became known as "Ciceronian rhetoric". Cicero was educated in Rome and in Greece. He came from a wealthy municipal family of the Roman equestrian order, and served as consul in 63 BC.

Francesco Ferruccio

Francesco Ferruccio 21 Francesco Ferruccio was an Italian captain from Florence who fought in the Italian Wars.           

Saint Cecilia

Saint Cecilia 21 Saint Cecilia, also spelled Cecelia, was a Roman virgin martyr and is venerated in Catholic, Orthodox, Anglican, and some Lutheran churches, such as the Church of Sweden. She became the patroness of music and musicians, it being written that, as the musicians played at her wedding, Cecilia "sang in her heart to the Lord". Musical compositions are dedicated to her, and her feast, on 22 November, is the occasion of concerts and musical festivals. She is also known as Cecilia of Rome.

Antonio Cantore

Antonio Cantore 21 Antonio Cantore was an Italian general.                                                             

Alfredo Casella

Alfredo Casella 21 Alfredo Casella was an Italian composer, pianist and conductor.                                     

Aleardo Aleardi

Aleardo Aleardi 21 Aleardo Aleardi, born Gaetano Maria, was an Italian poet who belonged to the so-called Neo-romanticists.

Tito Livio

Tito Livio 21 Tito Livio  fue un historiador romano que escribió una monumental historia del Estado romano en ciento cuarenta y dos libros, desde la legendaria llegada de Eneas a las costas del Lacio hasta la muerte del cuestor y pretor Druso el Mayor.

Zeno of Verona

Zeno of Verona 21 Zeno of Verona was an Afro-Italian Christian figure believe to have either served as Bishop of Verona or died as a martyr. He is venerated as a saint in the Catholic Church and the Orthodox Church.

Pope Gregory I

Pope Gregory I 21 Pope Gregory I, commonly known as Saint Gregory the Great, was the 64th Bishop of Rome from 3 September 590 to his death. He is known for instituting the first recorded large-scale mission from Rome, the Gregorian mission, to convert the then largely pagan Anglo-Saxons to Christianity. Gregory is also well known for his writings, which were more prolific than those of any of his predecessors as pope. The epithet Saint Gregory the Dialogist has been attached to him in Eastern Christianity because of his Dialogues. English translations of Eastern texts sometimes list him as Gregory "Dialogos" from the Greek διάλογος, or the Anglo-Latinate equivalent "Dialogus".

Adelaide Ristori

Adelaide Ristori 21 Adelaide Ristori was a distinguished Italian tragedienne, who was often referred to as the Marquise.

Girolamo Frescobaldi

Girolamo Frescobaldi 21 Girolamo Alessandro Frescobaldi was an Italian composer and virtuoso keyboard player. Born in the Duchy of Ferrara, he was one of the most important composers of keyboard music in the late Renaissance and early Baroque periods. A child prodigy, Frescobaldi studied under Luzzasco Luzzaschi in Ferrara, but was influenced by many composers, including Ascanio Mayone, Giovanni Maria Trabaci, and Claudio Merulo. Girolamo Frescobaldi was appointed organist of St. Peter's Basilica, a focal point of power for the Cappella Giulia, from 21 July 1608 until 1628 and again from 1634 until his death.

Isaac Newton

Isaac Newton 21 Sir Isaac Newton was an English polymath active as a mathematician, physicist, astronomer, alchemist, theologian, and author who was described in his time as a natural philosopher. He was a key figure in the Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment that followed. His pioneering book Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica, first published in 1687, consolidated many previous results and established classical mechanics. Newton also made seminal contributions to optics, and shares credit with German mathematician Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz for developing infinitesimal calculus, though he developed calculus years before Leibniz.

Ettore Majorana

Ettore Majorana 21 Ettore Majorana was an Italian theoretical physicist who worked on neutrino masses. On 25 March 1938, he disappeared under mysterious circumstances after purchasing a ticket to travel by ship from Palermo to Naples.

Saint Maurice

Saint Maurice 20 Maurice was an Egyptian military leader who headed the legendary Theban Legion of Rome in the 3rd century, and is one of the favourite and most widely venerated saints of that martyred group. He is the patron saint of several professions, locales, and kingdoms.

Paolo Sarpi

Paolo Sarpi 20 Paolo Sarpi was a Venetian historian, prelate, scientist, canon lawyer, polymath and statesman active on behalf of the Venetian Republic during the period of its successful defiance of the papal interdict (1605–1607) and its war (1615–1617) with Austria over the Uskok pirates. His writings, frankly polemical and highly critical of the Catholic Church and its Scholastic tradition, "inspired both Hobbes and Edward Gibbon in their own historical debunkings of priestcraft." Sarpi's major work, the History of the Council of Trent (1619), was published in London in 1619; other works: a History of Ecclesiastical Benefices, History of the Interdict and his Supplement to the History of the Uskoks, appeared posthumously. Organized around single topics, they are early examples of the genre of the historical monograph.

Che Guevara

Che Guevara 20 Ernesto "Che" Guevara was an Argentine Marxist revolutionary, physician, author, guerrilla leader, diplomat, and military theorist. A major figure of the Cuban Revolution, his stylized visage has become a ubiquitous countercultural symbol of rebellion and global insignia in popular culture.

Sebastian Cabot (explorer)

Sebastian Cabot (explorer) 20 Sebastian Cabot was a Venetian explorer, likely born in the Venetian Republic and a Venetian citizen. He was the son of Venetian explorer John Cabot and his Venetian wife Mattea.

Italo Calvino

Italo Calvino 20 Italo Calvino was an Italian writer and journalist. His best-known works include the Our Ancestors trilogy (1952–1959), the Cosmicomics collection of short stories (1965), and the novels Invisible Cities (1972) and If on a winter's night a traveler (1979).

Yuri Gagarin

Yuri Gagarin 20 Yuri Alekseyevich Gagarin was a Soviet pilot and cosmonaut who, aboard the first successful crewed spaceflight, became the first human to journey into outer space. Travelling on Vostok 1, Gagarin completed one orbit of Earth on 12 April 1961, with his flight taking 108 minutes. By achieving this major milestone for the Soviet Union amidst the Space Race, he became an international celebrity and was awarded many medals and titles, including the nation's highest distinction: Hero of the Soviet Union.

Luchino Visconti

Luchino Visconti 20 Luchino Visconti di Modrone, Count of Lonate Pozzolo was an Italian filmmaker, theatre and opera director, and screenwriter. He was one of the fathers of cinematic neorealism, but later moved towards luxurious, sweeping epics dealing with themes of beauty, decadence, death, and European history, especially the decay of the nobility and the bourgeoisie. Critic Jonathan Jones wrote that “no one did as much to shape Italian cinema as Luchino Visconti.”

Pancras of Rome

Pancras of Rome 20 Pancras was a Roman citizen who converted to Christianity and was beheaded for his faith at the age of fourteen, around the year 304. His name is Greek (Πανκράτιος) and means "the one that holds everything".

Teresa Urrea

Teresa Urrea 19 Teresa Urrea, often referred to as Teresita and also known as Santa Teresa or La Santa de Cábora among the Mayo, was a Mexican mystic, folk healer, and revolutionary insurgent.

Sophia of Rome

Sophia of Rome 19 Saint Sophia of Rome is venerated as a Christian martyr. She is identified in hagiographical tradition with the figure of Sophia of Milan, the mother of Saints Faith, Hope and Charity, whose veneration is attested for the sixth century.

Giuseppe Dessì

Giuseppe Dessì 19 Giuseppe Dessì was an Italian novelist, short-story writer and playwright from Sardinia. His novel Paese d'ombre won the 1972 Strega Prize and was translated into English as The Forests of Norbio.

Antoninus of Sorrento

Antoninus of Sorrento 19 Antoninus of Sorrento was an Italian abbot, hermit, and saint.                                     

Guglielmo Pepe

Guglielmo Pepe 19 Guglielmo Pepe was an Italian general and patriot. He was brother to Florestano Pepe and cousin to Gabriele Pepe. He was married to Mary Ann Coventry, a Scottish woman who was the widow of John Borthwick Gilchrist, linguist and surgeon to the East India Company.

Claudio Treves

Claudio Treves 19 Claudio Treves was an Italian politician and journalist.                                           

Francesco Rismondo

Francesco Rismondo 19 Francesco Rismondo was an Austrian-born Italian irredentist and decorated military volunteer.       

Pietro Metastasio

Pietro Metastasio 19 Pietro Antonio Domenico Trapassi, better known by his pseudonym of Pietro Metastasio, was an Italian poet and librettist, considered the most important writer of opera seria libretti.

Giuseppe Dossetti

Giuseppe Dossetti 19 Giuseppe Dossetti was an Italian jurist, a politician, and also a Catholic priest from 1958 onward. 

Giovanni Battista Morgagni

Giovanni Battista Morgagni 19 Giovanni Battista Morgagni was an Italian anatomist, generally regarded as the father of modern anatomical pathology, who taught thousands of medical students from many countries during his 56 years as Professor of Anatomy at the University of Padua.

Lazzaro Spallanzani

Lazzaro Spallanzani 19 Lazzaro Spallanzani was an Italian Catholic priest, biologist and physiologist who made important contributions to the experimental study of bodily functions, animal reproduction, and animal echolocation. His research on biogenesis paved the way for the downfall of the theory of spontaneous generation, a prevailing idea at the time that organisms develop from inanimate matters, though the final death blow to the idea was dealt by French scientist Louis Pasteur a century later.

Enrico Tazzoli (priest)

Enrico Tazzoli (priest) 19 Enrico Tazzoli was an Italian patriot and priest, the best known of the Belfiore martyrs.           

Justus of Trieste

Justus of Trieste 19 Saint Justus of Trieste is a Roman Catholic saint.                                                 

Jacopo Tomadini

Jacopo Tomadini 19 Jacopo Bartolomeo Tomadini è stato un compositore e presbitero italiano. Noto per le composizioni di musica sacra, nel 1922 gli è stato intitolato il Conservatorio di Udine.

Luigi Capuana

Luigi Capuana 18 Luigi Capuana was an Italian author and journalist and one of the most important members of the verist movement. He was a contemporary of Giovanni Verga, both having been born in the province of Catania within a year of each other. He was also one of the first Italian authors influenced by the works of Émile Zola, French author and creator of naturalism. Capuana also wrote poetry in Sicilian, of which an example appears below.

Domenico Millelire

Domenico Millelire 18 Domenico Millelire, pseudonym of Domenico Leoni, was an Italian patriot, and officer of Regia Marina Sarda. He is recognised to have gained the first Gold Medal of Military Valor in Italian history. Millelire gave the first defeat to Napoleon Bonaparte.

Eleonora Duse

Eleonora Duse 18 Eleonora Giulia Amalia Duse, often known simply as Duse, was an Italian actress, rated by many as the greatest of her time. She performed in many countries, notably in the plays of Gabriele D'Annunzio and Henrik Ibsen. Duse achieved a unique power of conviction and verity on the stage through intense absorption in the character, "eliminating the self" as she put it, and letting the qualities emerge from within, not imposed through artifice.

Antonio Fratti

Antonio Fratti 18 Antonio Fratti è stato un patriota, politico, avvocato e pubblicista italiano.                     

Gian Domenico Romagnosi

Gian Domenico Romagnosi 18 Gian Domenico Romagnosi was an Italian philosopher, economist and jurist.                           

Felix of Nola

Felix of Nola 18 Felix of Nola was a Christian presbyter at Nola near Naples in Italy. He sold off his possessions to give to the poor, but was arrested and tortured for his Christian faith during the persecution of Roman Emperor Decius. He was believed to have died a martyr's death during the persecution of Decius or Valerian but is now listed in the General Roman Calendar as a confessor of the faith, who survived his tortures.

Pope Pius XII

Pope Pius XII 18 Pope Pius XII was head of the Catholic Church and sovereign of the Vatican City State from 2 March 1939 until his death in October 1958. Before his election to the papacy, he served as secretary of the Department of Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, papal nuncio to Germany, and Cardinal Secretary of State, in which capacity he worked to conclude treaties with various European and Latin American nations, including the Reichskonkordat treaty with the German Reich.

Pope John Paul I

Pope John Paul I 18 Pope John Paul I was head of the Catholic Church and sovereign of the Vatican City from 26 August 1978 until his death 33 days later. His reign is among the shortest in papal history, resulting in the most recent year of three popes and the first to occur since 1605. John Paul I remains the most recent Italian-born pope, the last in a succession of such popes that started with Clement VII in 1523.

Fausto Coppi

Fausto Coppi 18 Angelo Fausto Coppi was an Italian cyclist, the dominant international cyclist of the years after the Second World War. His successes earned him the title Il Campionissimo. He was an all-round racing cyclist: he excelled in both climbing and time trialing, and was also a good sprinter. He won the Giro d'Italia five times, the Tour de France twice, and the World Championship in 1953. Other notable results include winning the Giro di Lombardia five times, the Milan–San Remo three times, as well as wins at Paris–Roubaix and La Flèche Wallonne and setting the hour record (45.798 km) in 1942.

Enrico Cialdini

Enrico Cialdini 18 Enrico Cialdini, Duca di Gaeta was an Italian soldier, politician and diplomat.                     

Amatore Sciesa

Amatore Sciesa 18 Amatore Sciesa è stato un patriota italiano. Era conosciuto anche col nome di Antonio Sciesa, a causa di un errore di trascrizione reso noto dopo varie ricerche e studi dallo scrittore Leo Pollini.

Melozzo da Forlì

Melozzo da Forlì 18 Melozzo da Forlì was an Italian Renaissance painter and architect. His fresco paintings are notable for the use of foreshortening. He was the most important member of the Forlì painting school.

Marco Biagi (jurist)

Marco Biagi (jurist) 18 Marco Biagi was an Italian jurist. A native of Bologna, he was professor of labour law and industrial relations at the University of Modena.

Johann Sebastian Bach

Johann Sebastian Bach 18 Johann Sebastian Bach was a German composer and musician of the late Baroque period. He is known for his prolific authorship of music across a variety of instruments and forms, including; orchestral music such as the Brandenburg Concertos; solo instrumental works such as the cello suites and sonatas and partitas for solo violin; keyboard works such as the Goldberg Variations and The Well-Tempered Clavier; organ works such as the Schubler Chorales and the Toccata and Fugue in D minor; and choral works such as the St Matthew Passion and the Mass in B minor. Since the 19th-century Bach Revival, he has been generally regarded as one of the greatest composers in the history of Western music.

Leonardo Alagon

Leonardo Alagon 18 Leonardo Alagon, even Alagón or de Alagón,, was the last marquis of Oristano (1470–1478).           

Matilde Serao

Matilde Serao 18 Matilde Serao was an Italian journalist and novelist. She was the first woman called to edit an Italian newspaper, Il Corriere di Roma and later Il Giorno. Serao was also the co-founder and editor of the newspaper Il Mattino, and the author of several novels. She never won the Nobel Prize in Literature despite being nominated on six occasions.

Lazarus of Bethany

Lazarus of Bethany 18 Lazarus of Bethany is a figure within the Christian Bible, mentioned in the New Testament in the Gospel of John, who four days after his death is restored to life by Jesus. This is seen by Christians as one of the miracles of Jesus. In the Eastern Orthodox Church, Lazarus is venerated as Righteous Lazarus, the Four-Days Dead. The Eastern Orthodox and Catholic traditions offer varying accounts of the later events of his life.

Anthony the Great

Anthony the Great 18 Anthony the Great was a Christian monk from Egypt, revered since his death as a saint. He is distinguished from other saints named Anthony, such as Anthony of Padua, by various epithets: Anthony of Egypt, Anthony the Abbot, Anthony of the Desert, Anthony the Anchorite, Anthony the Hermit, and Anthony of Thebes. For his importance among the Desert Fathers and to all later Christian monasticism, he is also known as the Father of All Monks. His feast day is celebrated on 17 January among the Eastern Orthodox and Catholic churches and on Tobi 22 in the Coptic calendar.


Ovid 18 Publius Ovidius Naso, known in English as Ovid, was a Roman poet who lived during the reign of Augustus. He was a younger contemporary of Virgil and Horace, with whom he is often ranked as one of the three canonical poets of Latin literature. The Imperial scholar Quintilian considered him the last of the Latin love elegists. Although Ovid enjoyed enormous popularity during his lifetime, the emperor Augustus exiled him to Tomis, the capital of the newly-organised province of Moesia, on the Black Sea, where he remained for the last nine or ten years of his life. Ovid himself attributed his banishment to a "poem and a mistake", but his reluctance to disclose specifics has resulted in much speculation among scholars.

Agostino Gemelli

Agostino Gemelli 18 Agostino Gemelli was an Italian Franciscan friar, physician and psychologist, who was also the founder and first Rector of the Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore of Milan.

Carlo Forlanini

Carlo Forlanini 18 Carlo Forlanini was a medical doctor and professor at the Universities of Turin and Pavia. He was also the inventor of artificial pneumothorax, which was the primary treatment method of pulmonary tuberculosis for the first half of the 20th century and remained in use for severe cases of tuberculosis into the 1970s.

Clement of Rome

Clement of Rome 18 Clement of Rome, also known as Pope Clement I, was the bishop of Rome in the late first century AD. He is listed by Irenaeus and Tertullian as the bishop of Rome, holding office from 88 AD to his death in 99 AD. He is considered to be the first Apostolic Father of the Church, one of the three chief ones together with Polycarp and Ignatius of Antioch.

Francesco Ignazio Mannu

Francesco Ignazio Mannu 18 Don Francesco Ignazio Mannu è stato un magistrato del regno di Sardegna.                           

Luigi Canepa

Luigi Canepa 18 Luigi Canepa è stato un compositore e patriota italiano.                                           

Pietro Toselli

Pietro Toselli 17 Pietro Toselli was a major of the Royal Italian Army. He is mainly known for his participation in the First Italo-Ethiopian War. He was born in Peveragno in 1856, the youngest of three siblings. His father was Giovanni Maria Toselli, and his mother Teresa (Botasso) Toselli. His older brother Enrico Toselli was a noted psychiatrist and university professor. Pietro Toselli joined the army at a young age and was commissioned second lieutenant of artillery in 1878. After finishing the tree year curriculum for artillerymen he opted for additional training in military engineering. After finishing his education in 1880 he became a first lieutenant. In 1887 he was promoted to captain. He first came to Africa in 1888 to carry out topographical work in the new colony of Italian Eritrea. Returning to Italy he published the book Pro Africa italica under the pseudonym "Un Eritreo". In 1894 he returned to Italian Eritrea to take command of the 4th Askari Battalion of the Corpo Speciale per L'Africa. He led Italian forces to victory at the Battle of Halai on the 18 December 1894, when his troops defeated the Eritrean forces of Batha Agos, who were besieging the Italian fort at Halai. On the 13 January 1895, he commanded the 4th Askari Battalion at the Battle of Coatit under the command of Oreste Baratieri. After the Ethiopian retreat Toselli, and the 4th Askari Battalion formed the Italian vanguard that caught up with the Ethiopian forces at the Battle of Senafe.

Richard Wagner

Richard Wagner 17 Wilhelm Richard Wagner was a German composer, theatre director, polemicist, and conductor who is chiefly known for his operas. Unlike most opera composers, Wagner wrote both the libretto and the music for each of his stage works. Initially establishing his reputation as a composer of works in the romantic vein of Carl Maria von Weber and Giacomo Meyerbeer, Wagner revolutionised opera through his concept of the Gesamtkunstwerk, by which he sought to synthesise the poetic, visual, musical and dramatic arts, with music subsidiary to drama. He described this vision in a series of essays published between 1849 and 1852. Wagner realised these ideas most fully in the first half of the four-opera cycle Der Ring des Nibelungen.

Romolo Gessi

Romolo Gessi 17 Romolo Gessi, also called Gessi Pasha, was an Italian soldier, governor in the Turkish-Egyptian administration and explorer of north-east Africa, who described the course of the White Nile in 19th-century Sudan and modern Uganda.

Cino da Pistoia

Cino da Pistoia 17 Cino da Pistoia was an Italian jurist and poet. He was the university teacher of Bartolus de Saxoferrato and a friend and intellectual influence on Dante Alighieri.

Saint Marinus

Saint Marinus 17 Marinus was an Early Christian and the founder of a chapel and monastery in 301 from whose initial community the state of San Marino later grew.

Julian the Hospitaller

Julian the Hospitaller 17 Saint Julian the Hospitaller is a saint venerated in the Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Churches. He is patron saint of the cities of Ghent (Belgium), Saint Julian's (Malta) and Macerata (Italy).

Pliny the Younger

Pliny the Younger 17 Gaius Plinius Caecilius Secundus, born Gaius Caecilius or Gaius Caecilius Cilo, better known as Pliny the Younger, was a lawyer, author, and magistrate of Ancient Rome. Pliny's uncle, Pliny the Elder, helped raise and educate him.

Giuseppe Gioachino Belli

Giuseppe Gioachino Belli 17 Giuseppe Francesco Antonio Maria Gioachino Raimondo Belli was an Italian poet, famous for his sonnets in Romanesco, the dialect of Rome.

Luke the Evangelist

Luke the Evangelist 17 Luke the Evangelist is one of the Four Evangelists—the four traditionally ascribed authors of the canonical gospels. The Early Church Fathers ascribed to him authorship of both the Gospel of Luke and the Acts of the Apostles. Prominent figures in early Christianity such as Jerome and Eusebius later reaffirmed his authorship, although a lack of conclusive evidence as to the identity of the author of the works has led to discussion in scholarly circles, both secular and religious.

Pasquino Borghi

Pasquino Borghi 17 Pasquino Borghi Albertario è stato un presbitero, missionario e partigiano italiano, medaglia d'oro al valor militare.

Altiero Spinelli

Altiero Spinelli 17 Altiero Spinelli was an Italian communist politician, political theorist and European federalist, referred to as one of the founding fathers of the European Union. A communist and militant anti-fascist in his youth, Spinelli spent 10 years imprisoned by the Italian fascist regime. Having grown disillusioned with Stalinism, he broke with the Communist Party of Italy in 1937. Interned in Ventotene during World War II, he, along with fellow democratic socialists, drafted the manifesto For a Free and United Europe in 1941, considered a precursor of the European integration process.

Giuseppe Galliano

Giuseppe Galliano 17 Giuseppe Galliano was an officer of the Royal Italian Army, mostly known for his role during the First Italo-Ethiopian War. He perished in the Battle of Adwa and was posthumously awarded the Gold Medal of Military Valour.

Scipio Slataper

Scipio Slataper 17 Scipio Slataper was an Italian writer, most famous for his lyrical essay My Karst. He is considered, alongside Italo Svevo, the initiator of the prolific tradition of Italian literature in Trieste.

Saint Maurus

Saint Maurus 16 Maurus (512–584) was the first disciple of Benedict of Nursia. He is mentioned in Gregory the Great's biography of the latter as the first oblate, offered to the monastery by his noble Roman parents as a young boy to be brought up in the monastic life.

Vigilius of Trent

Vigilius of Trent 16 Vigilius of Trent is venerated as the patron saint and bishop of Trent. He should not be confused with the pope of the same name.

Giorgio Perlasca

Giorgio Perlasca 16 Giorgio Perlasca was an Italian businessman and former Fascist who, with the collaboration of official diplomats, posed as the Spanish consul-general to Hungary in the winter of 1944, and saved 5,218 Jews from deportation to Nazi extermination camps in eastern Europe. In 1989, Perlasca was designated by Israel as a Righteous Among the Nations.

Cyricus and Julitta

Cyricus and Julitta 16 Cyricus and his mother Julitta are venerated as early Christian martyrs. According to tradition, they were put to death at Tarsus in AD 304.

Arturo Ferrarin

Arturo Ferrarin 16 Arturo Ferrarin was an Italian pioneer aviator. His exploits included winning the "Rome-Tokyo Raid" air race in 1920 and a non-stop flight from Italy to Brazil in 1928 with fellow aviator Carlo Del Prete. The latter flight set the world distance record for a non-stop flight. Ferrarin, who was born in Thiene and was a decorated veteran of the Italian Royal Air Force during World War I, died in a plane crash at Guidonia Montecelio in 1941.

Luciano Romagnoli

Luciano Romagnoli 16 Luciano Romagnoli è stato un politico, partigiano e sindacalista italiano.                         

Luca della Robbia

Luca della Robbia 16 Luca della Robbia was an Italian Renaissance sculptor from Florence. Della Robbia is noted for his colorful, tin-glazed terracotta statuary, a technique that he invented and passed on to his nephew Andrea della Robbia and great-nephews Giovanni della Robbia and Girolamo della Robbia. Although a leading sculptor in stone, after developing his technique in the early 1440s he worked primarily in terracotta. His large workshop produced both less expensive works cast from molds in multiple versions, and more expensive one-off individually modeled pieces.


Poliziano 16 Agnolo Ambrogini, commonly known as Angelo Poliziano or simply Poliziano, anglicized as Politian, was an Italian classical scholar and poet of the Florentine Renaissance. His scholarship was instrumental in the divergence of Renaissance Latin from medieval norms and for developments in philology. His nickname Poliziano, by which he is chiefly identified to the present day, was derived from the Latin name of his birthplace, Montepulciano.

Giovanni da Udine

Giovanni da Udine 16 Giovanni Nanni, also Giovanni de' Ricamatori, better known as Giovanni da Udine (1487–1564), was an Italian painter and architect born in Udine. A painter also named Giovanni da Udine was exiled from his native city in 1472.

Francesco Caracciolo

Francesco Caracciolo 16 Francesco Caracciolo may refer to:Francis Caracciolo (saint) (1563–1608), co-founder of the Clerics Regular Minor Francesco Caracciolo (1752–1799), Neapolitan admiral Francesco Caracciolo, lead ship of the cancelled Francesco Caracciolo-class battleship

Alexander of Bergamo

Alexander of Bergamo 16 Alexander of Bergamo is the patron saint of Bergamo, as well as Capriate San Gervasio and Cervignano d'Adda. Alexander may have been a Roman soldier or resident of Bergamo who was tortured and killed for not renouncing his Christian faith. Details of his life are uncertain, but subsequent Christian stories consider him a centurion of the Theban Legion commanded by Maurice.

Giuseppe Marchetti

Giuseppe Marchetti 16 Giuseppe Marchetti may refer to:Giuseppe Marchetti (priest) Giuseppe Marchetti (critic)            

Luigi Cherubini

Luigi Cherubini 16 Maria Luigi Carlo Zenobio Salvatore Cherubini was an Italian Classical and Romantic composer. His most significant compositions are operas and sacred music. Beethoven regarded Cherubini as the greatest living composer of his era. Cherubini's operas were heavily praised and interpreted by Rossini.

Gaspare Spontini

Gaspare Spontini 16 Gaspare Luigi Pacifico Spontini was an Italian opera composer and conductor from the classical era. During the first two decades of the 19th century, Spontini was an important figure in French opera, and composed over twenty works.

Francesco Mario Pagano

Francesco Mario Pagano 16 Francesco Mario Pagano was an Italian jurist, author, thinker, and the founder of the Neapolitan school of law. He is regarded as one of the most influential Enlightenment thinkers. A moderate reformist, he is seen as a forerunner of the Italian unification.

Riccardo Lombardi

Riccardo Lombardi 16 Riccardo Lombardi was an Italian politician.                                                       

Luigi Longo

Luigi Longo 16 Luigi Longo, also known as Gallo, was an Italian communist politician and general secretary of the Italian Communist Party from 1964 to 1972. He was also the first foreigner to be awarded an Order of Lenin.

Irma Bandiera

Irma Bandiera 16 Irma Bandiera (1915–1944) was a member of the seventh Gruppo di azione patriottica. In 1944 she was captured, blinded, and killed. Enrico Berlinguer, of the Italian Communist Party, held her in high esteem. A street in her native Bologna is named for her and the song Mimma e Balella relates to her.

Anita Garibaldi

Anita Garibaldi 16 Anita Garibaldi was a Brazilian republican revolutionary. She was the wife and comrade-in-arms of Italian revolutionary Giuseppe Garibaldi. Their partnership epitomized the spirit of the 19th century's Age of Romanticism and revolutionary liberalism.

Maximilian Kolbe

Maximilian Kolbe 16 Maximilian Maria Kolbe was a Polish Catholic priest and Conventual Franciscan friar who volunteered to die in place of a man named Franciszek Gajowniczek in the German death camp of Auschwitz, located in German-occupied Poland during World War II. He had been active in promoting the veneration of the Immaculate Virgin Mary, founding and supervising the monastery of Niepokalanów near Warsaw, operating an amateur-radio station (SP3RN), and founding or running several other organizations and publications.


Napoleon 16 Napoleon Bonaparte, later known by his regnal name Napoleon I, was a French emperor and military commander who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led successful campaigns during the Revolutionary Wars. He was the leader of the French Republic as First Consul from 1799 to 1804, then of the French Empire as Emperor of the French from 1804 until 1814, and briefly again in 1815. His political and cultural legacy endures as a celebrated and controversial leader. He initiated many enduring reforms, but has been criticized for his authoritarian rule. He is considered one of the greatest military commanders in history and his wars and campaigns are still studied at military schools worldwide. However, historians still debate the degree to which he was responsible for the Napoleonic Wars, in which between three and six million people died.

Giorgio Ambrosoli

Giorgio Ambrosoli 16 Giorgio Ambrosoli was an Italian lawyer who was gunned down while investigating the malpractice of banker Michele Sindona.

Vittorio Emanuele Orlando

Vittorio Emanuele Orlando 16 Vittorio Emanuele Orlando was an Italian statesman, who served as the Prime Minister of Italy from October 1917 to June 1919. Orlando is best known for representing Italy in the 1919 Paris Peace Conference with his foreign minister Sidney Sonnino. He was also known as "Premier of Victory" for defeating the Central Powers along with the Entente in World War I. He was also the provisional President of the Chamber of Deputies between 1943 and 1945, and a member of the Constituent Assembly that changed the Italian form of government into a republic. Aside from his prominent political role, Orlando was a professor of law and is known for his writings on legal and judicial issues, which number over a hundred works.

Helena, mother of Constantine I

Helena, mother of Constantine I 16 Flavia Julia Helena, also known as Helena of Constantinople and in Christianity as Saint Helena, was an Augusta of the Roman Empire and mother of Emperor Constantine the Great. She was born in the lower classes traditionally in the Greek city of Drepanon, Bithynia, in Asia Minor, which was renamed Helenopolis in her honor, although several locations have been proposed for her birthplace and origin.

Giuseppe Benedetto Cottolengo

Giuseppe Benedetto Cottolengo 16 Giuseppe Benedetto Cottolengo or Joseph Benedict Cottolengo was the founder of the Little House of Divine Providence and is a saint of the Roman Catholic Church.

Pomponio Amalteo

Pomponio Amalteo 16 Pomponio Amalteo was an Italian painter of the Venetian school.                                     

Elsa Morante

Elsa Morante 16 Elsa Morante was an Italian novelist, poet, translator and children's books author. Her novel La storia (History) is included in the Bokklubben World Library List of 100 Best Books of All Time.

Alois Negrelli

Alois Negrelli 15 Nikolaus Alois Maria Vinzenz Negrelli, Ritter von Moldelbe was a Tyrolean civil engineer and railroad pioneer mostly active in parts of the Austrian Empire, Switzerland, Germany and Italy.

Giovanni Agnelli

Giovanni Agnelli 15 Giovanni Agnelli was an Italian businessman who founded the Fiat S.p.A. car manufacturing in 1899. 

Augusto Murri

Augusto Murri 15 Augusto Murri was an Italian physician. Appointed to the Chair of Clinical Medicine at the University of Bologna in 1875, he was regarded as one of the most illustrious clinical doctors and innovators of his times.

Eugenio Villoresi

Eugenio Villoresi 15 Eugenio Villoresi è stato un ingegnere italiano. Progettò il canale - che da lui prese il nome - che collega il Ticino all'Adda. È conosciuto nell'ambiente scientifico italiano anche per essere stato uno dei fondatori della Società Agraria di Lombardia.

Guglielmo Massaia

Guglielmo Massaia 15 Guglielmo Massaia, OFM Cap. was an Italian cardinal of the Catholic Church who served as a missionary and a Capuchin friar.

Pietro Colletta

Pietro Colletta 15 Pietro Colletta was a Neapolitan general and historian, entered the Neapolitan artillery in 1796 and took part in the campaign against the French in 1798.

Francis of Paola

Francis of Paola 15 Francis of Paola, OM, was an Italian Catholic friar and the founder of the Order of Minims. Unlike the majority of founders of men's religious orders, and like his patron saint Francis of Assisi, he was never ordained a priest.

Leonida Bissolati

Leonida Bissolati 15 Leonida Bissolati was a leading exponent of the Italian socialist movement at the turn of the nineteenth century.

Charles Darwin

Charles Darwin 15 Charles Robert Darwin was an English naturalist, geologist and biologist, widely known for his contributions to evolutionary biology. His proposition that all species of life have descended from a common ancestor is now generally accepted and considered a fundamental concept in science. In a joint publication with Alfred Russel Wallace, he introduced his scientific theory that this branching pattern of evolution resulted from a process he called natural selection, in which the struggle for existence has a similar effect to the artificial selection involved in selective breeding. Darwin has been described as one of the most influential figures in human history and was honoured by burial in Westminster Abbey.

Pope Leo XIII

Pope Leo XIII 15 Pope Leo XIII was head of the Catholic Church from 20 February 1878 until his death in July 1903. Living until the age of 93, he was the oldest pope, whose age can be validated, holding office, and had the fourth-longest reign of any pope, behind those of St. Peter, Pius IX and John Paul II.

Gerolamo Cardano

Gerolamo Cardano 15 Gerolamo Cardano was an Italian polymath whose interests and proficiencies ranged through those of mathematician, physician, biologist, physicist, chemist, astrologer, astronomer, philosopher, writer, and gambler. He became one of the most influential mathematicians of the Renaissance and one of the key figures in the foundation of probability; he introduced the binomial coefficients and the binomial theorem in the Western world. He wrote more than 200 works on science.

Ippolito Pindemonte

Ippolito Pindemonte 15 Ippolito Pindemonte was an Italian poet. He was an exponent of Italian neoclassicism and pre-romanticism, with poems of the pastoral genre and related to graveyard poets style.

Benedetto Marcello

Benedetto Marcello 15 Benedetto Giacomo Marcello was an Italian composer, writer, advocate, magistrate, and teacher.     

Giovanni Fattori

Giovanni Fattori 15 Giovanni Fattori was an Italian artist, one of the leaders of the group known as the Macchiaioli. He was initially a painter of historical themes and military subjects. In his middle years, inspired by the Barbizon school, he became one of the leading Italian plein-airists, painting landscapes, rural scenes, and scenes of military life. After 1884, he devoted much energy to etching.

Bettino Ricasoli

Bettino Ricasoli 15 Bettino Ricasoli, 1st Count of Brolio, 2nd Baron Ricasoli was an Italian statesman. He was a central figure in the politics of Italy during and after the unification of Italy. He led the Moderate Party.

Pier Luigi Nervi

Pier Luigi Nervi 15 Pier Luigi Nervi was an Italian engineer and architect. He studied at the University of Bologna graduating in 1913. Nervi taught as a professor of engineering at Rome University from 1946 to 1961 and is known worldwide as a structural engineer and architect and for his innovative use of reinforced concrete, especially with numerous notable thin shell structures worldwide.

Luigi Vanvitelli

Luigi Vanvitelli 15 Luigi Vanvitelli, known in Dutch as Lodewijk van Wittel, was an Italian architect and painter. The most prominent 18th-century architect of Italy, he practised a sober classicising academic Late Baroque style that made an easy transition to Neoclassicism.

Isidore the Laborer

Isidore the Laborer 15 Isidore the Laborer, also known as Isidore the Farmer, was a Spanish farmworker known for his piety toward the poor and animals. He is the Catholic patron saint of farmers, and of Madrid; El Gobernador, Jalisco; La Ceiba, Honduras; and of Tocoa, Honduras. His feast day is celebrated on 15 May.

Agostino Novella

Agostino Novella 15 Agostino Novella was an Italian trade unionist and communist politician.                           


Euclid 15 Euclid was an ancient Greek mathematician active as a geometer and logician. Considered the "father of geometry", he is chiefly known for the Elements treatise, which established the foundations of geometry that largely dominated the field until the early 19th century. His system, now referred to as Euclidean geometry, involved new innovations in combination with a synthesis of theories from earlier Greek mathematicians, including Eudoxus of Cnidus, Hippocrates of Chios, Thales and Theaetetus. With Archimedes and Apollonius of Perga, Euclid is generally considered among the greatest mathematicians of antiquity, and one of the most influential in the history of mathematics.

Alfred Nobel

Alfred Nobel 15 Alfred Bernhard Nobel was a Swedish chemist, inventor, engineer and businessman. He is known for inventing dynamite as well as having bequeathed his fortune to establish the Nobel Prize. He also made several important contributions to science, holding 355 patents in his lifetime.

Concetto Marchesi

Concetto Marchesi 15 Concetto Marchesi was an Italian politician. He represented the Italian Communist Party in the Constituent Assembly of Italy from 1946 to 1948 and in the Chamber of Deputies from 1948 to 1957.

Sibilla Aleramo

Sibilla Aleramo 15 Sibilla Aleramo was an Italian feminist writer and poet best known for her autobiographical depictions of life as a woman in late 19th century Italy.

Ilaria Alpi

Ilaria Alpi 15 Ilaria Alpi was an Italian journalist killed in Mogadishu, Somalia, together with her camera operator Miran Hrovatin. In 2009 Francesco Fonti, a former 'Ndrangheta member, claimed that Ilaria Alpi and her cameraman were murdered because they had seen toxic waste shipped by the 'Ndrangheta arrive in Bosaso, Somalia.

Luigi Boccherini

Luigi Boccherini 15 Ridolfo Luigi Boccherini was an Italian composer and cellist of the Classical era whose music retained a courtly and galante style even while he matured somewhat apart from the major European musical centers. He is best known for a minuet from his String Quintet in E, Op. 11, No. 5, and the Cello Concerto in B flat major. The latter work was long known in the heavily altered version by German cellist and prolific arranger Friedrich Grützmacher, but has recently been restored to its original version.

Gregorio Agnini

Gregorio Agnini 15 Gregorio Agnini è stato un politico e imprenditore italiano.                                       

Giuseppe Fanin

Giuseppe Fanin 14 Giuseppe Fanin è stato un sindacalista italiano.                                                   

Maria Gaetana Agnesi

Maria Gaetana Agnesi 14 Maria Gaetana Agnesi was an Italian mathematician, philosopher, theologian, and humanitarian. She was the first woman to write a mathematics handbook and the first woman appointed as a mathematics professor at a university.

Carlo Armellini

Carlo Armellini 14 Carlo Armellini was a Roman politician, activist and jurist. He was part of the triumvirate leading the short-lived Roman Republic in 1849, together with Giuseppe Mazzini and Aurelio Saffi.

Luca Signorelli

Luca Signorelli 14 Luca Signorelli was an Italian Renaissance painter from Cortona, in Tuscany, who was noted in particular for his ability as a draftsman and his use of foreshortening. His massive frescos of the Last Judgment (1499–1503) in Orvieto Cathedral are considered his masterpiece.

Apollinaris of Ravenna

Apollinaris of Ravenna 14 Apollinaris of Ravenna is a Syrian saint, whom the Roman Martyrology describes as "a bishop who, according to tradition, while spreading among the nations the unsearchable riches of Christ, led his flock as a good shepherd and honoured the Church of Classis near Ravenna by a glorious martyrdom."

Pasquale Paoli

Pasquale Paoli 14 Filippo Antonio Pasquale de' Paoli was a Corsican patriot, statesman, and military leader who was at the forefront of resistance movements against the Genoese and later French rule over the island. He became the President of the Executive Council of the General Diet of the People of Corsica and wrote the Constitution of the state.

Luigi Rizzo

Luigi Rizzo 14 Luigi Rizzo, 1st Count of Grado and Premuda (1887–1951), nicknamed the Sinker, was an Italian admiral. He is mostly known for his distinguished service in World War I; as a torpedo boat commander having sunk no fewer than two Austro-Hungarian battleships.

Antonio Stradivari

Antonio Stradivari 14 Antonio Stradivari was an Italian luthier and a craftsman of string instruments such as violins, cellos, guitars, violas and harps. The Latinized form of his surname, Stradivarius, as well as the colloquial Strad are terms often used to refer to his instruments. It is estimated that Stradivari produced 1,116 instruments, of which 960 were violins. Around 650 instruments survive, including 450 to 512 violins. His instruments are considered some of the finest ever made, and are extremely valuable collector's items.

Duccio Galimberti

Duccio Galimberti 14 Tancredi Achille Giuseppe Olimpio "Duccio" Galimberti was an Italian lawyer who became a committed anti-fascist and war-time partisan. He was an important figure – according to some sources the most important figure – in the Piedmontese anti-fascist resistance, and was a posthumous recipient both of the Gold Medal of Military Valor and of the Gold Medal of the Resistance. During the closing months of the war, he was proclaimed a national hero by the National Liberation Committee for Northern Italy.

Giovanni Spadolini

Giovanni Spadolini 14 Giovanni Spadolini was an Italian politician and statesman, who served as the 44th prime minister of Italy. He had been a leading figure in the Republican Party and the first head of a government to not be a member of Christian Democrats since 1945. He was also a newspaper editor, journalist and historian. He is considered a highly respected intellectual for his literary works and his cultural dimension.

Domenico Morelli

Domenico Morelli 14 Domenico Morelli was an Italian painter, who mainly produced historical and religious works. Morelli was immensely influential in the arts of the second half of the 19th century, both as director of the Accademia di Belle Arti in Naples, but also because of his rebelliousness against institutions: traits that flourished into the passionate, often patriotic, Romantic and later Symbolist subjects of his canvases. Morelli was the teacher of Vincenzo Petrocelli, Ulisse Caputo, and Anselmo Gianfanti.

Gervasius and Protasius

Gervasius and Protasius 14 Gervasius and Protasius are venerated as Christian martyrs, probably of the 2nd century. They are the patron saints of Milan and of haymakers and are invoked for the discovery of thieves. Their feast day in the Latin Rite of the Catholic Church is 19 June, the day marking the translation of their relics. In the Eastern Orthodox Church and in the Eastern Rites of the Catholic Church, their feast takes place on 14 October (O.S.)/24 October (N.S.), the traditional day of their death. In Christian iconography their emblems are the scourge, the club and the sword.

Ruggero Grieco

Ruggero Grieco 14 Ruggero Grieco was an Italian politician, antifascist, and member of the Italian Communist Party. He was born in Foggia, Apulia.


Guercino 14 Giovanni Francesco Barbieri, better known as (il) Guercino, was an Italian Baroque painter and draftsman from Cento in the Emilia region, who was active in Rome and Bologna. The vigorous naturalism of his early manner contrasts with the classical equilibrium of his later works. His many drawings are noted for their luminosity and lively style.

Marcello Malpighi

Marcello Malpighi 14 Marcello Malpighi was an Italian biologist and physician, who is referred to as the "Founder of microscopical anatomy, histology & Father of physiology and embryology". Malpighi's name is borne by several physiological features related to the biological excretory system, such as the Malpighian corpuscles and Malpighian pyramids of the kidneys and the Malpighian tubule system of insects. The splenic lymphoid nodules are often called the "Malpighian bodies of the spleen" or Malpighian corpuscles. The botanical family Malpighiaceae is also named after him. He was the first person to see capillaries in animals, and he discovered the link between arteries and veins that had eluded William Harvey. Malpighi was one of the earliest people to observe red blood cells under a microscope, after Jan Swammerdam. His treatise De polypo cordis (1666) was important for understanding blood composition, as well as how blood clots. In it, Malpighi described how the form of a blood clot differed in the right against the left sides of the heart.


Tacitus 14 Publius Cornelius Tacitus, known simply as Tacitus, was a Roman historian and politician. Tacitus is widely regarded as one of the greatest Roman historians by modern scholars.

Pasquale Tola

Pasquale Tola 14 Pasquale Tola was an Italian judge, politician and historian.                                       

Rosario Livatino

Rosario Livatino 14 Rosario Angelo Livatino was an Italian magistrate who was killed by Stidda.                         

Giuseppe Impastato

Giuseppe Impastato 14 Giuseppe "Peppino" Impastato, was an Italian political activist who opposed the Mafia, which ordered his murder in 1978.

Giuseppe Sirtori

Giuseppe Sirtori 14 Giuseppe Sirtori was an Italian soldier, patriot and politician who fought in the unification of Italy.


Martha 14 Martha is a biblical figure described in the Gospels of Luke and John. Together with her siblings Lazarus and Mary of Bethany, she is described as living in the village of Bethany near Jerusalem. She was witness to Jesus resurrecting her brother, Lazarus.

Salvatore Farina

Salvatore Farina 14 Salvatore Farina was an Italian novelist whose style of sentimental humor has been compared to that of Charles Dickens. He was nominated for the Nobel Prize in Literature three times.

Bartolomeo Colleoni

Bartolomeo Colleoni 14 Bartolomeo Colleoni was an Italian condottiero, who became captain-general of the Republic of Venice. Colleoni "gained reputation as the foremost tactician and disciplinarian of the 15th century". He is also credited with having refurbished the Roman baths at Trescore Balneario.

Renzo Laconi

Renzo Laconi 14 Renzo Laconi è stato un politico italiano.                                                         

Umberto Nobile

Umberto Nobile 14 Umberto Nobile was an Italian aviator, aeronautical engineer and Arctic explorer.                   

Carlo Levi

Carlo Levi 14 Carlo Levi was an Italian painter, writer, activist, independent leftist politician, and doctor.   

Antonio Sant'Elia

Antonio Sant'Elia 14 Antonio Sant'Elia was an Italian architect and a key member of the Futurist movement in architecture. He left behind almost no completed works of architecture and is primarily remembered for his bold sketches and influence on modern architecture.

Pacifico Valussi

Pacifico Valussi 14 Pacifico Valussi è stato un giornalista e politico italiano.                                       

Ermes di Colorêt

Ermes di Colorêt 14 Ermes di Colloredo was an Italian count and writer who served the Grand Duke of Tuscany, the Holy Roman Emperor and the Republic of Venice. He is widely considered the father and innovator of Friulian literature.

Giovannino Guareschi

Giovannino Guareschi 14 Giovannino Oliviero Giuseppe Guareschi was an Italian journalist, cartoonist and humorist whose best known creation is the priest Don Camillo.

Charles Felix of Sardinia

Charles Felix of Sardinia 13 Charles Felix was the King of Sardinia and ruler of the Savoyard states from 12 March 1821 until his death in 1831. He was the last male-line member of the House of Savoy that started with Victor Amadeus I of Savoy, and caused the line of Victor Amadeus I's younger brother Thomas Francis, Prince of Carignano to seize the throne after Felix's death.

Sidney Sonnino

Sidney Sonnino 13 Sidney Costantino, Baron Sonnino was an Italian statesman, 19th prime minister of Italy and twice served briefly as one, in 1906 and again from 1909 to 1910. He also was the Italian minister of Foreign Affairs during the First World War, representing Italy at the 1919 Paris Peace Conference.

Emanuele Filiberto of Savoy, Prince of Venice

Emanuele Filiberto of Savoy, Prince of Venice 13 Emanuele Filiberto Umberto Reza Ciro René Maria di Savoia is a member of the House of Savoy. He is the son of Vittorio Emanuele of Savoy and only male-line grandson of Umberto II, the last King of Italy. In 2024, Emanuele Filberto became one of two claimants to the headship of the House of Savoy after the death of his father.

Arnold of Brescia

Arnold of Brescia 13 Arnold of Brescia, also known as Arnaldus, an Italian canon regular from Lombardy, called on the Church to renounce property-ownership and participated in the failed Commune of Rome of 1144–1193.

Giovanni Matteo Mario

Giovanni Matteo Mario 13 Giovanni Matteo De Candia, also known as Mario, was an Italian opera singer. The most celebrated tenor of his era, he was lionized by audiences in Paris and London. He was the partner of the opera singer Giulia Grisi.

Giulio Natta

Giulio Natta 13 Giulio Natta was an Italian chemical engineer and Nobel laureate. He won a Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1963 with Karl Ziegler for work on high polymers. He also received a Lomonosov Gold Medal in 1969.

Giovanni Palatucci

Giovanni Palatucci 13 Giovanni Palatucci was an Italian police official who was long believed to have saved thousands of Jews in Fiume between 1939 and 1944 from being deported to Nazi extermination camps. In 2013 a research panel of historians led by the Centro Primo Levi reviewed almost 700 documents and concluded that Palatucci had followed Italian Social Republic and German orders concerning the Jews and enabling the deportation of the majority of the 570 Jews living in Fiume and surrounding areas, 412 of whom were deported to Auschwitz, a higher percentage than in any Italian city. The matter is currently the topic of scholarly debate. A national commission of historians recommended by the Union of the Italian Jewish Communities, the Center for Contemporary Jewish Documentation in Milan, the Italian Ministry of the Interior and the Centro Primo Levi NY is conducting a comprehensive review of the documents.

Primo Mazzolari

Primo Mazzolari 13 Primo Mazzolari, best known as don Primo, was an Italian priest of the Catholic Church. He was also a partisan and writer who established the review Adesso ("Now") in 1949.

Vittore Carpaccio

Vittore Carpaccio 13 Vittore Carpaccio (UK: /kɑːrˈpætʃ oʊ/, US: /-ˈpɑːtʃ-/, Italian: [vitˈtoːre karˈpattʃo]; was an Italian painter of the Venetian school who studied under Gentile Bellini. Carpaccio was largely influenced by the style of the early Italian Renaissance painter Antonello da Messina, as well as Early Netherlandish painting. Although often compared to his mentor Gentile Bellini, Vittore Carpaccio's command of perspective, precise attention to architectural detail, themes of death, and use of bold color differentiated him from other Italian Renaissance artists. Many of his works display the religious themes and cross-cultural elements of art at the time; his portrayal of St. Augustine in His Study from 1502, reflects the popularity of collecting "exotic" and highly desired objects from different cultures.

Giovanni Nicotera

Giovanni Nicotera 13 Giovanni Nicotera was an Italian patriot and politician. His surname is pronounced, with the stress on the second syllable.

Cesare Lombroso

Cesare Lombroso 13 Cesare Lombroso was an Italian eugenicist, criminologist, phrenologist, physician, and founder of the Italian school of criminology. He is considered the founder of modern criminal anthropology by changing the Western notions of individual responsibility.

Costantino Nigra

Costantino Nigra 13 Lorenzo Annibale Costantino Nigra, Count of Villa Castelnuovo, was an Italian nobleman, philologist, poet, diplomat, and politician. Among the several positions he held and political and foreign affairs in which he was involved in the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia and Kingdom of Italy, he served as ambassador and was later appointed a member of the Senate of the Kingdom of Italy.

Tomaso Albinoni

Tomaso Albinoni 13 Tomaso Giovanni Albinoni was an Italian composer of the Baroque era. His output includes operas, concertos, sonatas for one to six instruments, sinfonias, and solo cantatas. While famous in his day as an opera composer, he is known today for his instrumental music, especially his concertos. He is best remembered today for a work called "Adagio in G minor", attributed to him but largely written by Remo Giazotto, a 20th century musicologist and composer, who was a cataloger of the works of Albinoni.

Giovanni Berchet

Giovanni Berchet 13 Giovanni Berchet was an Italian poet and patriot. He wrote an influential manifesto on Italian Romanticism, Lettera semiseria di Grisostomo, which appeared in 1816, and contributed to Il Conciliatore, a reformist periodical.

Giuseppe Tartini

Giuseppe Tartini 13 Giuseppe Tartini was an Italian composer and violinist of the Baroque era born in Pirano in the Republic of Venice. Tartini was a prolific composer, composing over a hundred pieces for the violin, the majority of them violin concertos. He is best remembered for his Violin Sonata in G Minor.

Giacomo Barozzi da Vignola

Giacomo Barozzi da Vignola 13 Giacomo Barozzi da Vignola, often simply called Vignola, was one of the great Italian architects of 16th century Mannerism. His two great masterpieces are the Villa Farnese at Caprarola and the Jesuits' Church of the Gesù in Rome. The three architects who spread the Italian Renaissance style throughout Western Europe are Vignola, Serlio and Palladio. He is often considered the most important architect in Rome in the Mannerist era.

Pietro Giannone

Pietro Giannone 13 Pietro Giannone was an Italian philosopher, historian and jurist born in Ischitella, in the province of Foggia. He opposed the papal influence in Naples, for which he was excommunicated and imprisoned for twelve years until his death.

Marie Curie

Marie Curie 13 Maria Salomea Skłodowska-Curie, known simply as Marie Curie, was a Polish and naturalised-French physicist and chemist who conducted pioneering research on radioactivity. She was the first woman to win a Nobel Prize, the first person to win a Nobel Prize twice, and the only person to win a Nobel Prize in two scientific fields. Her husband, Pierre Curie, was a co-winner of her first Nobel Prize, making them the first-ever married couple to win the Nobel Prize and launching the Curie family legacy of five Nobel Prizes. She was, in 1906, the first woman to become a professor at the University of Paris.

Saint Florian

Saint Florian 13 Florian was a Christian holy man and the patron saint of chimney sweeps; soapmakers, and firefighters. His feast day is 4 May. Florian is also the patron saint of Poland, the city of Linz, Austria, and Upper Austria, jointly with Leopold III, Margrave of Austria.

Elio Vittorini

Elio Vittorini 13 Elio Vittorini was an Italian writer and novelist. He was a contemporary of Cesare Pavese and an influential voice in the modernist school of novel writing. His best-known work, in English speaking countries, is the anti-fascist novel Conversations in Sicily, for which he was jailed when it was published in 1941. The first U.S. edition of the novel, published in 1949, included an introduction from Ernest Hemingway, whose style influenced Vittorini and that novel in particular.

Luciano Lama

Luciano Lama 13 Luciano Lama was an Italian trade unionist and politician, General Secretary of Italian General Confederation of Labour from 1970 to 1986.

Fernando Santi

Fernando Santi 13 Fernando Santi è stato un sindacalista e politico italiano. Fu un sindacalista riformista sebbene la sua formazione sia avvenuta in una delle realtà più feconde del sindacalismo rivoluzionario. Segretario dei tranvieri di Torino e della Camera del lavoro di Milano fu anche segretario nazionale della federazione giovanile socialista schierata con Filippo Turati e Matteotti. Per lungo tempo fu leader della componente socialista della CGIL dal 1947 al 1965.

Adriano Olivetti

Adriano Olivetti 13 Adriano Olivetti was an Italian engineer, entrepreneur, politician, and industrialist. He was known worldwide during his lifetime as the Italian manufacturer of Olivetti brand typewriters, calculators, and computers. He was son of the founder of Olivetti, Camillo Olivetti, and Luisa Revel, the daughter of a prominent Waldensian pastor and scholar. The Olivetti empire had been begun by his father.

Tazio Nuvolari

Tazio Nuvolari 13 Tazio Giorgio Nuvolari was an Italian racing driver. He first raced motorcycles and then concentrated on sports cars and Grand Prix racing. Originally of Mantua, he was nicknamed Il Mantovano Volante and Nuvola ("Cloud"). His victories—72 major races, 150 in all—included 24 Grands Prix, five Coppa Cianos, two Mille Miglias, two Targa Florios, two RAC Tourist Trophies, a Le Mans 24-hour race, and a European Championship in Grand Prix racing. Ferdinand Porsche called him "the greatest driver of the past, the present, and the future".

Giuseppe Andreoli (patriota)

Giuseppe Andreoli (patriota) 13 Giuseppe Andreoli è stato un presbitero e patriota italiano.                                       

Matilda of Tuscany

Matilda of Tuscany 13 Matilda of Tuscany, also referred to as la Gran Contessa, was a member of the House of Canossa in the second half of the eleventh century. Matilda was one of the most important governing figures of the Italian Middle Ages. She reigned in a period of constant battles, political intrigues and Roman Catholic excommunications, and was able to demonstrate an innate and skilled strategic leadership capacity in both military and diplomatic matters.

Ignatius of Loyola

Ignatius of Loyola 13 Ignatius of Loyola, venerated as Saint Ignatius of Loyola, was a Spanish Catholic priest and theologian, who, with six companions, founded the religious order of the Society of Jesus (Jesuits), and became its first Superior General, in Paris in 1541.

Vincenzo Sulis

Vincenzo Sulis 13 Vincenzo Sulis è stato uno scrittore e militare italiano del Regno di Sardegna.                     

Marco d'Aviano

Marco d'Aviano 13 Mark of Aviano, born Carlo Domenico Cristofori was an Italian Capuchin friar. In 2003, he was beatified by Pope John Paul II.

Pio Paschini

Pio Paschini 13 Pio Paschini è stato un vescovo cattolico e storico italiano.                                       

Salvatore Cambosu

Salvatore Cambosu 13 Salvatore Cambosu è stato uno scrittore e giornalista italiano.                                     

Giorgio de Chirico

Giorgio de Chirico 13 Giuseppe Maria Alberto Giorgio de Chirico was an Italian artist and writer born in Greece. In the years before World War I, he founded the scuola metafisica art movement, which profoundly influenced the surrealists. His best-known works often feature Roman arcades, long shadows, mannequins, trains, and illogical perspective. His imagery reflects his affinity for the philosophy of Arthur Schopenhauer and of Friedrich Nietzsche, and for the mythology of his birthplace.

Ruggero Settimo

Ruggero Settimo 12 Ruggero Settimo was an Italian politician, diplomat, and patriotic activist from Sicily. He was a counter-admiral of the Sicilian Fleet. He fought alongside the British fleet in the Mediterranean Sea against the French under Napoleon Bonaparte. He reconquered the island of Malta, and defended the city of Gaeta near Naples.

Camillus de Lellis

Camillus de Lellis 12 Camillus de Lellis, M.I., was a Roman Catholic priest from Italy who founded the Camillians, a religious order dedicated to the care of the sick. He was beatified by Pope Benedict XIV in the year 1742, and canonized by him four years later in 1746. De Lellis is the patron saint of the sick, hospitals, nurses and physicians. His assistance is also invoked against gambling.

Felice Orsini

Felice Orsini 12 Felice Orsini was an Italian revolutionary and leader of the Carbonari who tried to assassinate Napoleon III, Emperor of the French.

Giorgio Vasari

Giorgio Vasari 12 Giorgio Vasari was an Italian Renaissance painter and architect, who is best known for his work Lives of the Most Excellent Painters, Sculptors, and Architects, considered the ideological foundation of all art-historical writing, and still much cited in modern biographies of the many Italian Renaissance artists he covers, including Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo, although he is now regarded as including many factual errors, especially when covering artists from before he was born.

Saint Pantaleon

Saint Pantaleon 12 Saint Pantaleon, counted in Western Christianity as among the Fourteen Holy Helpers of the Late Middle Ages, and in Eastern Christianity as one of the Holy Unmercenary Healers, was a martyr of Nicomedia in Bithynia during the Diocletianic Persecution of 305 AD.

Andrea Maffei

Andrea Maffei 12 Andrea Maffei was an Italian poet, translator and librettist. He was born in Molina di Ledro, Trentino. A follower of Vincenzo Monti, he formed part of the 19th-century Italian classicist literary culture. Gaining laurea in jurisprudence, he moved for some years to Verona, then to Venice and finally to Milan, where in 1831 he married contessa Clara Spinelli. They separated by mutual consent on 15 June 1846.

Francesco Redi

Francesco Redi 12 Francesco Redi was an Italian physician, naturalist, biologist, and poet. He is referred to as the "founder of experimental biology", and as the "father of modern parasitology". He was the first person to challenge the theory of spontaneous generation by demonstrating that maggots come from eggs of flies.

Decio Raggi

Decio Raggi 12 Decio Raggi è stato un militare italiano, primo decorato con medaglia d'oro al valor militare nella Grande Guerra. Tenente dell'esercito italiano, alfiere di gloria della Brigata Casale, il cosiddetto Reggimento dei Forlivesi, che, durante la guerra, si guadagnò il nome di Gialli del Calvario.

Umberto Boccioni

Umberto Boccioni 12 Umberto Boccioni was an influential Italian painter and sculptor. He helped shape the revolutionary aesthetic of the Futurism movement as one of its principal figures. Despite his short life, his approach to the dynamism of form and the deconstruction of solid mass guided artists long after his death. His works are held by many public art museums, and in 1988 the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City organized a major retrospective of 100 pieces.

Emilio Salgari

Emilio Salgari 12 Emilio Salgari was an Italian writer of action adventure swashbucklers and a pioneer of science fiction.


Totò 12 Antonio Griffo Focas Flavio Angelo Ducas Comneno Porfirogenito Gagliardi De Curtis di Bisanzio, best known by his stage name Totò, or simply as Antonio de Curtis, and nicknamed il principe della risata, was an Italian actor, comedian, screenwriter, dramatist, poet, singer and lyricist. He is commonly referred to as one of the most popular Italian performers of all time. While best known for his funny and sometimes cynical comic characters in theatre and then many successful comedy films made from the 1940s to the 1960s, he also worked with many iconic Italian film directors in dramatic roles.

Giovanni Verità

Giovanni Verità 12 Giovanni Verità, detto "don Zvàn", è stato un presbitero italiano, critico del potere temporale detenuto dal Papa durante il Risorgimento.

Alessandro Antonelli

Alessandro Antonelli 12 Alessandro Antonelli was an Italian architect of the 19th century. His most famous works are the Mole Antonelliana in Turin and both the Novara Cathedral and the Basilica of St. Gaudenzio in Novara.

Domenico Scarlatti

Domenico Scarlatti 12 Giuseppe Domenico Scarlatti, also known as Domingo or Doménico Scarlatti, was an Italian composer. He is classified primarily as a Baroque composer chronologically, although his music was influential in the development of the Classical style. Like his renowned father Alessandro Scarlatti, he composed in a variety of musical forms, although today he is known mainly for his 555 keyboard sonatas. He spent much of his life in the service of the Portuguese and Spanish royal families.

Saint Liberata (Pizzone)

Saint Liberata (Pizzone) 12 Saint Liberata is the patron saint of the city of Pizzone, Italy. She is declared a holy virgin and martyr by the Roman Catholic Church. Her father was Lucio Catelio Severo and mother was his wife Celsia. She had eight twin sisters, of which all of them, together with Liberata, were martyred, under the regime of Emperor Hadrian. Her remains are kept at the Cathedral of Sigüenza, Spain. Her feast day is celebrated in Pizzone on June 10, and in the United States on June 8;. Elsewhere her feast may be on January 16, or July 20.

Annibale Santorre di Rossi de Pomarolo, Count of Santarosa

Annibale Santorre di Rossi de Pomarolo, Count of Santarosa 12 Santorre Annibale De Rossi di Pomerolo, Count of Santa Rosa was an Italian insurgent and leader in Italy's revival (Risorgimento).

Silvestro Lega

Silvestro Lega 12 Silvestro Lega was an Italian realist painter. He was one of the leading artists of the Macchiaioli and was also involved with the Mazzini movement.

Peregrine Laziosi

Peregrine Laziosi 12 Peregrine Laziosi is an Italian saint of the Servite Order. He is the patron saint for persons suffering from cancer, AIDS, and other life-threatening illnesses.


Socrates 12 Socrates was a Greek philosopher from Athens who is credited as the founder of Western philosophy and among the first moral philosophers of the ethical tradition of thought. An enigmatic figure, Socrates authored no texts and is known mainly through the posthumous accounts of classical writers, particularly his students Plato and Xenophon. These accounts are written as dialogues, in which Socrates and his interlocutors examine a subject in the style of question and answer; they gave rise to the Socratic dialogue literary genre. Contradictory accounts of Socrates make a reconstruction of his philosophy nearly impossible, a situation known as the Socratic problem. Socrates was a polarizing figure in Athenian society. In 399 BC, he was accused of impiety and corrupting the youth. After a trial that lasted a day, he was sentenced to death. He spent his last day in prison, refusing offers to help him escape.

Gasparo Gozzi

Gasparo Gozzi 12 Gasparo, count Gozzi was a Venetian critic and dramatist.                                           

Rosolino Pilo

Rosolino Pilo 12 Rosolino Pilo, o Rosalino Pilo, è stato un patriota italiano.                                       

Princess Mafalda of Savoy

Princess Mafalda of Savoy 12 Princess Mafalda of Savoy was the second daughter of King Victor Emmanuel III of Italy and his wife Elena of Montenegro. In 1925, at the age of 22, she married the Landgrave of Hesse, Philipp. In 1943, during World War II, she was imprisoned in the Buchenwald concentration camp, where she died. The future King Umberto II of Italy was her younger brother.

Giuseppe Manno

Giuseppe Manno 12 Giuseppe Manno was an Italian magistrate, politician and historian. He was elected president of the Senate of the Kingdom of Sardinia, and later of the Kingdom of Italy.

Robert Baden-Powell, 1st Baron Baden-Powell

Robert Baden-Powell, 1st Baron Baden-Powell 12 Lieutenant-General Robert Stephenson Smyth Baden-Powell, 1st Baron Baden-Powell, was a British Army officer, writer, founder and first Chief Scout of the world-wide Scout Movement, and founder, with his sister Agnes, of the world-wide Girl Guide/Girl Scout Movement. Baden-Powell wrote the seminal work Scouting for Boys, which, with his previous 1899 book Aids to Scouting for N.-C.Os and Men captured the imagination of the boys of Britain and led to the creation of the Scout Movement.

Jan Palach

Jan Palach 12 Jan Palach was a Czech student of history and political economics at Charles University in Prague. His self-immolation was a political protest against the end of the Prague Spring resulting from the 1968 invasion of Czechoslovakia by the Warsaw Pact armies.

Giovanni Siotto Pintor

Giovanni Siotto Pintor 12 Giovanni Siotto Pintor è stato un politico, avvocato e magistrato italiano.                         

Enrico Fruch

Enrico Fruch 12 Enrico Fruch è stato un poeta italiano.                                                             

Chino Ermacora

Chino Ermacora 12 Chino Ermacora è stato uno scrittore italiano.                                                     

Cesare Terranova

Cesare Terranova 12 Cesare Terranova was an Italian judge and politician from Sicily notable for his anti-Mafia stance. From 1958 until 1971 Terranova was an examining magistrate at the Palermo prosecuting office. He was one of the first to seriously investigate the Mafia and the financial operations of Cosa Nostra. He was killed by the Mafia in 1979. Cesare Terranova was the predecessor of judge Rocco Chinnici who created the Antimafia Pool signing all indictments along with the magistrates Giovanni Falcone and Paolo Borsellino, who were also killed by the Mafia in 1992, and other Sicilian judges that, by signing together, presented a unified front to fight the Mafia by joining efforts that were a more difficult target for mafiosi and preserved institutional memory by sharing information.

Giovanni Spano

Giovanni Spano 12 Giovanni Spano, also a priest and a linguist, is considered one of the first archaeologists to study the Mediterranean island of Sardinia.

Emanuela Loi

Emanuela Loi 12 Emanuela Loi è stata una poliziotta italiana, morta nella strage di via D'Amelio.                   

Fulvio Testi

Fulvio Testi 11 Fulvio Testi was an Italian diplomat and poet who is recognised as one of the main exponents of 17th-century Italian Baroque literature. He worked in the service of the d'Este dukes in Modena, for whom he held high office, such as the governorship of Garfagnana. His poems tackle civic themes in solemn tones, showing Testi's lasting anti-Spanish and, consequently, pro-Savoia political passions. Accused of treason for having tried to set up diplomatic relations with the French court, he was imprisoned and died in jail soon after. One later literary critic wrote:If he'd been born in a less barbarous age, and had had more time than he did to cultivate his talent, he would doubtless have been our Horace, and perhaps been hotter and more vehement and more sublime than the Latin man

Arnaldo Fusinato

Arnaldo Fusinato 11 Arnaldo Fusinato è stato un poeta e patriota italiano.                                             

Carlo Caneva

Carlo Caneva 11 Carlo Caneva was an Italian general, known for having led the conquest of Libya in the Italo-Turkish War.

John Lennon

John Lennon 11 John Winston Ono Lennon was an English singer, songwriter and musician. He gained worldwide fame as the founder, co-songwriter, co-lead vocalist and rhythm guitarist of the Beatles. His work included music, writing, drawings and film. His songwriting partnership with Paul McCartney remains the most successful in history.

Reginaldo Giuliani

Reginaldo Giuliani 11 Reginaldo Giuliani, better known as Father Giuliani, was a Dominican friar, a soldier and Italian writer.

Gaudenzio Ferrari

Gaudenzio Ferrari 11 Gaudenzio Ferrari was an Italian painter and sculptor of the Renaissance.                           

Giuseppe Giacosa

Giuseppe Giacosa 11 Giuseppe Giacosa was an Italian poet, playwright and librettist.                                   

Giovanni Gentile

Giovanni Gentile 11 Giovanni Gentile was an Italian philosopher, fascist politician, and pedagogue.                     

Pilade Bronzetti

Pilade Bronzetti 11 Pilade Bronzetti è stato un patriota italiano.                                                     

Constantine the Great

Constantine the Great 11 Constantine I, also known as Constantine the Great, was a Roman emperor from AD 306 to 337 and the first Roman emperor to convert to Christianity. He played a pivotal role in elevating the status of Christianity in Rome, decriminalizing Christian practice and ceasing Christian persecution in a period referred to as the Constantinian shift. This initiated the cessation of the established ancient Roman religion. Constantine is also the originator of the religiopolitical ideology known as Constantinism, which epitomizes the unity of church and state, as opposed to separation of church and state. He founded the city of Constantinople and made it the capital of the Empire, which remained so for over a millenium.

Giovanni Lanza

Giovanni Lanza 11 Domenico Giovanni Giuseppe Maria Lanza was an Italian politician and the eighth prime minister of Italy from 1869 to 1873.

Bernardino Telesio

Bernardino Telesio 11 Bernardino Telesio was an Italian philosopher and natural scientist. While his natural theories were later disproven, his emphasis on observation made him the "first of the moderns" who eventually developed the scientific method.

Vladimir Lenin

Vladimir Lenin 11 Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov, better known as Vladimir Lenin, was a Russian revolutionary, politician, and political theorist. He served as the first and founding head of government of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic from 1917 until his death in 1924, and of the Soviet Union from 1922 until his death. Under his administration, Russia, and later the Soviet Union, became a one-party socialist state governed by the Communist Party. Ideologically a Marxist, his developments to the ideology are called Leninism.

Alberto della Marmora

Alberto della Marmora 11 Alberto Ferrero La Marmora was an Italian soldier and naturalist. He was elder brother to Alessandro Ferrero La Marmora, soldier and founder of the Bersaglieri, and to Alfonso Ferrero La Marmora, Italian general and statesman.

Christina of Bolsena

Christina of Bolsena 11 Christina of Bolsena, also known as Christine of Bolsena, or in the Eastern Orthodox Church as Christina the Great martyr, is venerated as a virgin martyr of the third century. Archaeological excavations of an underground cemetery constructed over her tomb have shown that she was venerated at Bolsena by the fourth century.

Enrico Dandolo

Enrico Dandolo 11 Enrico Dandolo was the doge of Venice from 1192 until his death. He is remembered for his avowed piety, longevity, and shrewdness, and his role in the Fourth Crusade and the Sack of Constantinople. Dandolo died in 1205 in Constantinople and was buried at the Hagia Sophia.

Alfredo Panzini

Alfredo Panzini 11 Alfredo Panzini was an Italian novelist, critic, historical writer, and lexicographer. A prolific and popular writer, Panzini is famous in Italy for his brilliant and amusing humorous stories.

Lorenzo Ghiberti

Lorenzo Ghiberti 11 Lorenzo Ghiberti, born Lorenzo di Bartolo, was an Italian Renaissance sculptor from Florence, a key figure in the Early Renaissance, best known as the creator of two sets of bronze doors of the Florence Baptistery, the later one called by Michelangelo the Gates of Paradise. Trained as a goldsmith and sculptor, he established an important workshop for sculpture in metal. His book of Commentarii contains important writing on art, as well as what may be the earliest surviving autobiography by any artist.

Giorgio Morandi

Giorgio Morandi 11 Giorgio Morandi was an Italian painter and printmaker who specialized in still lifes. His paintings are noted for their tonal subtlety in depicting simple subjects, mainly vases, bottles, bowls, flowers, and landscapes.

Aldo Capitini

Aldo Capitini 11 Aldo Capitini was an Italian philosopher, poet, political activist, anti-fascist, and educator. He was one of the first Italians to take up and develop Mahatma Gandhi's theories of nonviolence and was known as "the Italian Gandhi".

Umberto Maddalena

Umberto Maddalena 11 Umberto Maddalena è stato un ufficiale e aviatore italiano.                                         

Giovanni Gronchi

Giovanni Gronchi 11 Giovanni Gronchi, was an Italian politician from Christian Democracy who served as the president of Italy from 1955 to 1962 and was marked by a controversial and failed attempt to bring about an "opening to the left" in Italian politics. He was reputed the real holder of the executive power in Italy from 1955 to 1962, behind the various Prime Ministers of this time.

Carlo Giuseppe Guglielmo Botta

Carlo Giuseppe Guglielmo Botta 11 Carlo Giuseppe Guglielmo Botta was an Italian historian.                                           

Leonardo Sciascia

Leonardo Sciascia 11 Leonardo Sciascia was an Italian writer, novelist, essayist, playwright, and politician. Some of his works have been made into films, including Porte Aperte, Cadaveri Eccellenti, Todo Modo and Il giorno della civetta.

House of Medici

House of Medici 11 The House of Medici was an Italian banking family and political dynasty that first consolidated power in the Republic of Florence under Cosimo de' Medici, during the first half of the 15th century. The family originated in the Mugello region of Tuscany, and prospered gradually until it was able to fund the Medici Bank. This bank was the largest in Europe during the 15th century and facilitated the Medicis' rise to political power in Florence, although they officially remained citizens rather than monarchs until the 16th century.

Agostino Depretis

Agostino Depretis 11 Agostino Depretis was an Italian statesman and politician. He served as Prime Minister of Italy for several stretches between 1876 and 1887, and was leader of the Historical Left parliamentary group for more than a decade. He is the fourth-longest serving Prime Minister in Italian history, after Benito Mussolini, Giovanni Giolitti and Silvio Berlusconi, and at the time of his death he was the longest-served. Depretis is widely considered one of the most powerful and important politicians in Italian history.

Basil of Caesarea

Basil of Caesarea 11 Basil of Caesarea, also called Saint Basil the Great, was a bishop of Caesarea Mazaca in Cappadocia, Asia Minor. He was an influential theologian who supported the Nicene Creed and opposed the heresies of the early Christian church, fighting against both Arianism and the followers of Apollinaris of Laodicea. His ability to balance his theological convictions with his political connections made Basil a powerful advocate for the Nicene position.

Rocco Chinnici

Rocco Chinnici 11 Rocco Chinnici was an Italian anti-Mafia magistrate killed by the Sicilian Mafia.                   

Tina Modotti

Tina Modotti 11 Tina Modotti was an Italian American photographer, model, actor, and revolutionary political activist for the Comintern. She left her native Italy in 1913 and emigrated to the United States, where she settled in San Francisco with her father and sister. In San Francisco, Modotti worked as a seamstress, model, and theater performer and, later, moved to Los Angeles where she worked in film. She later became a photographer and essayist. In 1922 she moved to Mexico, where she became an active member of the Mexican Communist Party.

Lelio Basso

Lelio Basso 11 Lelio Basso was an Italian democratic socialist politician, political scientist and journalist.     


Columbanus 11 Columbanus was an Irish missionary notable for founding a number of monasteries after 590 in the Frankish and Lombard kingdoms, most notably Luxeuil Abbey in present-day France and Bobbio Abbey in present-day Italy.

Justina of Padua

Justina of Padua 11 Justina of Padua is a Christian saint and a patroness of Padua. Her feast day is October 7. She is often confused with Justina of Antioch. She was devoted to religion from her earliest years and took the vow of perpetual virginity. When she was brought before Maximian the prefect, she remained firm against all attacks. The prefect caused her to be slain with the sword.


Trajan 11 Trajan was a Roman emperor from AD 98 to 117, the second of the Five Good Emperors of the Nerva–Antonine dynasty. He was a philanthropic ruler and a successful soldier-emperor who led the Roman Empire to its greatest territorial extent by the time of his death. He was given the title of Optimus by the Roman Senate.

Faustina Kowalska

Faustina Kowalska 11 Maria Faustyna Kowalska, OLM, also known as Maria Faustyna Kowalska of the Blessed Sacrament, was a Polish Catholic religious sister and mystic. Faustyna, popularly spelled "Faustina", had apparitions of Jesus Christ which inspired the Catholic devotion to the Divine Mercy and earned her the title of "Secretary of Divine Mercy".


Hadrian 11 Hadrian was Roman emperor from 117 to 138. Hadrian was born in Italica, close to modern Seville in Spain, an Italic settlement in Hispania Baetica; his branch of the Aelia gens, the Aeli Hadriani, came from the town of Hadria in eastern Italy. He was a member of the Nerva-Antonine dynasty.

Giuseppe Cavallera

Giuseppe Cavallera 11 Giuseppe Cavallera è stato un politico italiano.                                                   

Massimo D'Antona

Massimo D'Antona 11 Massimo D'Antona è stato un giurista italiano, assassinato dalle Nuove Brigate Rosse il 20 maggio del 1999, a Roma, a pochi passi dalla sua abitazione.

Gratus of Aosta

Gratus of Aosta 11 Gratus of Aosta was a bishop of Aosta and is the city's patron saint.                               

Alessandro Ferrero La Marmora

Alessandro Ferrero La Marmora 10 Alessandro Ferrero La Marmora was an Italian general who is best remembered for founding the military unit known as the Bersaglieri. Two of his brothers were Alfonso Ferrero La Marmora and Alberto Ferrero la Marmora, the naturalist.


Augustus 10 Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus, also known as Octavian, was the founder of the Roman Empire. He reigned as the first Roman emperor from 27 BC until his death in AD 14. The reign of Augustus initiated an imperial cult, as well as an era of imperial peace in which the Roman world was largely free of armed conflict. The Principate system of government was established during his reign and lasted until the Crisis of the Third Century.

Federico II Gonzaga, Duke of Mantua

Federico II Gonzaga, Duke of Mantua 10 Federico II of Gonzaga was the ruler of the Italian city of Mantua from 1519 until his death. He was also Marquis of Montferrat from 1536.

Carlo Rosselli

Carlo Rosselli 10 Carlo Alberto Rosselli was an Italian political leader, journalist, historian, philosopher and anti-fascist activist, first in Italy and then abroad. He developed a theory of reformist, non-Marxist socialism inspired by the British Labour movement that he described as "liberal socialism". Rosselli founded the anti-fascist militant movement Giustizia e Libertà. Rosselli personally took part in combat in the Spanish Civil War, where he served on the Republican side.

Napoleone della Torre

Napoleone della Torre 10 Napoleone della Torre, also known as Napo della Torre or Napo Torriani, was an Italian nobleman, who was effective Lord of Milan in the late 13th century. He was a member of the della Torre family, the father of Corrado della Torre and the brother of Raimondo della Torre.

Graziadio Isaia Ascoli

Graziadio Isaia Ascoli 10 Graziadio Isaia Ascoli was an Italian linguist.                                                     

Vittorio Locchi

Vittorio Locchi 10 Vittorio Locchi è stato uno scrittore e militare italiano.                                         

Camillo Golgi

Camillo Golgi 10 Camillo Golgi was an Italian biologist and pathologist known for his works on the central nervous system. He studied medicine at the University of Pavia between 1860 and 1868 under the tutelage of Cesare Lombroso. Inspired by pathologist Giulio Bizzozero, he pursued research in the nervous system. His discovery of a staining technique called black reaction in 1873 was a major breakthrough in neuroscience. Several structures and phenomena in anatomy and physiology are named for him, including the Golgi apparatus, the Golgi tendon organ and the Golgi tendon reflex.

Saverio Mercadante

Saverio Mercadante 10 Giuseppe Saverio Raffaele Mercadante was an Italian composer, particularly of operas. While Mercadante may not have retained the international celebrity of Gaetano Donizetti or Gioachino Rossini beyond his own lifetime, he composed as prolifically as either and his development of operatic structures, melodic styles and orchestration contributed significantly to the foundations upon which Giuseppe Verdi built his dramatic technique.

Giulio Carcano

Giulio Carcano 10 Giulio Carcano è stato un politico, scrittore, giornalista e patriota italiano.                     

Agostino Bertani

Agostino Bertani 10 Agostino Bertani was an Italian revolutionary and physician during Italian unification.             

Marianus IV of Arborea

Marianus IV of Arborea 10 Marianus IV, called the Great, was the Judge (king) of Arborea, kingdom in the island of Sardinia, from 1347 to his death. He was, as his nickname indicates, the greatest sovereign of Arborea. He was a legislator and a warrior whose reign saw the commencement of massive codification of the laws of his realm and incessant warfare with the Crown of Aragon. He was also a religious man, who had connections to Catherine of Siena. He was, in short, an "wise legislator, able politician, and valiant warrior."

Eusebius of Rome

Eusebius of Rome 10 Eusebius of Rome, the founder of the church on the Esquiline Hill in Rome that bears his name, is listed in the Roman Martyrology as one of the saints venerated on 14 August.

Romolo Murri

Romolo Murri 10 Romolo Murri was an Italian politician and ecclesiastic. This Catholic priest was suspended for having joined the party Lega Democratica Nazionale and is widely considered in Italy as the precursor of Christian democracy.

Umberto Cagni

Umberto Cagni 10 Umberto Cagni was a polar explorer and an admiral in the Royal Italian Navy. He is best known for his leadership in a probe, by dogsled, northward over the surface of the Arctic Ocean in 1900. While his party failed in their goal of reaching the North Pole, on 25 April 1900 Cagni and his men achieved the northernmost point achieved by exploration up to that time, 86° 34′ N.

Urbano Rattazzi

Urbano Rattazzi 10 Urbano Pio Francesco Rattazzi was an Italian politician and statesman.                             


Eurosia 10 Eurosia is the patron saint of Jaca, a city in the province of Huesca of northeastern Spain, in the Pyrenees, the centre of her cult. In Spain, the "Fiesta de Santa Orosia" is celebrated on 25 June. Tradition states that she was born in Bayonne and died in 880, martyred by the Moors at Jaca.

Pietro Bembo

Pietro Bembo 10 Pietro Bembo, O.S.I.H. was an Italian scholar, poet, and literary theorist who also was a member of the Knights Hospitaller, and a cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church. As an intellectual of the Italian Renaissance, Pietro Bembo greatly influenced the development of the Tuscan dialect as a literary language for poetry and prose, which, by later codification into a standard language, became the modern Italian language. In the 16th century, Bembo's poetry, essays and books proved basic to reviving interest in the literary works of Petrarch. In the field of music, Bembo's literary writing techniques helped composers develop the techniques of musical composition that made the madrigal the most important secular music of 16th-century Italy.

Francesco I Sforza

Francesco I Sforza 10 Francesco I Sforza was an Italian condottiero who founded the Sforza dynasty in the duchy of Milan, ruling as its (fourth) duke from 1450 until his death.

Giuseppe Donati

Giuseppe Donati 10 Giuseppe Donati was an Italian musical instrument maker who invented the ocarina, a ceramic wind instrument based on the principle of a Helmholtz resonator.

Giovanni Randaccio

Giovanni Randaccio 10 Giovanni Randaccio was an Italian soldier.                                                         

Benedetto Brin

Benedetto Brin 10 Benedetto Brin was an Italian naval administrator and politician. He played a major role in modernizing and expanding the Italian Regia Marina from the 1870s to the 1890s, designing several major classes of warships, including the large ironclad warships of the Duilio, Italia, and Re Umberto classes, the pre-dreadnought battleships of the Ammiraglio di Saint Bon and Regina Margherita classes, and the armored cruisers of the Vettor Pisani and Giuseppe Garibaldi classes. His contributions to Italian naval power were marked by the naming of the second Regina Margherita-class battleship as Benedetto Brin, among other commemorations.

Costantino Crosa

Costantino Crosa 10 Costantino Crosa è stato un militare italiano, decorato di medaglia d'oro al valor militare alla memoria nel corso della prima guerra mondiale.

Giuseppe Dozza

Giuseppe Dozza 10 Giuseppe Dozza was an Italian politician, the first Mayor of Bologna after the end of World War II. 

Telemaco Signorini

Telemaco Signorini 10 Telemaco Signorini was an Italian artist who belonged to the group known as the Macchiaioli.       

Dosso Dossi

Dosso Dossi 10 Giovanni di Niccolò de Luteri, better known as Dosso Dossi, was an Italian Renaissance painter who belonged to the School of Ferrara, painting in a style mainly influenced by Venetian painting, in particular Giorgione and early Titian.

Bonaldo Stringher

Bonaldo Stringher 10 Bonaldo Stringher was an Italian banker, economist and politician.                                 

Renato Guttuso

Renato Guttuso 10 Renato Guttuso was an Italian painter and politician. His best-known works include Flight from Etna (1938–39), Crucifixion (1941) and La Vucciria (1974). Guttuso also designed for the theatre and did illustrations for books. Those for Elizabeth David’s Italian Food (1954), introduced him to many in the English-speaking world. A fierce anti-Fascist, "he developed out of Expressionism and the harsh light of his native land to paint landscapes and social commentary".

Vittorio De Sica

Vittorio De Sica 10 Vittorio De Sica was an Italian film director and actor, a leading figure in the neorealist movement.

Guido Miglioli

Guido Miglioli 10 Guido Miglioli è stato un politico e sindacalista italiano.                                         

Roberto Ruffilli

Roberto Ruffilli 10 Roberto Ruffilli è stato un politologo e politico italiano.                                         

Gian Giacomo Medici

Gian Giacomo Medici 10 Gian Giacomo Medici was an Italian condottiero who became a noted Spanish general, Duke of Marignano and Marquess of Musso and Lecco in Lombardy.

Eugenio Barsanti

Eugenio Barsanti 10 Father Eugenio Barsanti, also named Nicolò, was an Italian engineer, who together with Felice Matteucci of Lucca invented the first version of the internal combustion engine in 1853, Florence. Their patent request was granted in London on June 12, 1854, and published in London's Morning Journal under the title "Specification of Eugene Barsanti and Felix Matteucci, Obtaining Motive Power by the Explosion of Gasses", as documented by the Fondazione Barsanti e Matteucci.

Luigi Luzzatti

Luigi Luzzatti 10 Luigi Luzzatti was an Italian financier, political economist, social philosopher, and jurist. He served as the 20th prime minister of Italy between 1910 and 1911.

Luigi Mercantini

Luigi Mercantini 10 Luigi Mercantini was an Italian poet and writer, who took part in the movements for the Italian unification in the late 19th century. He is better known for his poem "La spigolatrice di Sapri", depicting the ill-fated expedition led in 1857 by Carlo Pisacane against the Kingdom of Naples, which was also translated into English by Henry W. Longfellow with the title The Gleaner of Sapri.

René Descartes

René Descartes 10 René Descartes was a French philosopher, scientist, and mathematician, widely considered a seminal figure in the emergence of modern philosophy and science. Mathematics was paramount to his method of inquiry, and he connected the previously separate fields of geometry and algebra into analytic geometry. Descartes spent much of his working life in the Dutch Republic, initially serving the Dutch States Army, and later becoming a central intellectual of the Dutch Golden Age. Although he served a Protestant state and was later counted as a deist by critics, Descartes was Roman Catholic.

Leo of Montefeltro

Leo of Montefeltro 10 Saint Leo of Montefeltro otherwise Leone of Montefeltro was the first bishop of Montefeltro from 301. He is traditionally held to have been in origin a stonecutter from Dalmatia. He is venerated as a saint by the Roman Catholic church. His feast day is 1 August.

Antiochus of Sulcis

Antiochus of Sulcis 10 Antiochus of Sulcis was an early Christian martyr of Sardinia. The island and town of Sant'Antioco are named after him.

Jacopo Pirona

Jacopo Pirona 10 Jacopo Pirona è stato un abate, scrittore e linguista italiano. A lui si deve il primo dizionario con grafia unificata in lingua friulana.

Salvatore Mannironi

Salvatore Mannironi 10 Salvatore Mannironi è stato un politico italiano.                                                   

Giovanni Maria Dettori

Giovanni Maria Dettori 10 Giovanni Maria Dettori è stato un teologo italiano, ha insegnato teologia morale presso l'Università di Cagliari (1807).

Lorenzo Lotto

Lorenzo Lotto 9 Lorenzo Lotto was an Italian painter, draughtsman, and illustrator, traditionally placed in the Venetian school, though much of his career was spent in other north Italian cities. He painted mainly altarpieces, religious subjects and portraits. He was active during the High Renaissance and the first half of the Mannerist period, but his work maintained a generally similar High Renaissance style throughout his career, although his nervous and eccentric posings and distortions represented a transitional stage to the Florentine and Roman Mannerists.

Abraham Lincoln

Abraham Lincoln 9 Abraham Lincoln was an American lawyer, politician, and statesman, who served as the 16th president of the United States, from 1861 until his assassination in 1865. Lincoln led the United States through the American Civil War, defending the nation as a constitutional union, defeating the insurgent Confederacy, playing a major role in the abolition of slavery, expanding the power of the federal government, and modernizing the U.S. economy.

Luigi Maria Palazzolo

Luigi Maria Palazzolo 9 Luigi Maria Palazzolo was an Italian Roman Catholic priest. He established the Sisters of the Poor which was also known as the Palazzolo Institute. Other contributions include the construction of an orphanage for children in Traona and also the Little House of Divine Providence. He also worked for the poor and the outcast until his death.

Guido Guinizelli

Guido Guinizelli 9 Guido Guinizelli was an esteemed Italian love poet and is considered the "father" of the Dolce Stil Novo. He was the first to write in this new style of poetry writing, and thus is held to be the ipso facto founder. He was born in, and later exiled from, Bologna, Italy. It is speculated that he died in Verona, Italy.

Not found.

Not found. 9                                                                                                    

Michele Amari

Michele Amari 9 Michele Benedetto Gaetano Amari was a Sicilian patriot, liberal revolutionary and politician of aristocratic background, historian and orientalist. He rose to prominence as a champion of Sicilian independence from the Neapolitan Bourbon rule when he published his history of the War of the Sicilian Vespers in 1842. He was a minister in the Sicilian revolutionary government of 1848–9 and in Garibaldi's revolutionary cabinet in Sicily in 1860. Having embraced the cause of Italian unification, he helped prepare the annexation of Sicily by the Kingdom of Sardinia and was active in his later years as a senator of the Kingdom of Italy.

Cecco Angiolieri

Cecco Angiolieri 9 Francesco Angiolieri, known as Cecco Angiolieri was an Italian poet.                               

Carlo Poma

Carlo Poma 9 Carlo Poma è stato un medico e patriota italiano, uno dei Martiri di Belfiore.                     

Joachim Murat

Joachim Murat 9 Joachim Murat was a French military commander and statesman who served during the French Revolutionary Wars and Napoleonic Wars. Under the French Empire he received the military titles of Marshal of the Empire and Admiral of France. He was the first Prince Murat, Grand Duke of Berg from 1806 to 1808, and King of Naples as Joachim-Napoleon from 1808 to 1815.

Alfredo Baccarini

Alfredo Baccarini 9 Alfredo Baccarini è stato un ingegnere e politico italiano.                                         

Carlo Poerio

Carlo Poerio 9 Carlo Poerio was an Italian poet, Risorgimento and 1848 Revolution activist, politician, and brother of Alessandro Poerio.

Prosper of Reggio

Prosper of Reggio 9 Prosper of Reggio is an Italian saint. Tradition holds that he was a bishop of Reggio Emilia for twenty-two years. Little is known of his life, but documents attest that he was indeed bishop of Reggio Emilia in the fifth century.

Cassian of Imola

Cassian of Imola 9 Cassian, or Saint Cassian of Imola, or Cassius was a Christian saint of the 4th century. His feast day is August 13.

Ettore Fieramosca

Ettore Fieramosca 9 Ettore Fieramosca was an Italian condottiero and nobleman during the Italian Wars. His father was Rainaldo, baron of Rocca d'Evandro, and it is thought that his mother was a noblewoman from the Gaetani family. The family inherited and occupied the Castle of Mignano.

Cesare Correnti

Cesare Correnti 9 Cesare Correnti was an Italian revolutionary and politician.                                       

Alphonsus Liguori

Alphonsus Liguori 9 Alphonsus Liguori, CSsR, sometimes called Alphonsus Maria de Liguori or Saint Alphonsus Liguori, was an Italian Catholic bishop, spiritual writer, composer, musician, artist, poet, lawyer, scholastic philosopher, and theologian. He founded the Congregation of the Most Holy Redeemer, known as the Redemptorists, in November 1732.

Pope Sixtus II

Pope Sixtus II 9 Pope Sixtus II, also written as Pope Xystus II, was bishop of Rome from 31 August 257 until his death on 6 August 258. He was killed along with seven deacons, including Lawrence of Rome, during the persecution of Christians by the Emperor Valerian.

John of Procida

John of Procida 9 John of Procida (1210–1298) was an Italian medieval physician and diplomat.                         

Antoniotto Usodimare

Antoniotto Usodimare 9 Antoniotto Usodimare or Usus di Mare (1416–1462) was a Genoese trader and explorer in the service of the Portuguese Prince Henry the Navigator. Jointly with Alvise Cadamosto, Usodimare discovered a great stretch of the West African coast in two known voyages in 1455 and 1456. They notably discovered the Cape Verde islands, and the Guinea coast from the Gambia River to the Geba River

Alberto Mario

Alberto Mario 9 Alberto Mario was an Italian politician, journalist and supporter of Giuseppe Garibaldi. His wife was Jessie White, an English supporter of Garibaldi.

Enrico Caruso

Enrico Caruso 9 Enrico Caruso was an Italian operatic first lyric tenor then dramatic tenor. He sang to great acclaim at the major opera houses of Europe and the Americas, appearing in a wide variety of roles that ranged from the lyric to the dramatic. One of the first major singing talents to be commercially recorded, Caruso made 247 commercially released recordings from 1902 to 1920, which made him an internationally popular entertainment star.

Olindo Guerrini

Olindo Guerrini 9 Olindo Guerrini was an Italian poet who also published under the pseudonyms Lorenzo Stecchetti and Argìa Sbolenfi.

Vito Volterra

Vito Volterra 9 Vito Volterra was an Italian mathematician and physicist, known for his contributions to mathematical biology and integral equations, being one of the founders of functional analysis.

Orazio Antinori

Orazio Antinori 9 Orazio Antinori was an Italian explorer and zoologist.                                             

Pietro Verri

Pietro Verri 9 Count Pietro Verri was an Italian economist, historian, philosopher and writer. Among the most important personalities of the 18th-century Italian culture, he is considered among the fathers of the Lombard reformist Enlightenment and the most important pre-Smithian authority on cheapness and plenty.

Nicola Fabrizi

Nicola Fabrizi 9 Nicola Fabrizi was an Italian politician, born at Sassi, Garfagnana under the jurisdiction of Modena. Fabrizi was one of the most militant and dedicated leaders of the Risorgimento, the movement aimed at the unification of Italy.

Anna Magnani

Anna Magnani 9 Anna Maria Magnani was an Italian actress. She was known for her explosive acting and earthy, realistic portrayals of characters.

Giovanni Schiaparelli

Giovanni Schiaparelli 9 Giovanni Virginio Schiaparelli was an Italian astronomer and science historian.                     

Filippo Meda

Filippo Meda 9 Filippo Meda è stato un politico, giornalista e banchiere italiano, protagonista del movimento cattolico italiano tra XIX e XX secolo.

Giancarlo Puecher Passavalli

Giancarlo Puecher Passavalli 9 Giancarlo Puecher Passavalli è stato un partigiano italiano decorato con la Medaglia d'oro al valor militare.

Seneca the Younger

Seneca the Younger 9 Lucius Annaeus Seneca the Younger, usually known mononymously as Seneca, was a Stoic philosopher of Ancient Rome, a statesman, dramatist, and in one work, satirist, from the post-Augustan age of Latin literature.


Plato 9 Plato, born Aristocles, was an ancient Greek philosopher of the Classical period who is considered a foundational thinker in Western philosophy and an innovator of the written dialogue and dialectic forms. He raised problems for what became all the major areas of both theoretical philosophy and practical philosophy, and was the founder of the Platonic Academy, a philosophical school in Athens where Plato taught the doctrines that would later become known as Platonism.

Giuseppe Marc'Antonio Baretti

Giuseppe Marc'Antonio Baretti 9 Giuseppe Marc'Antonio Baretti was an Italian literary critic, poet, writer, translator, linguist and author of two influential language-translation dictionaries. During his years in England he was often known as Joseph Baretti. Baretti's life was marked by controversies, to the point that he had to leave Italy, for England, where he remained for the rest of his life.

Giacomo Bove

Giacomo Bove 9 Giacomo Bove was an Italian explorer. He sailed with Adolf Erik Nordenskiöld on the first voyage through the north-east passage, and later explored Tierra del Fuego and the Congo River.


Horace 9 Quintus Horatius Flaccus, commonly known in the English-speaking world as Horace, was the leading Roman lyric poet during the time of Augustus. The rhetorician Quintilian regarded his Odes as just about the only Latin lyrics worth reading: "He can be lofty sometimes, yet he is also full of charm and grace, versatile in his figures, and felicitously daring in his choice of words."

Aloysius Gonzaga

Aloysius Gonzaga 9 Aloysius de Gonzaga was an Italian aristocrat who became a member of the Society of Jesus. While still a student at the Roman College, he died as a result of caring for the victims of a serious epidemic. He was beatified in 1605 and canonized in 1726.


Tiberius 9 Tiberius Julius Caesar Augustus was Roman emperor from AD 14 until 37. He succeeded his stepfather Augustus, the first Roman emperor. Tiberius was born in Rome in 42 BC to Roman politician Tiberius Claudius Nero and his wife, Livia Drusilla. In 38 BC, Tiberius' mother divorced his father and married Augustus. Following the untimely deaths of Augustus' two grandsons and adopted heirs, Gaius and Lucius Caesar, Tiberius was designated Augustus' successor. Prior to this, Tiberius had proved himself an able diplomat, and one of the most successful Roman generals: his conquests of Pannonia, Dalmatia, Raetia, and (temporarily) parts of Germania laid the foundations for the empire's northern frontier.

Guido Mazzoni (sculptor)

Guido Mazzoni (sculptor) 9 Guido Mazzoni was an Italian Renaissance sculptor, mainly in terracotta, and painter of the Renaissance period, working in Bologna, Naples, and France. He is also sometimes referred to as Il Modanino.

Scipione Ronchetti

Scipione Ronchetti 9 Scipione Ronchetti è stato un politico italiano.                                                   

Costantino Nivola

Costantino Nivola 9 Costantino Nivola was an Italian sculptor, architectural sculptor, muralist, designer, and teacher. 

Victoria of Albitina

Victoria of Albitina 9 Saint Victoria is venerated as a martyr and saint by the Catholic Church. It states that she was of the North African nobility and refused an arranged marriage. On her wedding day, she leaped from a window in her parents' house. Arrested for her faith, Victoria argued with the judge at her trial, who was willing to release her. She was executed with forty-five other parishioners. Names from this group include Thelica, Ampelius, Emeritus, and Rogatian.

Pliny the Elder

Pliny the Elder 9 Gaius Plinius Secundus, called Pliny the Elder, was a Roman author, naturalist, natural philosopher, naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire, and a friend of the emperor Vespasian. He wrote the encyclopedic Naturalis Historia, which became an editorial model for encyclopedias. He spent most of his spare time studying, writing, and investigating natural and geographic phenomena in the field.

Guido Picelli

Guido Picelli 9 Guido Picelli was an Italian Communist politician and anti-fascist militant. He was a founding member of the Arditi del Popolo and a participant in the Spanish Civil War where he died in battle.

Marcus Aurelius

Marcus Aurelius 9 Marcus Aurelius Antoninus was Roman emperor from 161 to 180 and a Stoic philosopher. He was a member of the Nerva–Antonine dynasty, the last of the rulers later known as the Five Good Emperors and the last emperor of the Pax Romana, an age of relative peace, calm, and stability for the Roman Empire lasting from 27 BC to 180 AD. He served as Roman consul in 140, 145, and 161.

Giovanni Battista Melis

Giovanni Battista Melis 9 Giovanni Battista 'Titino' Melis è stato un politico italiano.                                     

Francesco Borromini

Francesco Borromini 9 Francesco Borromini, byname of Francesco Castelli, was an Italian architect born in the modern Swiss canton of Ticino who, with his contemporaries Gian Lorenzo Bernini and Pietro da Cortona, was a leading figure in the emergence of Roman Baroque architecture.

Riccardo Bacchelli

Riccardo Bacchelli 9 Riccardo Bacchelli was an Italian writer. In 1927 he was one of the founders of the review La Ronda and Bagutta Prize for literature. He was nominated for the Nobel Prize in Literature eight times.

Antonio Ligabue

Antonio Ligabue 9 Antonio Ligabue was an Italian painter. He was one of the most important Naïve artists of the 20th century.

Dorando Pietri

Dorando Pietri 9 Dorando Pietri was an Italian long-distance runner. He finished first in the marathon at the 1908 Summer Olympics in London but was subsequently disqualified.

Lucio Battisti

Lucio Battisti 9 Lucio Battisti was an Italian singer-songwriter and composer. He is widely recognized for songs that defined the late 1960s and 1970s era of Italian songwriting.

Carlo Del Prete

Carlo Del Prete 8 Carlo Del Prete was a pioneer aviator from Italy.                                                   

Melchiorre Gioia

Melchiorre Gioia 8 Melchiorre Gioja was an Italian writer on philosophy and political economy. His name is spelled Gioia in modern Italian.


Diocletian 8 Diocletian, nicknamed Jovius, was Roman emperor from 284 until his abdication in 305. He was born Diocles to a family of low status in the Roman province of Dalmatia. Diocles rose through the ranks of the military early in his career, eventually becoming a cavalry commander for the army of Emperor Carus. After the deaths of Carus and his son Numerian on a campaign in Persia, Diocles was proclaimed emperor by the troops, taking the name Diocletianus. The title was also claimed by Carus's surviving son, Carinus, but Diocletian defeated him in the Battle of the Margus.

Paulinus of Nola

Paulinus of Nola 8 Paulinus of Nola born Pontius Meropius Anicius Paulinus, was a Roman poet, writer, and senator who attained the ranks of suffect consul and governor of Campania but – following the assassination of the emperor Gratian and under the influence of his Hispanic wife Therasia of Nola — abandoned his career, was baptized as a Christian, and probably after Therasia's death became bishop of Nola in Campania. While there, he wrote poems in honor of his predecessor Saint Felix and corresponded with other Christian leaders throughout the empire. He is credited with the introduction of bells to Christian worship and helped resolve the disputed election of Pope Boniface I.

Andrea Solari

Andrea Solari 8 Andrea Solari (1460–1524) was an Italian Renaissance painter of the Milanese school. He was initially named Andre del Gobbo, but more confusingly as Andrea del Bartolo a name shared with two other Italian painters, the 14th-century Siennese Andrea di Bartolo, and the 15th-century Florentine Andrea di Bartolo.

Paolo dal Pozzo Toscanelli

Paolo dal Pozzo Toscanelli 8 Paolo dal Pozzo Toscanelli was an Italian mathematician, astronomer, and cosmographer.             

Roberto Ardigò

Roberto Ardigò 8 Roberto Felice Ardigò was an Italian philosopher. He was an influential leader of Italian positivism and a former Roman Catholic priest.

Leone Leoni

Leone Leoni 8 Leone Leoni was an Italian sculptor of international outlook who travelled in Italy, Germany, Austria, France, Spain and the Netherlands. Leoni is regarded as the finest of the Cinquecento medallists. He made his reputation in commissions he received from the Habsburg monarchs Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor and Philip II of Spain. His usual medium was bronze, although he also worked in marble and alabaster, carved gemstones and probably left some finished work in wax, as well as designing coins. He mainly produced portraits, and was repeatedly used by the Spanish, and also the Austrian, Habsburgs.

Giosuè Borsi

Giosuè Borsi 8 Giosuè Borsi è stato uno scrittore e poeta italiano.                                               

Paolo Thaon di Revel

Paolo Thaon di Revel 8 Paolo Camillo Thaon, Marquess of Revel, latterly titled with the honorary title of 1st Duke of the Sea, was an Italian admiral of the Regia Marina during World War I and later a politician.

Filippo Re

Filippo Re 8 Filippo Re è stato un botanico e agronomo italiano.                                                 

Enrico Ferri

Enrico Ferri 8 Enrico Ferri may refer to:Enrico Ferri (politician), Italian politician and magistrate Enrico Ferri (criminologist) (1856–1929), Italian criminologist

Filippo Serafini

Filippo Serafini 8 Filippo Serafini è stato un giurista italiano nato in Trentino, allora parte dell'impero austro-ungarico.

Contardo Ferrini

Contardo Ferrini 8 Contardo Ferrini was a noted Italian jurist and legal scholar. He was also a fervent Roman Catholic, who lived a devout life of prayer and service to the poor. He has been beatified by the Catholic Church.

Matteo Renato Imbriani

Matteo Renato Imbriani 8 Matteo Renato Imbriani è stato un politico italiano, esponente del Partito radicale storico.       

Giacomo Carissimi

Giacomo Carissimi 8 (Gian) Giacomo Carissimi was an Italian composer and music teacher. He is one of the most celebrated masters of the early Baroque or, more accurately, the Roman School of music. Carissimi established the characteristic features of the Latin oratorio and was a prolific composer of masses, motets, and cantatas. He was highly influential in musical developments in northern European countries through his pupils, like Kerll in Germany and Charpentier in France, and the wide dissemination of his music.

Filippo De Pisis

Filippo De Pisis 8 Filippo De Pisis was an Italian painter and poet.                                                   

Renato Serra

Renato Serra 8 Renato Luigi Giuseppe Giulio Serra è stato un critico letterario e scrittore italiano.             

Enrico Forlanini

Enrico Forlanini 8 Enrico Forlanini was an Italian engineer, inventor and aeronautical pioneer, known for his works on helicopters, aeroplanes, hydrofoils and dirigibles. He was born in Milan. His older brother Carlo Forlanini was a physician.

Francesco de Pinedo

Francesco de Pinedo 8 Francesco de Pinedo was a famous Italian aviator. A Regia Marina officer who transferred to the Regia Aeronautica, he was an advocate of the seaplane and is best known for his long-range flying boat flights in the 1920s that demonstrated the feasibility of global air travel.

Giovanni Costa (painter, born 1826)

Giovanni Costa (painter, born 1826) 8 Giovanni Costa, often known as Nino Costa, was an Italian landscape painter and patriotic revolutionary.

Indro Montanelli

Indro Montanelli 8 Indro Alessandro Raffaello Schizogene Montanelli was an Italian journalist, historian, and writer. He was one of the fifty World Press Freedom Heroes according to the International Press Institute. A volunteer for the Second Italo-Ethiopian War and an admirer of Benito Mussolini's dictatorship, Montanelli had a change of heart in 1943, and joined the liberal resistance group Giustizia e Libertà but was discovered and arrested along with his wife by Nazi authorities in 1944. Sentenced to death, he was able to flee to Switzerland the day before his scheduled execution by firing squad thanks to a secret service double agent.

Andrea Carlo Ferrari

Andrea Carlo Ferrari 8 Andrea Ferrari – later adopting the middle name "Carlo" – was an Italian Catholic prelate who served as a cardinal and as the Archbishop of Milan from 1894 until his death. Ferrari was a well-regarded pastor and theologian who led two dioceses before being appointed to the prestigious Milanese archdiocese which he led until his death. But he was later accused of Modernism which led to a strained relationship with Pope Pius X who finally reconciled with Ferrari in 1912.

Jacopo della Quercia

Jacopo della Quercia 8 Jacopo della Quercia, also known as Jacopo di Pietro d'Agnolo di Guarnieri, was an Italian sculptor of the Renaissance, a contemporary of Brunelleschi, Ghiberti and Donatello. He is considered a precursor of Michelangelo.

Raffaello Lambruschini

Raffaello Lambruschini 8 Raffaello Lambruschini was a priest, Tuscan agricultural and pedagogical scholar and author; and Italian politician and senator. His diverse interests were pursued through an evolving career.

Antonio da Sangallo the Younger

Antonio da Sangallo the Younger 8 Antonio da Sangallo the Younger, also known as Antonio Cordiani, was an Italian architect active during the Renaissance, mainly in Rome and the Papal States. One of his most popular projects that he worked on designing is St. Peter’s basilica in the Vatican City. He was also an engineer who worked on restoring several buildings. His success was greatly due to his contracts with renowned artists during his time. Sangallo died in Terni, Italy, and was buried in St. Peter’s Basilica.

Giovanni Papini

Giovanni Papini 8 Giovanni Papini was an Italian journalist, essayist, novelist, short story writer, poet, literary critic, and philosopher. A controversial literary figure of the early and mid-twentieth century, he was the earliest and most enthusiastic representative and promoter of Italian pragmatism. Papini was admired for his writing style and engaged in heated polemics. Involved with avant-garde movements such as futurism and post-decadentism, he moved from one political and philosophical position to another, always dissatisfied and uneasy: he converted from anti-clericalism and atheism to Catholicism, and went from convinced interventionism – before 1915 – to an aversion to war. In the 1930s, after moving from individualism to conservatism, he finally became a fascist, while maintaining an aversion to Nazism.

Gracchi brothers

Gracchi brothers 8 The Gracchi brothers were two brothers who lived during the beginning of the late Roman Republic: Tiberius Gracchus and Gaius Gracchus. They served in the plebeian tribunates of 133 BC and 122–121 BC, respectively. They have been received as well-born and eloquent advocates for social reform who were both killed by a reactionary political system; their terms in the tribunate precipitated a series of domestic crises which are viewed as unsettling the Roman Republic and contributing to its collapse.

Vincenzo Vela

Vincenzo Vela 8 Vincenzo Vela was a Swiss-Italian sculptor, active mainly in northern Italy.                       

Francesco Nullo

Francesco Nullo 8 Francesco Nullo was an Italian patriot, military officer and merchant, and a close friend and confidant of Giuseppe Garibaldi. He supported independence movements in Italy and Poland. He was a participant in the Five Days of Milan and other events of the revolutions of 1848 in the Italian states, Sicilian Expedition of the Thousand in 1860 and the Polish January Uprising in 1863. His military career ended with him receiving the rank of general in Poland, shortly before his death in the Battle of Krzykawka.

Antonio Salieri

Antonio Salieri 8 Antonio Salieri was an Italian composer and teacher of the classical period. He was born in Legnago, south of Verona, in the Republic of Venice, and spent his adult life and career as a subject of the Habsburg monarchy.

Giovanni Dandolo

Giovanni Dandolo 8 Giovanni Dandolo was the 48th Doge of Venice, elected late in his life on 31 March 1280. He died on 2 November 1289. During his reign, the first Venetian gold ducat was introduced into circulation.

Gastone Sozzi

Gastone Sozzi 8 Gastone Sozzi è stato un politico italiano comunista, imprigionato, torturato e ucciso dalla polizia fascista.

Bernardino Ramazzini

Bernardino Ramazzini 8 Bernardino Ramazzini was an Italian physician.                                                     

Gerolamo Rovetta

Gerolamo Rovetta 8 Gerolamo Rovetta was an Italian writer and playwright.                                             

Cola di Rienzo

Cola di Rienzo 8 Nicola Gabrini, commonly known as Cola di Rienzo or Rienzi, was an Italian politician and leader, who styled himself as the "tribune of the Roman people".

Giuseppe Biasi

Giuseppe Biasi 8 Giuseppe Biasi was an Italian painter.                                                             

Luigi Tenco

Luigi Tenco 8 Luigi Tenco was an Italian singer-songwriter.                                                       

Annibale Caro

Annibale Caro 8 Fra' Annibale Caro, K.M., was an Italian writer and poet.                                           

Guido Baccelli

Guido Baccelli 8 Guido Baccelli was an Italian physician and statesman. One of the most renowned Italian physicians of the late 19th century, he was Minister of Education of the then young Kingdom of Italy for six times and once Minister of Agriculture, Industry and Commerce, for a total period of almost ten years, between 1881 and 1903. He was a teacher to Augusto Murri. Together with Italian surgeon Francesco Durante, Baccelli promoted the construction of the Policlinico Umberto I in Rome.

Attilio Deffenu

Attilio Deffenu 8 Attilio Deffenu was an Italian journalist, soldier, exponent of Sardinian autonomism and a syndicalist.

Crispin and Crispinian

Crispin and Crispinian 8 Saints Crispin and Crispinian are the Christian patron saints of cobblers, curriers, tanners, and leather workers. They were beheaded during the reign of Diocletian; the date of their execution is given as 25 October 285 or 286.

Roberto Rossellini

Roberto Rossellini 8 Roberto Gastone Zeffiro Rossellini was an Italian film director, screenwriter and producer. He was one of the most prominent directors of the Italian neorealist cinema, contributing to the movement with films such as Rome, Open City (1945), Paisan (1946), and Germany, Year Zero (1948). He is also known for his films starring Ingrid Bergman, Stromboli (1950), Europe '51 (1952), Journey to Italy (1954), Fear (1954), and Joan of Arc at the Stake (1954).

Pino Puglisi

Pino Puglisi 8 Giuseppe "Pino" Puglisi was a Roman Catholic priest in the rough Palermo neighbourhood of Brancaccio. He openly challenged the Sicilian Mafia who controlled the neighbourhood, and was killed by them on his 56th birthday. His life story has been retold in a book, Pino Puglisi, il prete che fece tremare la mafia con un sorriso (2013), and portrayed in a film, Come Into the Light in 2005. He is the first person killed by the Mafia who has been beatified by the Catholic Church.

Ivanoe Bonomi

Ivanoe Bonomi 8 Ivanoe Bonomi was an Italian politician and journalist who served as Prime Minister of Italy from 1921 to 1922 and again from 1944 to 1945.

Desiderio de Langres

Desiderio de Langres 8 San Desiderio en latín Desiderius, obispo de Langres                                               

Gino Bartali

Gino Bartali 8 Gino Bartali,, nicknamed Gino the Pious and Ginettaccio, was a champion road cyclist. He was the most renowned Italian cyclist before the Second World War, having won the Giro d'Italia twice, in 1936 and 1937, and the Tour de France in 1938. After the war, he added one more victory in each event: the Giro d'Italia in 1946 and the Tour de France in 1948. His second and last Tour de France victory in 1948 gave him the largest gap between victories in the race.

Aurelio Nicolodi

Aurelio Nicolodi 8 Aurelio Nicolodi è stato un educatore ed irredentista italiano, fondatore dell'Unione italiana ciechi.

Francesco Berni

Francesco Berni 8 Francesco Berni was an Italian poet. He is credited for beginning what is now known as "Bernesque poetry", a serio-comedic type of poetry with elements of satire.

Macedonio Melloni

Macedonio Melloni 8 Macedonio Melloni was an Italian physicist, notable for demonstrating that radiant heat has similar physical properties to those of light.

Simone Martini

Simone Martini 8 Simone Martini was an Italian painter born in Siena. He was a major figure in the development of early Italian painting and greatly influenced the development of the International Gothic style.

Giovanni Battista Candotti

Giovanni Battista Candotti 8 Giovanni Battista Candotti è stato un compositore, organista e presbitero italiano.                 

Antonello da Messina

Antonello da Messina 8 Antonello da Messina, properly Antonello di Giovanni di Antonio, but also called Antonello degli Antoni and Anglicized as Anthony of Messina, was an Italian painter from Messina, active during the Italian Early Renaissance.

Teobaldo Ciconi

Teobaldo Ciconi 8 Teobaldo Ciconi è stato un giornalista, poeta e drammaturgo italiano.                               

Gabriele Rossetti

Gabriele Rossetti 8 Gabriele Pasquale Giuseppe Rossetti was an Italian nobleman, poet, constitutionalist, scholar, and founder of the secret society Carbonari.

Sebastiano Venier

Sebastiano Venier 8 Sebastiano Venier was Doge of Venice from 11 June 1577 to 3 March 1578. He is best remembered in his role as the Venetian admiral at the Battle of Lepanto.

Giovanni Marinelli

Giovanni Marinelli 8 Giovanni Marinelli was an Italian Fascist political leader.                                         

Julius the Veteran

Julius the Veteran 8 Saint Julius the Veteran, also known as Julius of Durostorum, is a Roman Catholic, Anglican and Eastern Orthodox saint and martyr. His feast day is 27 May.

Fidelis of Como

Fidelis of Como 8 Fidelis of Como was an Italian soldier-saint, according to Christian tradition.                     

Antioco Casula

Antioco Casula 8 Antioco Giuseppe Casula, meglio noto come Montanaru, è stato uno dei più importanti poeti in lingua sarda logudorese.

Enrico Costa (politician)

Enrico Costa (politician) 8 Enrico Costa is an Italian politician and lawyer. His father, Raffaele Costa, was also a politician who was Italian Minister of Health in the first Amato government and the first Berlusconi government.

Velio Spano

Velio Spano 8 Velio Spano was a Sardinian-born antifascist activist and, at times, fighter through the Mussolini years. He is also remembered for his writings: he later came to be identified, increasingly, as a journalist. After the leader fell from power in 1943 and Italy was liberated in 1945, he became an increangly mainstream politician, serving as a member of the senate between 1948 and 1963, and playing an increasingly prominent leadership role in the Communist Party.

Terence of Pesaro

Terence of Pesaro 8 Saint Terence is the patron saint of Pesaro. According to tradition, he was from Pannonia and fled to the Adriatic coast to escape the persecution of Christians under Decius. His corpse was eventually thrown into a gorge near some hot springs, near Pesaro. The place of his martyrdom was considered to be the area called the Apsella di Montelabbate, near the Abbey of San Tomaso in Foglia. This area contains sulphurous springs, and locally they are called the l'Acqua di S. Terenzio.

Vittorino da Feltre

Vittorino da Feltre 8 Vittorino da Feltre was an Italian humanist and teacher. He was born in Feltre, Belluno, Republic of Venice and died in Mantua. His real name was Vittorino Rambaldoni. It was in Vittorino that the Renaissance idea of the complete man, or l'uomo universale — health of body, strength of character, wealth of mind — reached its first formulation.

Eduardo De Filippo

Eduardo De Filippo 8 Eduardo De Filippo OMRI, also known simply as Eduardo, was an Italian actor, director, screenwriter and playwright, best known for his Neapolitan works Filumena Marturano and Napoli Milionaria. Considered one of the most important Italian artists of the 20th century, De Filippo was the author of many theatrical dramas staged and directed by himself first and later awarded and played outside Italy. For his artistic merits and contributions to Italian culture, he was named senatore a vita by the President of the Italian Republic Sandro Pertini.

Erasmo di Valvasone

Erasmo di Valvasone 8 Erasmo di Valvasone, o Erasmo da Valvason, è stato un poeta e traduttore italiano.                 

Antonio Zanon

Antonio Zanon 8 Antonio Zanon è stato un imprenditore, agronomo ed economista italiano del Settecento. Portò nell'economia friulana le idee dell'Illuminismo europeo.

Giuseppe Mercalli

Giuseppe Mercalli 8 Giuseppe Mercalli was an Italian volcanologist and Catholic priest. He is known best for the Mercalli intensity scale for measuring earthquake intensity.

Peppino Mereu

Peppino Mereu 8 Peppino Mereu è stato uno dei poeti in lingua sarda più importanti di fine Ottocento, nonché autore di Nanneddu meu, divenuto uno dei canti più popolari della Sardegna.

Lao Silesu

Lao Silesu 8 Stanislao Silesu was an Italian composer. His father Luigi was organist at the Cathedral of Santa Clara.


Geminianus 8 Saint Geminianus was a fourth-century deacon who became Bishop of Modena. He is mentioned in the year 390, when he participated in a council called by Saint Ambrose in Milan. From his name, it has been deduced that Geminianus probably belonged to the caste of Roman senators.

Ildebrando Pizzetti

Ildebrando Pizzetti 8 Ildebrando Pizzetti was an Italian composer of classical music, musicologist, and music critic.     

Johannes Kepler

Johannes Kepler 8 Johannes Kepler was a German astronomer, mathematician, astrologer, natural philosopher and writer on music. He is a key figure in the 17th-century Scientific Revolution, best known for his laws of planetary motion, and his books Astronomia nova, Harmonice Mundi, and Epitome Astronomiae Copernicanae, influencing among others Isaac Newton, providing one of the foundations for his theory of universal gravitation. The variety and impact of his work made Kepler one of the founders and fathers of modern astronomy, the scientific method, natural and modern science. He has been described as the "father of science fiction" for his novel Somnium.

Salvatore Carnevale

Salvatore Carnevale 8 Salvatore Carnevale, detto Turi, è stato un sindacalista e politico italiano.                       

Mosè Bianchi

Mosè Bianchi 7 Mosè Bianchi (1840–1904) was an Italian painter and printmaker.                                     

Carlo Matteucci

Carlo Matteucci 7 Carlo Matteucci was an Italian physicist and neurophysiologist who was a pioneer in the study of bioelectricity.

Antonio Carini

Antonio Carini 7 Antonio Carini (1872–1950) was an Italian physician, bacteriologist and professor. He worked in the public health services of São Paulo, Brazil for over forty years. Carini showed that rabies of herbivores could be transmitted by bats, and discovered a parasitic fungus, which causes pneumocystosis.

Ivo Oliveti

Ivo Oliveti 7 Ivo Oliveti è stato un politico, aviatore e militare italiano, veterano della prima guerra mondiale e successivamente Segretario federale del Partito Nazionale Fascista, sezione Emiliano-romagnola, e poi giudice del Tribunale speciale per la difesa dello Stato.

Paolo Boselli

Paolo Boselli 7 Paolo Boselli was an Italian politician who served as the 34th prime minister of Italy during World War I.

Julia of Corsica

Julia of Corsica 7 Julia of Corsica, also known as Julia of Carthage, and more rarely Julia of Nonza, was a virgin and martyr who is venerated as a saint. The date of her death is most probably on or after AD 439. She and Devota are the patron saints of Corsica in the Catholic Church. Julia was declared a patroness of Corsica by the church on 5 August 1809; Devota, on 14 March 1820. Both were martyred in pre-Christian Corsica under Roman rule. Julia's feast day is 23 May in the Western liturgical calendar and 16 July in the East.

Leo Tolstoy

Leo Tolstoy 7 Count Lev Nikolayevich Tolstoy, usually referred to in English as Leo Tolstoy, was a Russian writer. He is regarded as one of the greatest and most influential authors of all time. He received nominations for the Nobel Prize in Literature every year from 1902 to 1906 and for the Nobel Peace Prize in 1901, 1902, and 1909.

Giuseppe Missori

Giuseppe Missori 7 Giuseppe Missori was an Italian patriot, military leader during the Italian unification, and politician. He served under Garibaldi during the Second Italian War of Independence, the Expedition of the Thousand, and the Third Italian War of Independence. After the unification of Italy, he was twice a member of the City Council of Milan.

Aristide Gabelli

Aristide Gabelli 7 Aristide Gabelli è stato un pedagogista, politico e filosofo positivista italiano.                 

Brigid of Kildare

Brigid of Kildare 7 Saint Brigid of Kildare or Saint Brigid of Ireland is the patroness saint of Ireland, and one of its three national saints along with Patrick and Columba. According to medieval Irish hagiographies, she was an abbess who founded the important abbey of Kildare, as well as several other convents of nuns. There are few historical facts about her, and her hagiographies are mainly anecdotes and miracle tales, some of which are rooted in pagan folklore. They say Brigid was the daughter of a chieftain and a slave woman, and was raised in a druid's household before becoming a consecrated virgin. She is patroness of many things, including poetry, learning, healing, protection, blacksmithing, livestock and dairy production. In her honour, a perpetual fire was kept burning at Kildare for centuries.

Giovanni Villani

Giovanni Villani 7 Giovanni Villani was an Italian banker, official, diplomat and chronicler from Florence who wrote the Nuova Cronica on the history of Florence. He was a leading statesman of Florence but later gained an unsavoury reputation and served time in prison as a result of the bankruptcy of a trading and banking company he worked for. His interest in and elaboration of economic details, statistical information, and political and psychological insight mark him as a more modern chronicler of late medieval Europe. His Cronica is viewed as the first introduction of statistics as a positive element in history. However, historian Kenneth R. Bartlett notes that, in contrast to his Renaissance-era successors, "his reliance on such elements as divine providence links Villani closely with the medieval vernacular chronicle tradition." In recurring themes made implicit through significant events described in his Cronica, Villani also emphasized three assumptions about the relationship of sin and morality to historical events, these being that excess brings disaster, that forces of right and wrong are in constant struggle, and that events are directly influenced by the will of God.

Gaetano Previati

Gaetano Previati 7 Gaetano Previati (1852–1920) was an Italian Symbolist painter in the Divisionist style.             

Giovanni Marradi

Giovanni Marradi 7 Giovanni Marradi (1852–1922) was an Italian poet born at Livorno, Grand Duchy of Tuscany, and educated at Pisa and Florence. At the latter place, he started with others a short-lived review, the Nuovi Goliardi, which made a literary sensation. He became a teacher at various colleges, and eventually an educational inspector in Massa Carrara.

Carlo Stuparich

Carlo Stuparich 7 Carlo Stuparich was an Italian writer, patriot and war hero. His one substantive work was published only posthumously, on the initiative of his elder brother, Giovanni "Giani" Stuparich (1891–1961), another notable author. Admirers believe that, had he lived for longer, Carlo would have been remembered as the more accomplished and more original writer of the two. On 30 May 1916 Carlo Stuparich and the platoon he led, having become cut-off near Fort Corbin in the aftermath of a general retreat order some days earlier from higher up the chain of command, found themselves surrounded, outnumbered and overwhelmingly outgunned by the Austrian army under the command of Field Marshal von Hötzendorf. After a failed counter-attack in which his platoon had been wiped out, Carlo Stuparich committed suicide to avoid capture by the enemy.

Terenzio, Count Mamiani della Rovere

Terenzio, Count Mamiani della Rovere 7 Terenzio, Count Mamiani della Rovere was an Italian writer, academic, diplomat and politician, and was committed to the cause of the unification of Italy under the Sardinian monarchy. He was one of the leading figures of Liberal Catholicism.

Carlos Pellegrini

Carlos Pellegrini 7 Carlos Enrique José Pellegrini Bevans was Vice President of Argentina and became President of Argentina from August 6, 1890 to October 12, 1892, upon Miguel Ángel Juárez Celman's resignation.

Luigi Cagnola

Luigi Cagnola 7 Marchese Luigi Cagnola was a Neoclassical Italian architect.                                       

Giovanni Dupré

Giovanni Dupré 7 Giovanni Dupré was an Italian sculptor, of distant French stock long settled in Tuscany, who developed a reputation second only to that of his contemporary Lorenzo Bartolini.

Agnolo Firenzuola

Agnolo Firenzuola 7 Agnolo Firenzuola was an Italian writer and poet, of mainly secular works, despite having been a Vallombrosan monk.

Lord Byron

Lord Byron 7 George Gordon Byron, 6th Baron Byron was a British poet and peer. He is one of the major figures of the Romantic movement, and is regarded as being among the greatest of English poets. Among his best-known works are the lengthy narratives Don Juan and Childe Harold's Pilgrimage; much of his shorter lyrics in Hebrew Melodies also became popular.

Tancredi Galimberti

Tancredi Galimberti 7 Tancredi Galimberti was an Italian politician during the first part of the twentieth century. He served as Minister for Postal and Telegraphic communications in the Zanardelli government between 1901 and 1903. In 1929, despite being openly equivocal about the leader's post-democratic approach to politics, he was appointed to the senate.


Plautus 7 Titus Maccius Plautus was a Roman playwright of the Old Latin period. His comedies are the earliest Latin literary works to have survived in their entirety. He wrote Palliata comoedia, the genre devised by Livius Andronicus, the innovator of Latin literature. The word Plautine refers to both Plautus's own works and works similar to or influenced by his.

Alberto Savinio

Alberto Savinio 7 Alberto Savinio, born as Andrea Francesco Alberto de Chirico was a Greek-Italian writer, painter, musician, journalist, essayist, playwright, set designer and composer. He was the younger brother of 'metaphysical' painter Giorgio de Chirico. His work often dealt with philosophical and psychological themes, and he was also heavily concerned with the philosophy of art.

Aldus Manutius

Aldus Manutius 7 Aldus Pius Manutius was an Italian printer and humanist who founded the Aldine Press. Manutius devoted the later part of his life to publishing and disseminating rare texts. His interest in and preservation of Greek manuscripts mark him as an innovative publisher of his age dedicated to the editions he produced. Aldus Manutius introduced the small portable book format with his enchiridia, which revolutionized personal reading and are the predecessor of the modern paperback book. He also helped to standardize use of punctuation including the comma and the semicolon.

Carl Linnaeus

Carl Linnaeus 7 Carl Linnaeus, also known after ennoblement in 1761 as Carl von Linné, was a Swedish biologist and physician who formalised binomial nomenclature, the modern system of naming organisms. He is known as the "father of modern taxonomy". Many of his writings were in Latin; his name is rendered in Latin as Carolus Linnæus and, after his 1761 ennoblement, as Carolus a Linné.

Michele Gortani

Michele Gortani 7 Michele Gortani was an Italian geologist, entomologist, and politician. He was a specialist on the Carnian Alps where he grew up and worked for much of his life.

Giuseppe Mengoni

Giuseppe Mengoni 7 Giuseppe Mengoni was an Italian architect. He designed the Galleria Vittorio Emanuele II in Milan. He also designed the Palazzo di Residenza of Bologna Saving Bank (Carisbo). He died by accident, falling off the roof of the gallery he had built.

Gustavo Modena

Gustavo Modena 7 Gustavo Modena è stato un attore teatrale e patriota italiano.                                     

Beppe Fenoglio

Beppe Fenoglio 7 Giuseppe "Beppe" Fenoglio was an Italian writer, partisan and translator from English.             

Lorenzo Bartolini

Lorenzo Bartolini 7 Lorenzo Bartolini was an Italian sculptor who infused his neoclassicism with a strain of sentimental piety and naturalistic detail, while he drew inspiration from the sculpture of the Florentine Renaissance rather than the overpowering influence of Antonio Canova that circumscribed his Florentine contemporaries.

Enrico Panzacchi

Enrico Panzacchi 7 Enrico Panzacchi è stato un poeta, critico d'arte, politico critico musicale italiano, nonché oratore e prosatore.

Pellegrino Matteucci

Pellegrino Matteucci 7 Doctor Pellegrino Matteucci was an Italian explorer known for his expeditions to Africa.           


Januarius 7 Januarius, also known as Januarius I of Benevento, was Bishop of Benevento and is a martyr and saint of the Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church. While no contemporary sources on his life are preserved, later sources and legends claim that he died during the Great Persecution, which ended with Diocletian's retirement in 305.


Aeneas 7 In Greco-Roman mythology, Aeneas was a Trojan hero, the son of the Trojan prince Anchises and the Greek goddess Aphrodite. His father was a first cousin of King Priam of Troy, making Aeneas a second cousin to Priam's children. He is a minor character in Greek mythology and is mentioned in Homer's Iliad. Aeneas receives full treatment in Roman mythology, most extensively in Virgil's Aeneid, where he is cast as an ancestor of Romulus and Remus. He became the first true hero of Rome. Snorri Sturluson identifies him with the Norse god Víðarr of the Æsir.

Panfilo Castaldi

Panfilo Castaldi 7 Panfilo Castaldi was an Italian physician and "master of the art of printing", to whom local tradition attributes the invention of moveable type. He was born in Feltre but spent most of his life working in Milan.

Giustino Fortunato

Giustino Fortunato 7 Giustino Fortunato was an Italian historian and politician.                                         

Vincenzo Cuoco

Vincenzo Cuoco 7 Vincenzo Cuoco was an Italian writer. He is mainly remembered for his Saggio Storico sulla Rivoluzione Napoletana del 1799. He is considered as one of the precursors of the realist school and Italian liberalism. Cuoco adapted the critique of political rationalism of Edmund Burke and Joseph de Maistre for liberal ends, and has been described as a better historian than either of them. He influenced many subsequent Italian intellectuals, from Ugo Foscolo and Alessandro Manzoni to Bertrando and Silvio Spaventa to Benedetto Croce and Antonio Gramsci.

Gaspara Stampa

Gaspara Stampa 7 Gaspara Stampa was an Italian poet. She is considered to have been the greatest woman poet of the Italian Renaissance, and she is regarded by many as the greatest Italian woman poet of any age.

Andrea Appiani

Andrea Appiani 7 Andrea Appiani was an Italian neoclassical painter.                                                 

Carlo De Cristoforis

Carlo De Cristoforis 7 Carlo De Cristoforis è stato un patriota italiano, veterano delle cinque giornate, economista, autore di un celebre testo di teoria militare. Capitano dei Cacciatori delle Alpi, cadde nella battaglia di San Fermo, all'età di trentaquattro anni.

Giuseppe Sacconi

Giuseppe Sacconi 7 Giuseppe Sacconi was an Italian architect. He is best known as the designer of the monument of Vittorio Emanuele II, in the centre of Rome. Following the prestigious commission, he became one of the protagonists of the artistic culture of post-unification Italy, which was then engaged in heated debates aimed at creating a "national style". He was also a restorer of some famous monuments.

Teofilo Folengo

Teofilo Folengo 7 Teofilo Folengo, who wrote under the pseudonym of Merlino Coccajo or Merlinus Cocaius in Latin, was one of the principal Italian macaronic poets.

Pierre Curie

Pierre Curie 7 Pierre Curie was a French physicist, a pioneer in crystallography, magnetism, piezoelectricity, and radioactivity. In 1903, he received the Nobel Prize in Physics with his wife, Marie Skłodowska–Curie, and Henri Becquerel, "in recognition of the extraordinary services they have rendered by their joint researches on the radiation phenomena discovered by Professor Henri Becquerel". With their win, the Curies became the first ever married couple to win the Nobel Prize, launching the Curie family legacy of five Nobel Prizes.

Giacinto Gallina

Giacinto Gallina 7 Giacinto Gallina è stato un commediografo italiano, considerato l'erede della grande stagione goldoniana.

Pietro Giordani

Pietro Giordani 7 Pietro Giordani was an Italian writer, classical literary scholar, and a close friend of, and influence on, Giacomo Leopardi.

Giaime Pintor

Giaime Pintor 7 Giaime Pintor è stato un giornalista, scrittore e partigiano italiano.                             

Iris Versari

Iris Versari 7 Iris Versari was an Italian partisan from Emilia-Romagna who was decorated with a Gold Medal of Military Valour on 16 April 1976.

Pier Giorgio Frassati

Pier Giorgio Frassati 7 Pier Giorgio Frassati was an Italian Catholic activist and a member of the Third Order of Saint Dominic. He was dedicated to Catholic social justice issues and joined several charitable organizations, including Catholic Action and the Society of Saint Vincent de Paul, to better aid the poor and less fortunate living in his hometown of Turin; he put his own pious beliefs into practice to cater to their needs and was best known for his devotion and amiable character.

Ferruccio Busoni

Ferruccio Busoni 7 Ferruccio Busoni was an Italian composer, pianist, conductor, editor, writer, and teacher. His international career and reputation led him to work closely with many of the leading musicians, artists and literary figures of his time, and he was a sought-after keyboard instructor and a teacher of composition.

Gaetano Filangieri

Gaetano Filangieri 7 Gaetano Filangieri was an Italian jurist and philosopher.                                           


Onuphrius 7 Onuphrius lived as a hermit in the desert of Upper Egypt in the 4th or 5th centuries. He is venerated as Saint Onuphrius in both the Roman Catholic and Eastern Catholic churches, as Venerable Onuphrius in Eastern Orthodoxy, and as Saint Nofer the Anchorite in Oriental Orthodoxy.


Galen 7 Aelius Galenus or Claudius Galenus, often anglicized as Galen or Galen of Pergamon, was a Roman and Greek physician, surgeon, and philosopher. Considered to be one of the most accomplished of all medical researchers of antiquity, Galen influenced the development of various scientific disciplines, including anatomy, physiology, pathology, pharmacology, and neurology, as well as philosophy and logic.

Orazio Vecchi

Orazio Vecchi 7 Orazio Vecchi was an Italian composer of the late Renaissance. He is most famous for his madrigal comedies, particularly L'Amfiparnaso.

Odoric of Pordenone

Odoric of Pordenone 7 Odoric of Pordenone, was a Franciscan friar and missionary explorer from Friuli in northeast Italy. He journeyed through India, Sumatra, Java, and China, where he spent three years in the imperial capital of Khanbaliq. After more than ten years of travel, he returned home and dictated a narrative of his experiences and observations called the Relatio, highlighting various cultural, religious, and social peculiarities he encountered in Asia.

Paolo Mantegazza

Paolo Mantegazza 7 Paolo Mantegazza was an Italian neurologist, physiologist, and anthropologist, known for his experimental investigation of coca leaves and its effects on the human psyche. He was also an author of fiction.

Emilio Visconti Venosta

Emilio Visconti Venosta 7 Emilio, marquis Visconti-Venosta was an Italian statesman. He is one of the longest-serving Ministers of Foreign Affairs in the history of Italy.

Giuseppe Rovani

Giuseppe Rovani 7 Giuseppe Rovani was an Italian novelist and essayist.                                               

Jacopo Sansovino

Jacopo Sansovino 7 Jacopo d'Antonio Sansovino was an Italian Renaissance sculptor and architect, best known for his works around the Piazza San Marco in Venice. These are crucial works in the history of Venetian Renaissance architecture. Andrea Palladio, in the Preface to his Quattro Libri was of the opinion that Sansovino's Biblioteca Marciana was the best building erected since Antiquity. Giorgio Vasari uniquely printed his Vita of Sansovino separately.

Vittorio Bersezio

Vittorio Bersezio 7 Vittorio Bersezio è stato uno scrittore, giornalista e deputato italiano. Uno dei principali autori teatrali in lingua piemontese.

Mario Rapisardi

Mario Rapisardi 7 Mario Rapisardi was an Italian poet, supporter of Risorgimento and member of the Scapigliatura.     

Theodoric the Great

Theodoric the Great 7 Theodoric the Great, also called Theodoric the Amal, was king of the Ostrogoths (475–526), and ruler of the independent Ostrogothic Kingdom of Italy between 493 and 526, regent of the Visigoths (511–526), and a patrician of the Eastern Roman Empire. As ruler of the combined Gothic realms, Theodoric controlled an empire stretching from the Atlantic Ocean to the Adriatic Sea. Though Theodoric himself only used the title 'king' (rex), some scholars characterize him as a Western Roman Emperor in all but name, since he ruled a large part of the former Western Roman Empire described as a Res Publica, had received the former Western imperial regalia from Constantinople in 497 which he used, was referred to by the imperial title princeps by the Italian aristocracy and exercised imperial powers recognized in the East, such as naming consuls.

Francesco Morosini

Francesco Morosini 7 Francesco Morosini was the Doge of Venice from 1688 to 1694, at the height of the Great Turkish War. He was one of the many Doges and generals produced by the Venetian noble Morosini family. He is said to have "dressed always in red from top to toe and never went into action without his cat beside him."

Alessandro Poerio

Alessandro Poerio 7 Alessandro Poerio, Italian poet and patriot, The son of Baron Giuseppe Poerio, and uncle of the Neapolitan author Vittorio Imbriani (1840-1886) and his brother the radical politician Matteo Renato Imbriani (1843-1901).

Ferrante Aporti

Ferrante Aporti 7 Ferrante Aporti was an Italian educator and theologian.                                             

Raimondo Montecuccoli

Raimondo Montecuccoli 7 Raimondo Montecuccoli was an Italian-born professional soldier, military theorist, and diplomat, who served the Habsburg monarchy.

Ugo Pellis

Ugo Pellis 7 Ugo Pellis è stato un letterato e fotografo italiano.                                               

Antonio Scarpa

Antonio Scarpa 7 Antonio Scarpa was an Italian anatomist and professor.                                             

Paschal Baylón

Paschal Baylón 7 Paschal Baylón was a Spanish Roman Catholic lay professed religious of the Order of Friars Minor. He served as a shepherd alongside his father in his childhood and adolescence, but desired to enter the religious life. He was refused once but later was admitted as a Franciscan lay brother and became noted for his strict austerities, as well as his love for and compassion towards the sick. He was sent to Paris, France; on the way he encounterd Calvinists and was nearly killed by a mob. He was best known for his strong and deep devotion to the Eucharist.

Amadeus VI, Count of Savoy

Amadeus VI, Count of Savoy 7 Amadeus VI, nicknamed the Green Count was Count of Savoy from 1343 to 1383. He was the eldest son of Aymon, Count of Savoy, and Yolande Palaeologina of Montferrat. Though he started under a regency, he showed himself to be a forceful leader, continuing Savoy's emergence as a power in Europe politically and militarily. He participated in a crusade against the Turks who were moving into Europe.

Carlo Casalegno

Carlo Casalegno 7 Carlo Casalegno was an Italian journalist and writer. He was killed by a group of four terrorists belonging to the Red Brigades; he was the first journalist ever to be killed during the Years of lead.

Ettore Pais

Ettore Pais 7 Ettore Pais was an ancient historian, Latin epigrapher, and an Italian politician.                 

Alberto Sordi

Alberto Sordi 7 Alberto Sordi was an Italian actor, comedian, director, singer, and screenwriter.                   

Francesco Saverio Nitti

Francesco Saverio Nitti 7 Francesco Saverio Vincenzo de Paola Nitti was an Italian economist and political figure. A member of the Italian Radical Party, Nitti served as Prime Minister of Italy between 1919 and 1920. An opponent of the fascist regime in Italy, he opposed any kind of dictatorship throughout his career. According to the Catholic Encyclopedia in "Theories of Overpopulation", Nitti was also a staunch critic of English economist Thomas Robert Malthus and his Principle of Population; Nitti wrote Population and the Social System (1894). He was an important meridionalist and studied the origins of Southern Italian problems that arose after Italian unification.

Jacopo Linussio

Jacopo Linussio 7 Jacopo Linussio è stato un imprenditore italiano.                                                   

Luigi Faidutti

Luigi Faidutti 7 Luigi Faidutti è stato un presbitero e politico austriaco di etnia friulana.                       

Teresa Noce

Teresa Noce 7 Teresa Noce was an Italian labor leader, activist, journalist and feminist. She served as a parliamentary deputy and advocated broad social legislation benefiting mothers.

Oriana Fallaci

Oriana Fallaci 7 Oriana Fallaci was an Italian journalist and author. A member of the Italian resistance movement during World War II, she had a long and successful journalistic career. Fallaci became famous worldwide for her coverage of war and revolution, and her "long, aggressive and revealing interviews" with many world leaders during the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s.

Angelo Brofferio

Angelo Brofferio 7 Angelo Brofferio was a Piedmontese and Italian poet and politician, active during the period of Italian unification.

Francesco Cocco-Ortu

Francesco Cocco-Ortu 7 Francesco Cocco-Ortu è stato un politico italiano, deputato del Regno.                             

Luxorius (saint)

Luxorius (saint) 7 Luxurius or Luxorius was an ancient Roman official on Sardinia in the late 3rd and early 4th centuries. Apparitor to Delphius, the praeses or governor of the island, he was converted to Christianity by reading the Psalms. He possibly was beheaded on 21 August for refusing to sacrifice to idols in the city of Forum Traiani, probably in 304 during the fourth of Diocletian's persecutions. Later he was venerated as a martyr and saint by the Roman Catholic Church.

Mario Sironi

Mario Sironi 7 Mario Sironi was an Italian Modernist artist who was active as a painter, sculptor, illustrator, and designer. His typically somber paintings are characterized by massive, immobile forms.

Alberto Moravia

Alberto Moravia 7 Alberto Pincherle, known by his pseudonym Alberto Moravia, was an Italian novelist and journalist. His novels explored matters of modern sexuality, social alienation and existentialism. Moravia is best known for his debut novel Gli indifferenti and for the anti-fascist novel Il conformista, the basis for the film The Conformist (1970) directed by Bernardo Bertolucci. Other novels of his adapted for the cinema are Agostino, filmed with the same title by Mauro Bolognini in 1962; Il disprezzo, filmed by Jean-Luc Godard as Le Mépris ; La noia (Boredom), filmed with that title by Damiano Damiani in 1963 and released in the US as The Empty Canvas in 1964 and La ciociara, filmed by Vittorio De Sica as Two Women (1960). Cédric Kahn's L'Ennui (1998) is another version of La noia.

Francesco Manno

Francesco Manno 7 Francesco Manno was an Italian painter and architect of the Neoclassical style.                     

Emilio Segrè

Emilio Segrè 7 Emilio Gino Segrè was an Italian and naturalized-American physicist and Nobel laureate, who discovered the elements technetium and astatine, and the antiproton, a subatomic antiparticle, for which he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1959 along with Owen Chamberlain.

Elio Monari

Elio Monari 7 Elio Monari nome di battaglia "don Luigi" è stato un presbitero e partigiano italiano, Medaglia d'oro al valor militare alla memoria.

Cosmè Tura

Cosmè Tura 7 Cosmê Tura, also known as Il Cosmè or Cosimo Tura, was an Italian early-Renaissance painter and considered one of the founders of the School of Ferrara.

Marisa Bellisario

Marisa Bellisario 7 Maria Isabella Bellisario, detta Marisa, è stata una dirigente d'azienda italiana. È ricordata per le sue doti manageriali e per i suoi interventi decisivi nella ristrutturazione di Olivetti Corporation of America e Italtel.

Girolamo Michelangelo Grigoletti

Girolamo Michelangelo Grigoletti 6 Girolamo Michelangelo Grigoletti was an Italian painter, active in a Neoclassical style. He was also a professor at the Accademia di Belle Arti di Venezia.

Paolo Tosti

Paolo Tosti 6 Sir Francesco Paolo Tosti KCVO was an Italian composer and music teacher.                           

Errico Petrella

Errico Petrella 6 Errico Petrella was an Italian opera composer.                                                     

Gabriello Chiabrera

Gabriello Chiabrera 6 Gabriello Chiabrera was an Italian poet, sometimes called the Italian Pindar. His "new metres and a Hellenic style enlarged the range of lyric forms available to later Italian poets."

Antonio da Correggio

Antonio da Correggio 6 Antonio Allegri da Correggio, usually known as just Correggio was an Italian Renaissance painter who was the foremost painter of the Parma school of the High Italian Renaissance, who was responsible for some of the most vigorous and sensuous works of the sixteenth century. In his use of dynamic composition, illusionistic perspective and dramatic foreshortening, Correggio prefigured the Baroque art of the seventeenth century and the Rococo art of the eighteenth century. He is considered a master of chiaroscuro.

Justinian I

Justinian I 6 Justinian I, also known as Justinian the Great, was the Eastern Roman emperor from 527 to 565.     

Thomas Aquinas

Thomas Aquinas 6 Thomas Aquinas was an Italian Dominican friar and priest, an influential philosopher and theologian, and a jurist in the tradition of scholasticism from the county of Aquino in the Kingdom of Sicily.

Pietro Paleocapa

Pietro Paleocapa 6 Pietro Paleòcapa was an Italian scientist, politician and engineer.                                 

Ruggero Bonghi

Ruggero Bonghi 6 Ruggero Bonghi was an Italian scholar, writer and politician.                                       

Francesco Guardi

Francesco Guardi 6 Francesco Lazzaro Guardi was an Italian painter, nobleman, and a member of the Venetian School. He is considered to be among the last practitioners, along with his brothers, of the classic Venetian school of painting.

Carlo Montanari

Carlo Montanari 6 Il Conte Carlo Montanari è stato un patriota italiano. Fu uno dei martiri di Belfiore.             

Raffaele Rossetti

Raffaele Rossetti 6 Raffaele Rossetti was an Italian engineer and military naval officer who sank the once main battleship of the Austro-Hungarian Empire at the end of World War I. He was also a politician of the Italian Republican Party.

Paolo Ferrari

Paolo Ferrari 6 Paolo Ferrari may refer to:Paolo Ferrari (actor) (1929–2018), Italian actor Paolo Ferrari (writer) (1822–1889), Italian dramatist

Michele Coppino

Michele Coppino 6 Michele Coppino was an Italian professor and politician.                                           

Marcantonio Colonna

Marcantonio Colonna 6 Marcantonio II Colonna, Duke of Tagliacozzo and Duke and Prince of Paliano, was a Roman aristocrat who served as Viceroy of Sicily in the service of the Spanish Crown, general of the Spanish forces, and Captain General of the Church. He is best remembered for his part as the admiral of the Papal fleet in the Battle of Lepanto. He was "one of the most illustrious land and sea captains of the 16th century".

Andrea Cesalpino

Andrea Cesalpino 6 Andrea Cesalpino was a Florentine physician, philosopher and botanist.                             

Paolo Bentivoglio

Paolo Bentivoglio 6 Paolo Bentivoglio è stato un politico, antifascista e attivista italiano.                           

Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor

Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor 6 Frederick II was King of Sicily from 1198, King of Germany from 1212, King of Italy and Holy Roman Emperor from 1220 and King of Jerusalem from 1225. He was the son of emperor Henry VI of the Hohenstaufen dynasty and Queen Constance of Sicily of the Hauteville dynasty.

Anton Domenico Gabbiani

Anton Domenico Gabbiani 6 Anton Domenico Gabbiani was an Italian painter and active in a late Baroque style. He worked primarily in Florence for the Medici court.

Galeazzo Alessi

Galeazzo Alessi 6 Galeazzo Alessi was an Italian architect from Perugia, known throughout Europe for his distinctive style based on his enthusiasm for ancient architecture. He studied drawing for civil and military architecture under the direction of Giovanni Battista Caporali.

Geremia Bonomelli

Geremia Bonomelli 6 Geremia Bonomelli (1831–1914) was the bishop of the diocese of Cremona in the late years of the 19th century and first years of the 20th century. Bonomelli is still remembered for his work in support of Italian emigrants.

Spartaco Lavagnini

Spartaco Lavagnini 6 Spartaco Lavagnini was an Italian communist syndicalist and activist.                               

Simon the Zealot

Simon the Zealot 6 Simon the Zealot or Simon the Canaanite or Simon the Canaanean was one of the most obscure among the apostles of Jesus. A few pseudepigraphical writings were connected to him, but Jerome does not include him in De viris illustribus written between 392 and 393 AD.

Alessandro Rossi

Alessandro Rossi 6 Alessandro Rossi may refer to:Alessandro Rossi (1555–1615), Italian Roman Catholic bishop Alessandro Rossi (1589–1656), Italian Roman Catholic bishop Alessandro Rossi (1819–1898), Italian industrialist of Schio, Veneto Alessandro Rossi, Captain Regent-elect of San Marino, and former Captain Regent (2007) Alessandro Rossi (footballer), Italian footballer

Atto Vannucci

Atto Vannucci 6 Atto Vannucci è stato uno storico, patriota e presbitero italiano, protagonista dei moti toscani del 1848.

Ermete Zacconi

Ermete Zacconi 6 Ermete Zacconi was an Italian stage and film actor and a representative of naturalism and verism in acting. His leading ladies on stage were his wife Ines Cristina and Paola Pezzaglia.

Angelo Masini

Angelo Masini 6 Angelo Masini è stato un tenore italiano.                                                           

Luigi Guanella

Luigi Guanella 6 Luigi Guanella was an Italian Roman Catholic priest. He was ordained a priest on May 26, 1866 in Como, and was assigned to a small parish in Savogno. Luigi is the founder of several religious institutes: the Daughters of Saint Mary of Providence (1890) and the Servants of Charity alongside his friends David Albertario and Giuseppe Toniolo. Guanella also founded the Pious Union of Saint Joseph (1914) with his supporter and first member Pope Pius X. These religious communities focused on the relief of the poor throughout the world. The Servants of Charity motto reads "In Omnibus Charitas", which became the cornerstone for Guanella's own life.

Francesco Tamagno

Francesco Tamagno 6 Francesco Tamagno was an Italian operatic dramatic tenor who sang with enormous success throughout Europe and America. On 5 February 1887, he sang Otello in the first performance of Giuseppe Verdi's opera. He is also the earliest Italian tenor of note to have left a sizeable body of recordings of his voice. He was one of the first international male public figures to admit that he was the single parent and caregiver of a daughter from her birth.

Tiziano Tessitori

Tiziano Tessitori 6 Tiziano Tessitori è stato un politico italiano, ministro e sottosegretario di vari governi.         

Giacomo Venezian

Giacomo Venezian 6 Giacomo Venezian è stato un patriota e giurista italiano.                                           

Fernando de Rosa

Fernando de Rosa 6 Fernando De Rosa was an Italian student who attempted to assassinate Umberto Prince of Piedmont, later Umberto II of Italy in Brussels on 24 October 1929. De Rosa was born in Milan and studied law in Turin before fleeing Italy for France in order to avoid imprisonment for his political views. He remained in Paris for about a year, studying law at the University of Paris and writing for an anti-fascist journal.

Nullo Baldini

Nullo Baldini 6 Nullo Baldini è stato un politico e sindacalista italiano.                                         

Coluccio Salutati

Coluccio Salutati 6 Coluccio Salutati was an Italian Renaissance humanist and notary, and one of the most important political and cultural leaders of Renaissance Florence; as chancellor of the Florentine Republic and its most prominent voice, he was effectively the permanent secretary of state in the generation before the rise of the powerful Medici family.

Raffaele Cadorna

Raffaele Cadorna 6 Raffaele Cadorna was an Italian general who served as one of the major Piedmontese leaders responsible for the unification of Italy during the mid-19th century.

Domenico Modugno

Domenico Modugno 6 Domenico Modugno was an Italian singer, actor and, later in life, a member of the Italian Parliament. He is known for his 1958 international hit song "Nel blu dipinto di blu", for which he received the first Grammy Awards for Record of the Year and Song of the Year. He is considered the first Italian cantautore.

Rocco Scotellaro

Rocco Scotellaro 6 Rocco Scotellaro was an Italian poet, writer and politician.                                       

Stanislao Cannizzaro

Stanislao Cannizzaro 6 Stanislao Cannizzaro was an Italian chemist. He is famous for the Cannizzaro reaction and for his influential role in the atomic-weight deliberations of the Karlsruhe Congress in 1860.

Luigi, Count Cibrario

Luigi, Count Cibrario 6 Luigi, Count Cibrario was an Italian statesman and historian.                                       

Giovanni Marcora

Giovanni Marcora 6 Giovanni Marcora was an Italian businessman, politician and minister.                               

Maurizio Quadrio

Maurizio Quadrio 6 Maurizio Quadrio è stato un patriota italiano.                                                     

Pope Marcellus I

Pope Marcellus I 6 Pope Marcellus I was the bishop of Rome from May or June 308 to his death. He succeeded Marcellinus after a considerable interval. Under Maxentius, he was banished from Rome in 309, on account of the tumult caused by the severity of the penances he had imposed on Christians who had lapsed under the recent persecution. He died the same year, being succeeded by Eusebius. His relics are under the altar of San Marcello al Corso in Rome. Since 1969 his feast day, traditionally kept on 16 January by the Catholic Church, is left to local calendars and is no longer inscribed in the General Roman Calendar.

Silvio Corbari

Silvio Corbari 6 Sirio Corbari meglio conosciuto come Silvio Corbari è stato un partigiano italiano.                 

Aldo Spallicci

Aldo Spallicci 6 Aldo Spallicci è stato un medico, poeta e politico italiano, nonché cultore e promotore dell'identità e delle tradizioni popolari della Romagna.

Ernesto Rossi (politician)

Ernesto Rossi (politician) 6 Ernesto Rossi was an Italian politician, journalist, and anti-fascist activist. His ideas contributed to the Action Party, and subsequently the Radical Party. He was co-author of the Ventotene Manifesto. Born in Caserta, the not yet nineteen-years old Rossi voluntarily enlisted and fought in World War I. After the war, moved by opposition to the socialists' attitude of hostility towards war veterans and their sacrifices and by contempt of the incapable political class of bounding idealists, he approached the nationalists of Il Popolo d'Italia, a newspaper with which he collaborated from 1919 to 1922. During that time, Rossi met Gaetano Salvemini, a democratic left-interventionist with whom he formed a long-lasting bond of respect and friendship, and he moved definitively and radically further from the positions that were bringing to the Italian fascist ideology. Aged 69, he died in Rome in 1967.

Pietro Gori

Pietro Gori 6 Pietro Gori was an Italian lawyer, journalist, intellectual and anarchist poet. He is known for his political activities, and as author of some of the most famous anarchist songs of the late 19th century, including Addio a Lugano, Stornelli d'esilio, Ballata per Sante Caserio, Inno del Primo Maggio. In 1898 he immigrated to Argentina where he contributed to the development of the anarchists' influence in the labor movement, specifically in the Argentine Regional Workers' Federation.

Raffaele Paolucci

Raffaele Paolucci 6 Raffaele Paolucci, conte di Valmaggiore, è stato un militare, politico, chirurgo e docente universitario italiano autore di oltre un centinaio di pubblicazioni a carattere scientifico, prodigatosi in oltre trentamila interventi chirurgici durante tutta la propria carriera.

Anna Kuliscioff

Anna Kuliscioff 6 Anna Kuliscioff was a Russian-born Italian revolutionary, a prominent feminist, an anarchist influenced by Mikhail Bakunin, and eventually a Marxist socialist militant. She was mainly active in Italy, where she was one of the first women to graduate in medicine.

Alvise Cadamosto

Alvise Cadamosto 6 Alvise Cadamosto (Portuguese pronunciation: [alˈvizɨ kɐðaˈmoʃtu]; Italian pronunciation: [alˈvize ˌkadaˈmosto])(c. 1432 – 16 July 1483) was a Venetian explorer and slave trader, who was hired by the Portuguese prince Henry the Navigator and undertook two known journeys to West Africa in 1455 and 1456, accompanied by the Genoese captain Antoniotto Usodimare. Some have credited Cadamosto and his companions with the discovery of the Cape Verde Islands and the points along the Guinea coast from the Gambia River to the Geba River, the greatest leap in the Henrican discoveries since 1446. Cadamosto's accounts of his journeys, including his detailed observations of West African societies, have proven invaluable to historians.

Giambattista Bodoni

Giambattista Bodoni 6 Giambattista Bodoni was an Italian typographer, type-designer, compositor, printer, and publisher in Parma.

Filippo Juvarra

Filippo Juvarra 6 Filippo Juvarra was an Italian architect, scenographer, engraver and goldsmith. He was active in a late-Baroque architecture style, working primarily in Italy, Spain, and Portugal.

Brunetto Latini

Brunetto Latini 6 Brunetto Latini was an Italian philosopher, scholar, notary, politician and statesman.             

Giovanni Boldini

Giovanni Boldini 6 Giovanni Boldini was an Italian genre and portrait painter who lived and worked in Paris for most of his career. According to a 1933 article in Time magazine, he was known as the "Master of Swish" because of his flowing style of painting.

Silvio Spaventa

Silvio Spaventa 6 Silvio Spaventa was an Italian journalist, politician and statesman who played a leading role in the unification of Italy, and subsequently held important positions within the newly formed Italian state.

Berto Barbarani

Berto Barbarani 6 Roberto Tiberio "Berto" Barbarani was an Italian poet. He wrote many poems in the Veronese dialect of Northern Italy.

Arcangelo Ghisleri

Arcangelo Ghisleri 6 Arcangelo Ghisleri was an Italian geographer, writer, and Socialist politician.                   

Vincenzo Foppa

Vincenzo Foppa 6 Vincenzo Foppa was an Italian painter from the Renaissance period. While few of his works survive, he was an esteemed and influential painter during his time and is considered the preeminent leader of the Early Lombard School. He spent his career working for the Sforza family, Dukes of Milan, in Pavia, as well as various other patrons throughout Lombardy and Liguria. He lived and worked in his native Brescia during his later years.

Ermagora e Fortunato

Ermagora e Fortunato 6 Ermagora, o Ermacora, e Fortunato furono i due protomartiri di Aquileia. Entrambi sono considerati santi da tutte le Chiese cristiane che ammettono il culto dei santi, particolarmente nelle zone dell'antico patriarcato di Aquileia.

Ferdinando Palasciano

Ferdinando Palasciano 6 Ferdinando Palasciano was an Italian physician and politician, considered one of the forerunners of the foundation of the Red Cross.

Joan of Arc

Joan of Arc 6 Joan of Arc is a patron saint of France, honored as a defender of the French nation for her role in the siege of Orléans and her insistence on the coronation of Charles VII of France during the Hundred Years' War. Claiming to be acting under divine guidance, she became a military leader who transcended gender roles and gained recognition as a savior of France.

Luigi Garzoni di Adorgnano

Luigi Garzoni di Adorgnano 6 Luigi Garzoni di Adorgnano è stato un compositore e filologo italiano.                             

Bertrand of Saint-Geniès

Bertrand of Saint-Geniès 6 Bertrand of Saint-Geniès was the patriarch of Aquileia from 1334 until his death.                   

David Maria Turoldo

David Maria Turoldo 6 David Maria Turoldo, al secolo Giuseppe Turoldo, è stato un presbitero, teologo, filosofo, scrittore, poeta e antifascista italiano, membro dell'ordine dei Servi di Maria. È stato, oltre che poeta, figura profetica in ambito ecclesiale e civile, resistente sostenitore delle istanze di rinnovamento culturale e religioso, di ispirazione conciliare. È ritenuto da alcuni uno dei più rappresentativi esponenti di un cambiamento del cattolicesimo nella seconda metà del '900, il che gli ha valso il titolo di "coscienza inquieta della Chiesa".

Luigi Magrini

Luigi Magrini 6 Luigi Magrini è stato un fisico italiano.                                                           

Lino Zanussi

Lino Zanussi 6 Lino Zanussi was an Italian businessman and appliance manufacturer.                                 

Bartolomeo d'Alviano

Bartolomeo d'Alviano 6 Bartolomeo d'Alviano was an Italian condottiero and captain who distinguished himself in the defence of the Venetian Republic against the Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian.

Giuseppe Brotzu

Giuseppe Brotzu 6 Giuseppe Brotzu was an Italian pharmacologist and politician.                                       

Antonio Pigliaru

Antonio Pigliaru 6 Antonio Pigliaru was a Sardinian jurist and philosopher. He was the most important Sardinian intellectual of the second half of the twentieth century, and one of the most vivid contemporary Italian thinkers. He engaged with manifold themes, but he devoted special attention to the interpretation of the socio-economic problems of interior areas of Sardinia, which he discussed according to his own ethical and political views.

Albert Sabin

Albert Sabin 6 Albert Bruce Sabin was a Polish-American medical researcher, best known for developing the oral polio vaccine, which has played a key role in nearly eradicating the disease. In 1969–72, he served as the president of the Weizmann Institute of Science in Israel.

Gabriella Degli Esposti

Gabriella Degli Esposti 6 Gabriella Degli Esposti è stata un'antifascista e partigiana italiana, nome di battaglia Balella, Medaglia d'oro al valor militare alla memoria.

Maria Margotti

Maria Margotti 5 Maria Margotti è stata un'attivista e mondina italiana.                                             

Prince Eugene of Savoy

Prince Eugene of Savoy 5 Prince Eugene Francis of Savoy-Carignano, better known as Prince Eugene, was a field marshal in the Army of the Holy Roman Empire and of the Austrian Habsburg dynasty during the 17th and 18th centuries. He was one of the most successful military commanders of his time, and rose to the highest offices of state at the Imperial court in Vienna.

Emilio De Marchi (writer)

Emilio De Marchi (writer) 5 Emilio De Marchi (1851–1901) was an Italian novelist, known for his portrayals of Milan and Lombardy in the nineteenth century. Several of his works have been adapted for film and television including two 1940s films Giacomo the Idealist and The Priest's Hat.

Marino Moretti

Marino Moretti 5 Marino Moretti was an Italian poet and author.                                                     

Maurizio Bufalini

Maurizio Bufalini 5 Maurizio Bufalini was an Italian physician. He served in the Senate of the Kingdom of Sardinia. He was a recipient of the Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus.

Ulisse Aldrovandi

Ulisse Aldrovandi 5 Ulisse Aldrovandi was an Italian naturalist, the moving force behind Bologna's botanical garden, one of the first in Europe. Carl Linnaeus and the comte de Buffon reckoned him the father of natural history studies. He is usually referred to, especially in older scientific literature in Latin, as Aldrovandus; his name in Italian is equally given as Aldroandi.

Giuseppe Caprin

Giuseppe Caprin 5 Giuseppe Caprin è stato uno scrittore italiano, giornalista e patriota, combatté con Giuseppe Garibaldi e fu ferito a Bezzecca (1866).

Torquato Taramelli

Torquato Taramelli 5 Torquato Taramelli was an Italian geologist.                                                       

Bernardino Galliari

Bernardino Galliari 5 Bernardino Galliari (1707–1794) was an Italian painter, active mainly as a scenic designer and decorator of theaters.

Guido Donegani

Guido Donegani 5 Guido Donegani, was a prominent Italian engineer, businessman and politician. He was CEO and President of the Italian chemical industrial giant Montecatini from 1910-1945. Due to his support to the Fascist regime of Benito Mussolini he was arrested at the end of the Second World War, but acquitted of charges of collaboration.

Jules Verne

Jules Verne 5 Jules Gabriel Verne was a French novelist, poet, and playwright. His collaboration with the publisher Pierre-Jules Hetzel led to the creation of the Voyages extraordinaires, a series of bestselling adventure novels including Journey to the Center of the Earth (1864), Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Seas (1870), and Around the World in Eighty Days (1872). His novels, always well documented, are generally set in the second half of the 19th century, taking into account the technological advances of the time.

Andrea Bafile

Andrea Bafile 5 Andrea Bafile è stato un militare italiano.                                                         

Gino Capponi

Gino Capponi 5 Marquis Gino Capponi was an Italian statesman and historian of a Liberal Catholic bent.             

Antonio Salandra

Antonio Salandra 5 Antonio Salandra was a conservative Italian politician, journalist, and writer, who served as the 21st prime minister of Italy between 1914 and 1916. He ensured the entry of Italy in World War I on the side of the Triple Entente to fulfil Italy’s irredentist claims.

Giovanni Battista Grassi

Giovanni Battista Grassi 5 Giovanni Battista Grassi was an Italian physician and zoologist, best known for his pioneering works on parasitology, especially on malariology. He was Professor of Comparative Zoology at the University of Catania from 1883, and Professor of Comparative Anatomy at Sapienza University of Rome from 1895 until his death. His first major research on the taxonomy and biology of termites earned him the Royal Society's Darwin Medal in 1896.

Benedetto Varchi

Benedetto Varchi 5 Benedetto Varchi was an Italian humanist, historian, and poet.                                     

Lauro Rossi

Lauro Rossi 5 Lauro Rossi, was an Italian composer, particularly of operas. There is no known connection with Luigi Rossi (1597–1653).

Pasquale Stanislao Mancini

Pasquale Stanislao Mancini 5 Pasquale Stanislao Mancini, 8th Marquess of Fusignano was an Italian jurist and statesman.         

Achille Papa

Achille Papa 5 Achille Papa è stato un generale italiano.                                                         

Lorenzo Mascheroni

Lorenzo Mascheroni 5 Lorenzo Mascheroni was an Italian mathematician.                                                   

Mario Pannunzio

Mario Pannunzio 5 Mario Pannunzio was an Italian journalist and politician. As a journalist he was the director in charge of the daily newspaper Risorgimento Liberale in the 1940s and of the weekly political magazine Il Mondo in the 1950s. As a politician he was a co-founder of the revived Italian Liberal Party in the 1940s and then of the Radical Party in 1955.

Pope Pius XI

Pope Pius XI 5 Pope Pius XI, born Ambrogio Damiano Achille Ratti, was the Bishop of Rome and supreme pontiff of the Catholic Church from 6 February 1922 to 10 February 1939. He also became the first sovereign of the Vatican City State upon its creation as an independent state on 11 February 1929. He remained head of the Catholic Church until his death in February 1939. His papal motto was "Pax Christi in Regno Christi", translated as "The Peace of Christ in the Reign of Christ".

Alessandro Coppi

Alessandro Coppi 5 Alessandro Coppi è stato un avvocato e politico italiano.                                           

Anton Giulio Barrili

Anton Giulio Barrili 5 Anton Giulio Barrili was an Italian novelist. He was educated for the legal profession, which he abandoned in Genoa for journalism. He was a volunteer in the campaign of 1859 and served with Garibaldi in 1866 and 1867. From 1865 onwards he published a large number of books of fiction, which had wide popularity, his work being commonly compared with that of Victor Cherbuliez.

Ferdinando Martini

Ferdinando Martini 5 Ferdinando Martini was an Italian writer and politician. He was governor of Eritrea for from late 1897 to early 1907.

Antonio Andreuzzi

Antonio Andreuzzi 5 Antonio Andreuzzi è stato un patriota italiano.                                                     

Antonio Bertoloni

Antonio Bertoloni 5 Antonio Bertoloni was an Italian physician and botanist who made extensive studies of Italian plants. He also collected notable samples of Central American flora.

Alessandro Cruto

Alessandro Cruto 5 Alessandro Cruto was an Italian inventor, born in the town of Piossasco, near Turin, who created an early incandescent light bulb.

Angelo Emo

Angelo Emo 5 Angelo Emo was a Venetian noble, administrator, and admiral. He is notable for his reforms of the Venetian navy and his naval campaigns, being regarded as the last great admiral of the Venetian Republic.

Philip the Apostle

Philip the Apostle 5 Philip the Apostle was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus according to the New Testament. Later Christian traditions describe Philip as the apostle who preached in Greece, Syria, and Asia-Minor.

Prince Tommaso, Duke of Genoa

Prince Tommaso, Duke of Genoa 5 Prince Tommaso of Savoy, 2nd Duke of Genoa, who is also known as Thomas Albert Victor of Savoy, was an Italian royal prince, nephew of Victor Emmanuel at the time the King of Sardinia, who on 18 February 1861 became the first King of a united Italy. His cousin and brother-in-law Umberto I and his nephew Victor Emmanuel III became subsequent kings of Italy.

Marcus Atilius Regulus (consul 267 BC)

Marcus Atilius Regulus (consul 267 BC) 5 Marcus Atilius Regulus was a Roman statesman and general who was a consul of the Roman Republic in 267 BC and 256 BC. Much of his career was spent fighting the Carthaginians during the first Punic War. In 256 BC, he and Lucius Manlius Vulso Longus defeated the Carthaginians at the naval battle off Cape Ecnomus; afterwards he led the Roman expedition to Africa but was defeated at the Bagradas River in spring of 255 BC. He was captured and then probably died of natural causes.

Francesco Albani

Francesco Albani 5 Francesco Albani or Albano was an Italian Baroque painter of Albanian origin who was active in Bologna (1591–1600), Rome (1600–1609), Bologna (1609), Viterbo (1609–1610), Bologna (1610), Rome (1610–1617), Bologna (1618–1660), Mantova (1621–1622), Roma (1623–1625) and Florence (1633).

Franklin D. Roosevelt

Franklin D. Roosevelt 5 Franklin Delano Roosevelt, commonly known by his initials FDR, was an American statesman and politician who served as the 32nd president of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945. He was a member of the Democratic Party and is the only U.S. president to have served more than two terms. His initial two terms were centered on combating the Great Depression, while his third and fourth saw him shift his focus to America's involvement in World War II.

Felice Casorati

Felice Casorati 5 Felice Casorati was an Italian painter, sculptor, and printmaker. The paintings for which he is most noted include figure compositions, portraits and still lifes, which are often distinguished by unusual perspective effects.

Pellegrino Rossi

Pellegrino Rossi 5 Pellegrino Luigi Odoardo Rossi was an Italian economist, politician and jurist. He was an important figure of the July Monarchy in France, and the minister of justice in the government of the Papal States, under Pope Pius IX.

John of Nepomuk

John of Nepomuk 5 John of Nepomuk was a saint of Bohemia who was drowned in the Vltava river at the behest of King Wenceslaus IV of Bohemia. Later accounts state that he was the confessor of the queen of Bohemia and refused to divulge the secrets of the confessional. On the basis of this account, John of Nepomuk is considered the first martyr of the Seal of the Confessional, a patron against calumnies and, because of the manner of his death, a protector from floods and drowning.

Giuseppe Montanelli

Giuseppe Montanelli 5 Giuseppe Montanelli was an Italian statesman and author.                                           

Vincenzo Viviani

Vincenzo Viviani 5 Vincenzo Viviani was an Italian mathematician and scientist. He was a pupil of Torricelli and a disciple of Galileo.

Giovanni Pacini

Giovanni Pacini 5 Giovanni Pacini was an Italian composer, best known for his operas. Pacini was born in Catania, Sicily, the son of the buffo Luigi Pacini, who was to appear in the premieres of many of Giovanni's operas. The family was of Tuscan origin, living in Catania when the composer was born.

Luca Pacioli

Luca Pacioli 5 Fra. Luca Bartolomeo de Pacioli was an Italian mathematician, Franciscan friar, collaborator with Leonardo da Vinci, and an early contributor to the field now known as accounting. He is referred to as the father of accounting and bookkeeping and he was the first person to publish a work on the double-entry system of book-keeping on the continent. He was also called Luca di Borgo after his birthplace, Borgo Sansepolcro, Tuscany.

Luigi Alamanni

Luigi Alamanni 5 Luigi Alamanni was an Italian poet and statesman. He was regarded as a prolific and versatile poet. He was credited with introducing the epigram into Italian poetry.

Frédéric Ozanam

Frédéric Ozanam 5 Antoine-Frédéric Ozanam was a French Catholic literary scholar, lawyer, journalist and equal rights advocate. He founded with fellow students the Conference of Charity, later known as the Society of Saint Vincent de Paul. He was beatified by Pope John Paul II in the Cathedral of Notre-Dame de Paris in 1997. His feast day is 9 September.


Stendhal 5 Marie-Henri Beyle, better known by his pen name Stendhal, was a 19th-century French writer. Best known for the novels Le Rouge et le Noir and La Chartreuse de Parme, he is highly regarded for the acute analysis of his characters' psychology and considered one of the early and foremost practitioners of realism. A self-proclaimed egotist, he coined the same characteristic in his characters' "Beylism".

Paolo Frisi

Paolo Frisi 5 Paolo Frisi was an Italian mathematician and astronomer.                                           

Ermete Novelli

Ermete Novelli 5 Ermete Novelli was an Italian actor and playwright.                                                 

Dino Campana

Dino Campana 5 Dino Campana was an Italian visionary poet. His fame rests on his only published book of poetry, the Canti Orfici, as well as his wild and erratic personality, including his ill-fated love affair with Sibilla Aleramo. He is often seen as an Italian example of a poète maudit.

Francesco Todaro

Francesco Todaro 5 Francesco Todaro was an Italian anatomist born in Tripi, a village in the province of Messina.     

Quirico Filopanti

Quirico Filopanti 5 Giuseppe Barilli, also known by his pseudonym Quirico Filopanti, was an Italian mathematician and politician.

Antonio Fontanesi

Antonio Fontanesi 5 Antonio Fontanesi was an Italian painter who lived in Meiji period Japan between 1876 and 1878. He introduced European oil painting techniques to Japan, and exerted a significant role in the development of modern Japanese yōga painting. He is known for his works in the romantic style of the French Barbizon school.

Benozzo Gozzoli

Benozzo Gozzoli 5 Benozzo Gozzoli was an Italian Renaissance painter from Florence. A pupil of Fra Angelico, Gozzoli is best known for a series of murals in the Magi Chapel of the Palazzo Medici-Riccardi, depicting festive, vibrant processions with fine attention to detail and a pronounced International Gothic influence. The chapel's fresco cycle reveals a new Renaissance interest in nature with its realistic depiction of landscapes and vivid human portraits. Gozzoli is considered one of the most prolific fresco painters of his generation. While he was mainly active in Tuscany, he also worked in Umbria and Rome.

Pasquale Villari

Pasquale Villari 5 Pasquale Villari was an Italian historian and politician.                                           

Giuseppe Bandi

Giuseppe Bandi 5 Giuseppe Bandi è stato un patriota, scrittore e giornalista italiano.                               

Carolus Sigonius

Carolus Sigonius 5 Carolus Sigonius was an Italian humanist, born in Modena.                                           

Luca Ghini

Luca Ghini 5 Luca Ghini was an Italian physician and botanist, notable as the creator of the first recorded herbarium, as well as the first botanical garden in Europe.

Alfredo Testoni

Alfredo Testoni 5 Alfredo Testoni (1856–1931) was an Italian playwright and poet known for his work in the Bolognese dialect. In 1888 he established his own company at the Teatro Contavalli in Bologna. Amongst his best known plays is Cardinal Lambertini, a 1905 work set in eighteenth century Bologna. A number of his works have been adapted for film and television.

Pope Marcellinus

Pope Marcellinus 5 Pope Marcellinus was the bishop of Rome from 30 June 296 to his death in 304. A historical accusation was levelled at him by some sources to the effect that he might have renounced Christianity during Emperor Diocletian's persecution of Christians before repenting afterwards, which would explain why he is omitted from lists of martyrs. The accusation is rejected, among others, by Augustine of Hippo. He is today venerated as a saint in the Catholic Church and in the Serbian Orthodox Church.

Francesco Paolo Michetti

Francesco Paolo Michetti 5 Francesco Paolo Michetti was an Italian painter known especially for his genre works.               

Theodore Tiron

Theodore Tiron 5 Saint Theodore, distinguished as Theodore of Amasea, Theodore the Recruit, and by other names, is a Christian saint and Great Martyr, particularly revered in the Eastern Orthodox Churches but also honored in Roman Catholicism and Oriental Orthodoxy. According to legend, he was a legionary in the Roman army who suffered martyrdom by immolation at Amasea in Galatian Pontus during the Great Persecution under Diocletian in the early 4th century. Venerated by the late 4th century, he became a prominent warrior saint during the Middle Ages, attracted a great deal of additional legends including accounts of battle against dragons, and was often confused with the similar Theodore Stratelates of Heraclea.

Arturo Graf

Arturo Graf 5 Arturo Graf, was an Italian poet and literary critic.                                               

Emilio Estevez

Emilio Estevez 5 Emilio Estevez is an American actor and filmmaker.                                                 

Edoardo Bassini

Edoardo Bassini 5 Edoardo Bassini was an Italian surgeon born in Pavia.                                               

Giovanni Antonio Pilacorte

Giovanni Antonio Pilacorte 5 Giovanni Antonio Pilacorte è stato uno scultore italiano di origine ticinese.                       

Mario Angeloni

Mario Angeloni 5 Mario Angeloni è stato un politico, antifascista e avvocato italiano che combatté nella guerra civile spagnola, perdendovi la vita.

Adeodato Malatesta

Adeodato Malatesta 5 Adeodato Malatesta was an Italian painter, trained in a grand Neoclassical style, depicting mostly of sacred and historic subjects.

Maximus of Turin

Maximus of Turin 5 Maximus of Turin was a Roman Christian prelate known as the first Bishop of Turin. He was a theological writer who "made a great contribution to the spread and consolidation of Christianity in Northern Italy".

Antonio Bajamonti

Antonio Bajamonti 5 Antonio Bajamonti was an Austrian and Dalmatian Italian politician and longtime mayor of Split. He is remembered as one of the most successful mayors of the city, occupying the post almost continuously for twenty years (1860–1880). He was a medical doctor by profession. Bajamonti's parents were Giuseppe Bajamonti and Elena Candido of Šibenik.

John Hawkwood

John Hawkwood 5 Sir John Hawkwood was an English soldier who served as a mercenary leader or condottiero in Italy. As his name was difficult to pronounce for non-English-speaking contemporaries, there are many variations of it in the historical record. He often referred to himself as Haukevvod and in Italy, he was known as Giovanni Acuto, literally meaning "John Sharp" in reference to his "cleverness or cunning". His name was Latinised as Johannes Acutus. Other recorded forms are Aucgunctur, Haughd, Hauvod, Hankelvode, Augudh, Auchevud, Haukwode and Haucod. His exploits made him a man shrouded in myth in both England and Italy. Much of his enduring fame results from the surviving large and prominent fresco portrait of him in the Duomo, Florence, made in 1436 by Paolo Uccello, seen every year by 4½ million tourists.

Dante Gabriel Rossetti

Dante Gabriel Rossetti 5 Gabriel Charles Dante Rossetti, generally known as Dante Gabriel Rossetti, was an English poet, illustrator, painter, translator, and member of the Rossetti family. He founded the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood in 1848 with William Holman Hunt and John Everett Millais. Rossetti inspired the next generation of artists and writers, William Morris and Edward Burne-Jones in particular. His work also influenced the European Symbolists and was a major precursor of the Aesthetic movement.

Juliana of Nicomedia

Juliana of Nicomedia 5 Juliana of Nicomedia is an Anatolian Christian saint, said to have suffered martyrdom during the Diocletianic persecution in 304. She was popular as a patron saint of the sick during the Middle Ages, especially in the Netherlands.

Gian Rinaldo Carli

Gian Rinaldo Carli 5 Gian Rinaldo Carli (1720–1795), also known by other names, was an Italian economist, historian, and antiquarian.

Bernardino Lanini

Bernardino Lanini 5 Bernardino Lanini or Lanino was an Italian painter of the Renaissance period, active mainly in Milan.

Vitaliano Brancati

Vitaliano Brancati 5 Vitaliano Brancati was an Italian novelist, dramatist, poet and screenwriter.                       

Eugenio Chiesa

Eugenio Chiesa 5 Eugenio Chiesa was an Italian accountant who found a job with a toy factory. He worked his way up through the ranks and, when the opportunity arose, acquired the business and became very rich. By that time he had also entered politics. As a young man he had been greatly influenced by the writings of Mazzini: he remained a committed Risorgimento-republican throughout his life. His long political career was also marked by several high-profile anti-corruption campaigns. Between 1904 and 1926 he served as a member of the Chamber of Deputies. After 1922 he emerged as an uncompromising opponent of Fascism. In June 1924 he was among the first members of parliament openly to accuse Mussolini in connection with the (presumed) murder of Matteotti a couple of weeks earlier. Eugenio Chiesa ended his life in exile.

Giuseppe Piermarini

Giuseppe Piermarini 5 Giuseppe Piermarini was an Italian architect who trained with Luigi Vanvitelli in Naples and designed the Teatro alla Scala in Milan (1776–78), which remains the work by which he is remembered. Indeed, il Piermarini serves as an occasional journalistic synonym for the celebrated opera house. Piermarini was appointed professor in the Academy of Fine Arts of Brera, better known as Brera Academy, Milan, when it was formally founded in 1776.

Renata Viganò

Renata Viganò 5 Renata Viganò (1900–1976) was an Italian writer best known for her neo-realist novel L'Agnese va a morire, published in 1949. She was an active participant in the Italian Resistance movement during World War II and included fictionalized accounts of her experiences as a partisan in her written work.

Ubaldo Comandini

Ubaldo Comandini 5 Ubaldo Comandini was an Italian lawyer, publicist and politician, several times a parliamentary deputy and minister for the Italian Republican Party.

Alberto Ascari

Alberto Ascari 5 Alberto Ascari was an Italian racing driver and a two-time Formula One World Champion. Noted for careful precision and finely-judged accuracy, Ascari was a multitalented racer who competed in motorcycle racing before switching to cars. He won consecutive Formula One world titles in 1952 and 1953 for Scuderia Ferrari, being the team's first World Champion, and the last Italian to win the title as of 2024. This was sandwiched by an appearance in the 1952 Indianapolis 500, and winning the 1954 Mille Miglia.

Carlo Urbani

Carlo Urbani 5 Carlo Urbani was an Italian physician and microbiologist and the first to identify severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) as probably a new and dangerously contagious viral disease, and his early warning to the World Health Organization (WHO) triggered a swift and global response credited with saving numerous lives. Shortly afterwards, he himself became infected and died.

Carlo Emilio Gadda

Carlo Emilio Gadda 5 Carlo Emilio Gadda was an Italian writer and poet. He belongs to the tradition of the language innovators, writers who played with the somewhat stiff standard pre-war Italian language, and added elements of dialects, technical jargon and wordplay.

Carlo Cafiero

Carlo Cafiero 5 Carlo Cafiero was an Italian anarchist that led the Italian section of the International Workingmen's Association (IWA). An early leader of the Marxist and anarchist communist movements in Italy, he was a key influence in the development of both currents.

Pasquale Galluppi

Pasquale Galluppi 5 Pasquale Galluppi was an Italian philosopher.                                                       

Ezio Tarantelli

Ezio Tarantelli 5 Ezio Tarantelli è stato un economista italiano, ucciso dalle Brigate Rosse in seguito ad un attentato.

Henry Morselli

Henry Morselli 5 Enrico "Henry" Agostino Morselli was an Italian physician and psychical researcher.                 

Charles III, Duke of Bourbon

Charles III, Duke of Bourbon 5 Charles III, Duke of Bourbon was a French military leader, the count of Montpensier, Clermont and Auvergne, and dauphin of Auvergne from 1501 to 1523, then duke of Bourbon and Auvergne, count of Clermont-en-Beauvaisis, Forez and La Marche, and lord of Beaujeu from 1505 to 1521. He was also the constable of France from 1515 to 1521. Also known as the Constable of Bourbon, he was the last of the great feudal lords to oppose the king of France. He commanded the troops of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V in what became known as the Sack of Rome in 1527, where he was killed.

Dino Compagni

Dino Compagni 5 Dino Compagni was an Italian historical writer and political figure.                               

Domenico Cirillo

Domenico Cirillo 5 Domenico Maria Leone Cirillo was an Italian physician, entomologist, botanist and patriot of the Neapolitan Republic of 1799.

Gabrio Casati

Gabrio Casati 5 Gabrio Casati was an Italian politician who served as the Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Sardinia from 28 July to 15 August 1848.

Ottone Rosai

Ottone Rosai 5 Ottone Rosai was an Italian painter born in Florence, Italy.                                       

Curzio Malaparte

Curzio Malaparte 5 Curzio Malaparte, born Kurt Erich Suckert, was an Italian writer, filmmaker, war correspondent and diplomat. Malaparte is best known outside Italy due to his works Kaputt (1944) and The Skin (1949). The former is a semi-fictionalised account of the Eastern Front during the Second World War and the latter is an account focusing on morality in the immediate post-war period of Naples.

Angelo Secchi

Angelo Secchi 5 Angelo Secchi was an Italian Catholic priest, astronomer from the Italian region of Emilia. He was director of the observatory at the Pontifical Gregorian University for 28 years. He was a pioneer in astronomical spectroscopy, and was one of the first scientists to state authoritatively that the Sun is a star.

Leopoldo Gasparotto

Leopoldo Gasparotto 5 Leopoldo Gasparotto, better known as Poldo Gasparotto was an Italian mountaineer and Resistance leader during World War II.

Domenico Ricci

Domenico Ricci 5 Domenico Ricci è stato un carabiniere italiano, appuntato dell'Arma dei Carabinieri, insignito di Medaglia d'oro al valor civile alla memoria; fu ucciso nell'agguato di via Fani a Roma in occasione del rapimento di Aldo Moro insieme ad altri quattro agenti della scorta.

Enrico Cosenz

Enrico Cosenz 5 Enrico Cosenz was an Italian soldier born at Gaeta.                                                 

Nicolo Tartaglia

Nicolo Tartaglia 5 Nicolo, known as Tartaglia, was an Italian mathematician, engineer, a surveyor and a bookkeeper from the then Republic of Venice. He published many books, including the first Italian translations of Archimedes and Euclid, and an acclaimed compilation of mathematics. Tartaglia was the first to apply mathematics to the investigation of the paths of cannonballs, known as ballistics, in his Nova Scientia ; his work was later partially validated and partially superseded by Galileo's studies on falling bodies. He also published a treatise on retrieving sunken ships.


Boethius 5 Anicius Manlius Severinus Boethius, commonly known simply as Boethius, was a Roman senator, consul, magister officiorum, polymath, historian, and philosopher of the Early Middle Ages. He was a central figure in the translation of the Greek classics into Latin, a precursor to the Scholastic movement, and, along with Cassiodorus, one of the two leading Christian scholars of the 6th century. The local cult of Boethius in the Diocese of Pavia was sanctioned by the Sacred Congregation of Rites in 1883, confirming the diocese's custom of honouring him on the 23 October.

Giovanni Bertacchi

Giovanni Bertacchi 5 Giovanni Bertacchi was a poet, teacher and Italian literary critic.                                 

Gaius Duilius

Gaius Duilius 5 Gaius Duilius was a Roman general and statesman. As consul in 260 BC, during the First Punic War, he won Rome's first ever victory at sea by defeating the Carthaginians at the Battle of Mylae. He later served as censor in 258, and was appointed dictator to hold elections in 231, but never held another command.

Elio Morpurgo

Elio Morpurgo 5 Elio Morpurgo was an Italian politician, member of the Italian Senate and of the Chamber of Deputies, and mayor of Udine.

L. L. Zamenhof

L. L. Zamenhof 5 L. L. Zamenhof was the creator of Esperanto, the most widely used constructed international auxiliary language.

Francis Bacon

Francis Bacon 5 Francis Bacon, 1st Viscount St Alban PC, known as Lord Verulam between 1618 and 1621, was an English philosopher and statesman who served as Attorney General and Lord Chancellor of England under King James I. Bacon led the advancement of both natural philosophy and the scientific method, and his works remained influential even in the late stages of the Scientific Revolution.

Raimondo Franchetti

Raimondo Franchetti 5 Baron Raimondo Franchetti has been the name of more than one Italian Baron, of the noble Franchetti family. The Franchettis were an Italian Jewish family who, from the 18th century onwards, were one of the wealthiest families in the Mediterranean. They were originally a Mantuan family. The most famous member of the family named Baron Raimondo Franchetti lived from 1889 until his death in an airplane crash in Cairo in 1935 with a group of Italians, including Luigi Razza, minister of public works in the cabinet of Benito Mussolini.

Giovanni Ruffini

Giovanni Ruffini 5 Giovanni Ruffini was an Italian writer and patriot of the early 19th century. He is chiefly known for having written the draft of the libretto of the opera Don Pasquale for its composer Gaetano Donizetti.

Roberto Bracco

Roberto Bracco 5 Roberto Bracco (1861–1943) was an Italian playwright, screenwriter and journalist. A number of his plays were turned into films, and he worked on the scripts of several of them including the 1914 silent Lost in the Dark. He was nominated for the Nobel Prize in Literature six times.

Giannina Milli

Giannina Milli 5 Giannina Milli, all'anagrafe Giovanna Milli, è stata una scrittrice, poetessa e educatrice italiana.

Giovanni Fantoni

Giovanni Fantoni 5 Giovanni Fantoni (1755—1807) was an Italian poet.                                                   

Luigi Rossi

Luigi Rossi 5 Luigi Rossi was an Italian Baroque composer. Born in Torremaggiore, a small town near Foggia, in the ancient kingdom of Naples, at an early age he went to Naples where he studied music with the Franco-Flemish composer Jean de Macque, organist of the Santa Casa dell’Annunziata and maestro di cappella to the Spanish viceroy. Rossi later entered the service of the Caetani, dukes of Traetta.

Davide Albertario

Davide Albertario 5 Davide Albertario è stato un presbitero e giornalista italiano, direttore dell'«Osservatore Cattolico», giornale che univa posizioni intransigenti in materia di fede e di rapporto tra la Chiesa e lo Stato italiano, con posizioni aperte alle nuove istanze sociali.

Eugenio Colorni

Eugenio Colorni 5 Eugenio Colorni was an Italian philosopher and anti-fascist activist.                               

Teresio Olivelli

Teresio Olivelli 5 Teresio Olivelli was an Italian Roman Catholic soldier during World War II and part of the Italian Resistance movement to Fascism and the Nazi regime. Olivelli graduated in law in Pavia in 1938 and went on to comment in papers on the legal and social issues of the time before he became a volunteer fighter for the Nationalist faction during the Spanish Civil War and in World War II with a notable campaign fought in Russia. The war soured his views towards the Italian fascist regime of Benito Mussolini and his time in the resistance was marked with articles in a newspaper he founded dedicated to promoting the Christian message and attempting to improve upon aspects of fascism with a more Christian message.

Jacopone da Todi

Jacopone da Todi 5 Jacopone da Todi, O.F.M. was an Italian Franciscan friar from Umbria. He wrote several laude in the local vernacular. He was an early pioneer in Italian theatre, being one of the earliest scholars who dramatised Gospel subjects.

Giuseppe Frua

Giuseppe Frua 5 Giuseppe Frua è stato un imprenditore italiano dell'industria tessile.                             

Maria Callas

Maria Callas 5 Maria Callas was an American-born Greek soprano who was one of the most renowned and influential opera singers of the 20th century. Many critics praised her bel canto technique, wide-ranging voice and dramatic interpretations. Her repertoire ranged from classical opera seria to the bel canto operas of Donizetti, Bellini, and Rossini, and further to the works of Verdi and Puccini, and in her early career to the music dramas of Wagner. Her musical and dramatic talents led to her being hailed as La Divina.

Nicola Calipari

Nicola Calipari 5 Nicola Calipari was an Italian major general and SISMI military intelligence officer. Calipari was accidentally killed by American soldiers while escorting a recently released Italian hostage, journalist Giuliana Sgrena, to Baghdad International Airport.

Emilio Longoni

Emilio Longoni 5 Emilio Longoni was an Italian painter.                                                             

Amadeus VII, Count of Savoy

Amadeus VII, Count of Savoy 5 Amadeus VII, known as the Red Count, was Count of Savoy from 1383 to 1391.                         

Federico Rosazza

Federico Rosazza 5 Federico Rosazza Pistolet è stato un politico italiano, famoso per avere realizzato numerose opere a favore della popolazione della Valle Cervo.

Filippo Lippi

Filippo Lippi 5 Filippo Lippi, also known as Lippo Lippi, was an Italian painter of the Quattrocento and a Carmelite priest. He was an early Renaissance master of a painting workshop, who taught many painters. Sandro Botticelli and Francesco di Pesello were among his most distinguished pupils. His son, Filippino Lippi, also studied under him and assisted in some late works.

Adolfo Consolini

Adolfo Consolini 5 Adolfo Consolini was an Italian discus thrower. He competed at the 1948, 1952, 1956 and 1960 Olympics and finished in 1st, 2nd, 6th and 17 place, respectively. While winning the gold medal in 1948 he set an Olympic record at 52.78 m. Consolini won three European titles, in 1946, 1950 and 1954, and 15 national titles.

Luigi Nono

Luigi Nono 5 Luigi Nono was an Italian avant-garde composer of classical music.                                 

Genesius of Rome

Genesius of Rome 5 Genesius of Rome is a legendary Christian saint, once a comedian and actor who had performed in plays that mocked Christianity. According to legend, while performing in a play that made fun of baptism, he had an experience on stage that converted him. He proclaimed his new belief, and he steadfastly refused to renounce it, even when the emperor Diocletian ordered him to do so.

Alda Merini

Alda Merini 5 Alda Merini was an Italian writer and poet. Her work earned the attention and admiration of other Italian writers, such as Giorgio Manganelli, Salvatore Quasimodo, and Pier Paolo Pasolini.

Jacopo Stellini

Jacopo Stellini 5 Jacopo Stellini was an Italian abbot, polymath writer and philosopher.                             

Antonio Smareglia

Antonio Smareglia 5 Antonio Smareglia was an Italian opera composer.                                                   


Pelagia 5 Pelagia, distinguished as Pelagia of Antioch, Pelagia the Penitent, and Pelagia the Harlot, was a Christian saint and hermit in the 4th or 5th century. Her feast day was celebrated on 8 October, originally in common with Saints Pelagia the Virgin and Pelagia of Tarsus. Pelagia died as a result of extreme asceticism, which had emaciated her to the point she could no longer be recognized. According to Orthodox tradition, she was buried in her cell. Upon the discovery that the renowned monk had been a woman, the holy fathers tried to keep it a secret, but the gossip spread and her relics drew pilgrims from as far off as Jericho and the Jordan valley.

Giusto Fontanini

Giusto Fontanini 5 Giusto Fontanini was a Roman Catholic archbishop and an Italian historian.                         

Pier Silverio Leicht

Pier Silverio Leicht 5 Pier Silverio Leicht war ein italienischer Jurist, Historiker und Bibliothekar.                     

Pellegrino da San Daniele

Pellegrino da San Daniele 5 Pellegrino da San Daniele (1467–1547) was an Italian painter in the late-Quattrocento and Renaissance styles, active in the Friulian region.

Giuseppe Marchi

Giuseppe Marchi 5 Giuseppe Marchi was an Italian Jesuit archæologist who worked on the Catacombs of Rome.             

Nelson Rockefeller

Nelson Rockefeller 5 Nelson Aldrich Rockefeller, sometimes referred to by his nickname Rocky, was an American businessman and politician who served as the 41st vice president of the United States from 1974 to 1977 under President Gerald Ford. A member of the Republican Party and the wealthy Rockefeller family, he previously served as the 49th governor of New York from 1959 to 1973. Rockefeller also served as assistant secretary of State for American Republic Affairs for Presidents Franklin D. Roosevelt and Harry S. Truman (1944–1945) as well as under secretary of Health, Education and Welfare (HEW) under Dwight D. Eisenhower from 1953 to 1954. A son of John D. Rockefeller Jr. and Abby Aldrich Rockefeller as well as a grandson of Standard Oil co-founder John D. Rockefeller, he was a noted art collector and served as administrator of Rockefeller Center in Manhattan, New York City.

Maria Goretti

Maria Goretti 5 Maria Teresa Goretti was an Italian virgin martyr of the Catholic Church, and one of the youngest saints to be canonized. She was born to a farming family. Her father died when she was nine, and the family had to share a house with another family, the Serenellis. She took over household duties while her mother and siblings worked in the fields.

Antonio Ballero

Antonio Ballero 5 Antonio Ballero è stato un pittore, scrittore e fotografo italiano. Personalità creativa e poliedrica, a cavallo del 1900 fu uno dei protagonisti, insieme a Francesco Ciusa, Grazia Deledda, Sebastiano Satta ed altri della cosiddetta “Atene Sarda”.

Aligi Sassu

Aligi Sassu 5 Aligi Sassu was an Italian painter and sculptor.                                                   

Melchiorre Murenu

Melchiorre Murenu 5 Melchiorre Murenu was a blind Sardinian poet. Melchiorre Murenu is known as the "Homer of Sardinia" because he was blind and lived his entire life for poetry.

Gavino Gabriel

Gavino Gabriel 5 Gavino Gabriel was an Italian composer, ethnomusicologist scholar of Sardinian music, especially that of Gallura, and has written and published many essays on the subject.

Girolamo Tiraboschi

Girolamo Tiraboschi 5 Girolamo Tiraboschi S.J. was an Italian literary critic, the first historian of Italian literature. 

Andrea Fantoni

Andrea Fantoni 5 Andrea Fantoni (1659–1734) was an Italian sculptor and woodcarver of the late-Baroque period, active in the region near Bergamo.

Baldassare Longhena

Baldassare Longhena 5 Baldassare Longhena was an Italian architect, who worked mainly in Venice, where he was one of the greatest exponents of Baroque architecture of the period.

Biagio Rossetti

Biagio Rossetti 5 Biagio Rossetti was an Italian architect and urbanist from Ferrara. A military engineer since 1483, and the ducal architect of Ercole I d'Este, in 1492 Rossetti was assigned the project of enlarging the city of Ferrara.

Federico García Lorca

Federico García Lorca 5 Federico del Sagrado Corazón de Jesús García Lorca, known as Federico García Lorca, was a Spanish poet, playwright, and theatre director. García Lorca achieved international recognition as an emblematic member of the Generation of '27, a group consisting mostly of poets who introduced the tenets of European movements into Spanish literature.

Paolo Dettori

Paolo Dettori 5 Paolo Dettori è stato un politico italiano.                                                         

Georges Bizet

Georges Bizet 5 Georges Bizet was a French composer of the Romantic era. Best known for his operas in a career cut short by his early death, Bizet achieved few successes before his final work, Carmen, which has become one of the most popular and frequently performed works in the entire opera repertoire.

Benjamin Franklin

Benjamin Franklin 5 Benjamin Franklin was an American polymath, a leading writer, scientist, inventor, statesman, diplomat, printer, publisher, and political philosopher. Among the most influential intellectuals of his time, Franklin was one of the Founding Fathers of the United States; a drafter and signer of the Declaration of Independence; and the first postmaster general.

Luigi Illica

Luigi Illica 5 Luigi Illica was an Italian librettist who wrote for Giacomo Puccini, Pietro Mascagni, Alfredo Catalani, Umberto Giordano, Baron Alberto Franchetti and other important Italian composers. His most famous opera libretti are those for La bohème, Tosca, Madama Butterfly and Andrea Chénier.

Nelson Mandela

Nelson Mandela 5 Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela was a South African anti-apartheid activist, politician, and statesman who served as the first president of South Africa from 1994 to 1999. He was the country's first black head of state and the first elected in a fully representative democratic election. His government focused on dismantling the legacy of apartheid by fostering racial reconciliation. Ideologically an African nationalist and socialist, he served as the president of the African National Congress (ANC) party from 1991 to 1997.

Magdalene of Canossa

Magdalene of Canossa 5 Magdalena di Canossa was an Italian professed religious and foundress of the two Canossian congregations. Magdalena was a leading advocate for the poor in her region after she witnessed first hand the plight of the poor following the spillover effects of the French Revolution into the Italian peninsula through the Napoleonic invasion of the northern territories. Canossa collaborated with humanitarians such as Leopoldina Naudet and Antonio Rosmini in her mission of promoting the needs of the poor and setting a new method of religious life for both men and women.

Giuseppe Peano

Giuseppe Peano 5 Giuseppe Peano was an Italian mathematician and glottologist. The author of over 200 books and papers, he was a founder of mathematical logic and set theory, to which he contributed much notation. The standard axiomatization of the natural numbers is named the Peano axioms in his honor. As part of this effort, he made key contributions to the modern rigorous and systematic treatment of the method of mathematical induction. He spent most of his career teaching mathematics at the University of Turin. He also wrote an international auxiliary language, Latino sine flexione, which is a simplified version of Classical Latin. Most of his books and papers are in Latino sine flexione, while others are in Italian.

Giuseppe Massari

Giuseppe Massari 5 Giuseppe Massari è stato un patriota, giornalista e politico italiano.                             

Flavio Biondo

Flavio Biondo 5 Flavio Biondo was an Italian Renaissance humanist historian. He was one of the first historians to use a three-period division of history and is known as one of the first archaeologists. Born in the capital city of Forlì, in the Romagna region, Flavio was well schooled from an early age, studying under Ballistario of Cremona. During a brief stay in Milan, he discovered and transcribed the unique manuscript of Cicero's dialogue Brutus. He moved to Rome in 1433 where he began work on his writing career; he was appointed secretary to the Cancelleria under Eugene IV in 1444 and accompanied Eugene in his exile in Ferrara and Florence. After his patron's death, Flavio was employed by his papal successors, Nicholas V, Callixtus III and the humanist Pius II.

Oreste Leonardi

Oreste Leonardi 5 Oreste Leonardi è stato un carabiniere italiano, capo della scorta di Aldo Moro; fu ucciso nell'agguato di via Fani.

Adolfo Vigorelli

Adolfo Vigorelli 5 Adolfo Vigorelli was an Italian Resistance fighter during World War II.                             

Bartolo Longo

Bartolo Longo 5 Bartolo Longo was an Italian lawyer who has been beatified by the Catholic Church. He presented himself as a former "Satanic priest" who returned to the Catholic faith and became a Dominican tertiary, dedicating his life to the rosary and the Virgin Mary. He was eventually awarded a papal knighthood of the Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulchre of Jerusalem.


Abundius 5 Abundius, venerated in the Catholic Church as Saint Abundius, was a bishop of Como, Northern Italy. 

Corrado Alvaro

Corrado Alvaro 5 Corrado Alvaro was an Italian journalist and writer of novels, short stories, screenplays and plays. He often used the verismo style to describe the hopeless poverty in his native Calabria. His first success was Gente in Aspromonte, which examined the exploitation of rural peasants by greedy landowners in Calabria, and is considered by many critics to be his masterpiece.

Sigmund Freud

Sigmund Freud 4 Sigmund Freud was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of psychoanalysis, a clinical method for evaluating and treating pathologies seen as originating from conflicts in the psyche, through dialogue between patient and psychoanalyst, and the distinctive theory of mind and human agency derived from it.

Erasmo Piaggio

Erasmo Piaggio 4 Erasmo Piaggio è stato un imprenditore, armatore e banchiere italiano.                             

Andrea Sansovino

Andrea Sansovino 4 Andrea dal Monte Sansovino or Andrea Contucci del Monte San Savino was an Italian sculptor active during the High Renaissance. His pupils include Jacopo Sansovino.

Domenico Cucchiari

Domenico Cucchiari 4 Domenico Cucchiari è stato un generale e politico italiano.                                         

Edoardo Porro

Edoardo Porro 4 Edoardo Porro (1842–1902) was an Italian obstetrician and gynaecologist, mainly known for developing Porro’s operation, surgical procedure precursor of the modern Caesarean section.

Pietro Borsieri

Pietro Borsieri 4 Pietro Borsieri è stato uno scrittore e patriota italiano. Figura centrale nell'esperienza del periodico Il Conciliatore, fu intellettuale romantico poi condannato alla prigione e all'esilio.

Mario Musolesi

Mario Musolesi 4 Mario Musolesi was an Italian soldier and Resistance leader during World War II.                   

Paolo Gorini

Paolo Gorini 4 Paolo Gorini was an Italian mathematician, professor, scientist, and politician renowned as a pioneer of cremation in Europe, primarily in the United Kingdom.

Emilio Comici

Emilio Comici 4 Leonardo Emilio Comici was an Italian mountain climber and caver. He made numerous ascents in the Eastern Alps, particularly in the Dolomites and in the Julian Alps. Comici was nicknamed the "Angel of the Dolomites".

Henri Cernuschi

Henri Cernuschi 4 Henri Cernuschi was a major French-Italian banker, economist and Asian art collector, who began public life as a politician in Italy in 1848–1850.

Carlo Tenca

Carlo Tenca 4 Carlo Tenca was an Italian man of letters, journalist, deputy and supporter of the Risorgimento. He was the central figure in the salon of Countess Clara Maffei, to whom he was romantically linked.

Silvio Trentin

Silvio Trentin 4 Silvio Trentin è stato un partigiano e giurista italiano, docente universitario di diritto amministrativo.

Cesare Maccari

Cesare Maccari 4 Cesare Maccari was an Italian painter and sculptor, most famous for his 1888 painting Cicerone denuncia Catilina.

Pietro Andrea Mattioli

Pietro Andrea Mattioli 4 Pietro Andrea Gregorio Mattioli was a doctor and naturalist born in Siena.                         


Vamba 4 Luigi Bertelli, best known as Vamba, was an Italian writer, illustrator and journalist.             

Giuseppe Arimondi

Giuseppe Arimondi 4 Giuseppe Edoardo Arimondi, OSML, OMS, OCI was an Italian general, mostly known for his role during the First Italo-Ethiopian War. He was one of the few European commanders who gained a victory over the Mahdists before Kitchener's Expedition, soundly defeating them at Agordat in 1893. After a long and successful colonial service, he died in combat at Adwa, and was posthumously awarded the Gold Medal of Military Valour.

Antonio Gazzoletti

Antonio Gazzoletti 4 Antonio Gazzoletti è stato un giurista e poeta italiano.                                           

Giovanni Botero

Giovanni Botero 4 Giovanni Botero was an Italian thinker, priest, poet, and diplomat, author of Della Ragion di Stato , in ten chapters, printed in Venice in 1589, and of Universal Relations,, addressing the world geography and ethnography. With his emphasis that the wealth of cities was caused by adding value to raw materials, Botero may be considered the ancestor of both Mercantilism and Cameralism.

Raphael (archangel)

Raphael (archangel) 4 Raphael is an archangel first mentioned in the Book of Tobit and in 1 Enoch, both estimated to date from between the 3rd and 2nd century BCE. In later Jewish tradition, he became identified as one of the three heavenly visitors entertained by Abraham at the Oak of Mamre. He is not named in either the New Testament or the Quran, but later Christian tradition identified him with healing and as the angel who stirred waters in the Pool of Bethesda in John 5:2–4, and in Islam, where his name is Israfil, he is understood to be the unnamed angel of Quran 6:73, standing eternally with a trumpet to his lips, ready to announce the Day of Judgment. In Gnostic tradition, Raphael is represented on the Ophite Diagram.

Ugo Betti

Ugo Betti 4 Ugo Betti was an Italian judge, better known as an author, who is considered by many the greatest Italian playwright next to Pirandello.

Nicola Pisano

Nicola Pisano 4 Nicola Pisano was an Italian sculptor whose work is noted for its classical Roman sculptural style. Pisano is sometimes considered to be the founder of modern sculpture.

Giovanni della Casa

Giovanni della Casa 4 Giovanni della Casa was an Italian poet, diplomat, clergyman and inquisitor, and writer on etiquette and society. He is celebrated for his famous treatise on polite behavior, Il Galateo overo de’ costumi (1558). From the time of its publication, this courtesy book has enjoyed enormous success and influence. In the eighteenth century, influential critic Giuseppe Baretti wrote in The Italian Library (1757), "The little treatise is looked upon by many Italians as the most elegant thing, as to stile, that we have in our language."

Giovanni Pico della Mirandola

Giovanni Pico della Mirandola 4 Giovanni Pico dei conti della Mirandola e della Concordia, known as Pico della Mirandola, was an Italian Renaissance nobleman and philosopher. He is famed for the events of 1486, when, at the age of 23, he proposed to defend 900 theses on religion, philosophy, natural philosophy, and magic against all comers, for which he wrote the Oration on the Dignity of Man, which has been called the "Manifesto of the Renaissance", and a key text of Renaissance humanism and of what has been called the "Hermetic Reformation". He was the founder of the tradition of Christian Kabbalah, a key tenet of early modern Western esotericism. The 900 Theses was the first printed book to be universally banned by the Church. Pico is sometimes seen as a proto-Protestant, because his 900 theses anticipated many Protestant views.


Pisanello 4 Pisanello, born Antonio di Puccio Pisano or Antonio di Puccio da Cereto, also erroneously called Vittore Pisano by Giorgio Vasari, was one of the most distinguished painters of the early Italian Renaissance and Quattrocento. He was acclaimed by poets such as Guarino da Verona and praised by humanists of his time, who compared him to such illustrious names as Cimabue, Phidias and Praxiteles.

Giovanni delle Bande Nere

Giovanni delle Bande Nere 4 Ludovico de' Medici, also known as Giovanni delle Bande Nere was an Italian condottiero. He is known for leading the Black Bands and serving valiantly in military combat under his third cousins, Pope Leo X and Pope Clement VII, in the War of Urbino and the War of the League of Cognac, respectively.

Giuseppe Graziosi

Giuseppe Graziosi 4 Giuseppe Graziosi was an Italian sculptor, painter and graphic designer.                           

Carlo Fadda

Carlo Fadda 4 Carlo Fadda (1853–1931) was an Italian jurist and politician.                                       

Federico Delpino

Federico Delpino 4 Giacomo Giuseppe Federico Delpino was an Italian botanist who made early observations on floral biology, particularly the pollination of flowers by insects. Delpino introduced a very broad view of plant ecology and was the first to suggest pollination syndromes, sets of traits associated with specific kinds of pollinators. He wrote Pensieri sulla Biologia Vegetale in 1867 and this failed to gather sufficient notice due to it being written in Italian. He corresponded with Charles Darwin and was one of the first to speculate on the idea of "plant intelligence".

Mauro Venegoni

Mauro Venegoni 4 Mauro Venegoni è stato un politico e partigiano italiano, comunista rivoluzionario.                 

Caesarius of Terracina

Caesarius of Terracina 4 Saint Caesarius of Terracina was a Christian martyr. The church of San Cesareo in Palatio in Rome bears his name.

Policarpo Petrocchi

Policarpo Petrocchi 4 Policarpo Petrocchi è stato uno scrittore, filologo e lessicografo italiano.                       

Tommaso Fiore

Tommaso Fiore 4 Tommaso Fiore was an Italian meridionalist writer and a socialist intellectual and politician. He is known for his attention and his descriptions and studies on the inhumane conditions of Southern Italian and often specifically Apulian peasants at that time. He is also known for his Viareggio Prize-winning book Un popolo di formiche. In the 1920s, he was appointed as mayor of his hometown Altamura. During the twenty-year period of the Italian Fascist era, he strenuously opposed the regime before being sent into internal exile in 1942 and then being jailed in 1943.

Pietro Frattini

Pietro Frattini 4 Pietro Domenico Frattini was a supporter of Italian unification and one of the Belfiore martyrs.   

Giuseppe Maggiolini

Giuseppe Maggiolini 4 Giuseppe Maggiolini, himself a marquetry-maker (intarsiatore), was the pre-eminent cabinet-maker (ebanista) in Milan in the later 18th century. Though some of his early work is Late Baroque in manner, his name is particularly associated with blocky neoclassical forms veneered with richly detailed marquetry vignettes, often within complicated borders. His workshop's output is somewhat repetitive, making attributions to Maggiolini a temptation. His clientele reached to Austria and Poland.

Tommaso Salvini

Tommaso Salvini 4 Tommaso Salvini was an Italian actor.                                                               

Bartolo da San Gimignano

Bartolo da San Gimignano 4 Bartolo da San Gimignano – born Bartolo Buonpedoni – was an Italian Roman Catholic priest and a member of the Third Order of Saint Francis. Bartolo was born to nobles near Siena and fled home to become a priest to escape his father's wrath. He tended to poor people in the streets and used his income to provide alms to them and to alleviate their suffering while himself contracting a disease from working with the poor and succumbing to that same disease as a result.

Marcello Prestinari

Marcello Prestinari 4 Marcello Prestinari è stato un militare italiano.                                                   

Giulio Tarra

Giulio Tarra 4 Giulio Tarra è stato un presbitero e educatore italiano. Fu il primo rettore dell'allora Pio Istituto per Sordomuti poveri di campagna, oggi Pio Istituto dei Sordi, fondato nel 1854 e che resse per trentaquattro anni fino alla morte. Nell'ambito della sua attività di educatore fu anche noto per la lunga serie di pubblicazioni istruttive morali a vantaggio della gioventù.

Pope Pius V

Pope Pius V 4 Pope Pius V, OP, born Antonio Ghislieri, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 7 January 1566 to his death, in May 1572. He is venerated as a saint of the Catholic Church. He is chiefly notable for his role in the Council of Trent, the Counter-Reformation, and the standardization of the Roman Rite within the Latin Church, known as Tridentine mass. Pius V declared Thomas Aquinas a Doctor of the Church.

Giovanni Battista Pirelli

Giovanni Battista Pirelli 4 Giovanni Battista Alberto Pirelli è stato un imprenditore, ingegnere e politico italiano, fondatore dell'azienda omonima con sede a Milano.

Salvatore Di Giacomo

Salvatore Di Giacomo 4 Salvatore Di Giacomo was an Italian poet, songwriter, playwright and fascist, one of the signatories to the Manifesto of the Fascist Intellectuals.

Appius Claudius Caecus

Appius Claudius Caecus 4 Appius Claudius Caecus was a statesman and writer from the Roman Republic. He is best known for two major building projects: the Appian Way, the first major Roman road, and the first aqueduct in Rome, the Aqua Appia.

Maxim Gorky

Maxim Gorky 4 Alexei Maximovich Peshkov, popularly known as Maxim Gorky, was a Russian and Soviet writer and socialism proponent. He was nominated five times for the Nobel Prize in Literature. Before his success as an author, he travelled widely across the Russian Empire changing jobs frequently, experiences which would later influence his writing.

Salvatore Barzilai

Salvatore Barzilai 4 Salvatore Barzilai was an Italian jurist, journalist and politician who was one of the leaders of the Republican Party. He served as the minister for the lands freed by the enemy for one year between 1915 and 1916.

Bruno Tosarelli

Bruno Tosarelli 4 Bruno Tosarelli è stato un partigiano italiano. Medaglia d'oro al valor militare alla memoria.     

Alberto Manzi

Alberto Manzi 4 Alberto Manzi was an Italian school teacher, writer and television host, best known for being the art director of Non è mai troppo tardi, an educational TV programme broadcast between 1959 and 1968.

Francesco Flora

Francesco Flora 4 Francesco Flora è stato un critico letterario, storico della letteratura, poeta e scrittore italiano, di formazione crociana, nonché antifascista.

Corrado Ricci

Corrado Ricci 4 Corrado Ricci è stato un archeologo e storico dell'arte italiano. Fu nominato senatore del Regno d'Italia nella XXVI legislatura.

Maria Melato

Maria Melato 4 Maria Melato was an Italian actress of the stage, screen, and radio.                               

Giuseppe Bentivogli

Giuseppe Bentivogli 4 Giuseppe Bentivogli è stato un politico, sindacalista e partigiano italiano, Medaglia d'oro al valor militare alla memoria.

Alberto Franchetti

Alberto Franchetti 4 Alberto Franchetti was an Italian composer and racing driver, best known for the 1902 opera Germania.

Antonio Maria Valsalva

Antonio Maria Valsalva 4 Antonio Maria Valsalva, was an Italian anatomist born in Imola. His research focused on the anatomy of the ears. He coined the term Eustachian tube and he described the aortic sinuses of Valsalva in his writings, published posthumously in 1740. His name is associated with the Valsalva antrum of the ear and the Valsalva maneuver, which is used as a test of circulatory function. Anatomical structures bearing his name are Valsalva’s muscle and taeniae Valsalvae. He observed that when weakness of one side of the body is caused by a lesion in the brain, the culprit lesion tends to be on the side opposite (contralateral) to the weak side; this finding is named the "Valsalva doctrine" in his honor.

Luca Marenzio

Luca Marenzio 4 Luca Marenzio was an Italian composer and singer of the late Renaissance.                           

Giuseppe Martucci

Giuseppe Martucci 4 Giuseppe Martucci was an Italian composer, conductor, pianist and teacher. Sometimes called "the Italian Brahms", Martucci was notable among Italian composers of the era in that he dedicated his entire career to absolute music, and wrote no operas. As a composer and teacher he was influential in reviving Italian interest in non-operatic music. Nevertheless, as a conductor, he did help to introduce Wagner's operas to Italy and also gave important early concerts of English music there.

Argentina Altobelli

Argentina Altobelli 4 Argentina Altobelli was an Italian trade unionist, the first woman to lead a trade union in the country.

Armando Spadini

Armando Spadini 4 Armando Spadini was an Italian painter and one of the representatives of the so-called Scuola Romana.

Anselmo Marabini

Anselmo Marabini 4 Anselmo Marabini è stato un politico italiano.                                                     

Bruno Pontecorvo

Bruno Pontecorvo 4 Bruno Pontecorvo was an Italian and Soviet nuclear physicist, an early assistant of Enrico Fermi and the author of numerous studies in high energy physics, especially on neutrinos. A convinced communist, he defected to the Soviet Union in 1950, where he continued his research on the decay of the muon and on neutrinos. The prestigious Pontecorvo Prize was instituted in his memory in 1995.

Jean Monnet

Jean Monnet 4 Jean Omer Marie Gabriel Monnet was a French civil servant, entrepreneur, diplomat, financier, administrator, and political visionary. An influential supporter of European unity, he is considered one of the founding fathers of the European Union.

Leonardo Andervolti

Leonardo Andervolti 4 Leonardo Andervolti è stato un patriota italiano.                                                   

Émile Chanoux

Émile Chanoux 4 Émile Chanoux è stato un notaio e politico italiano, martire dell'Azione Cattolica nella Resistenza nella Valle d'Aosta, Croce d'argento al merito dell'Esercito della Repubblica Italiana.

Andrea del Sarto

Andrea del Sarto 4 Andrea del Sarto was an Italian painter from Florence, whose career flourished during the High Renaissance and early Mannerism. He was known as an outstanding fresco decorator, painter of altar-pieces, portraitist, draughtsman, and colorist. Although highly regarded during his lifetime as an artist senza errori, his renown was eclipsed after his death by that of his contemporaries Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, and Raphael.

Andrea Vochieri

Andrea Vochieri 4 Andrea Vochieri è stato un patriota italiano.                                                       

Francesco Filelfo

Francesco Filelfo 4 Francesco Filelfo was an Italian Renaissance humanist and author of the philosophic dialogue On Exile.

Diego Fabbri

Diego Fabbri 4 Diego Fabbri was an Italian playwright whose plays centered on religious (Catholic) themes.         

Corrado Gex

Corrado Gex 4 Corrado Gex è stato un politico e aviatore italiano. Già deputato regionale in Valle d'Aosta, fu deputato della IV legislatura della Repubblica Italiana.

Antonio Bazzini

Antonio Bazzini 4 Antonio Bazzini was an Italian violinist, composer and teacher. As a composer, his most enduring work is his chamber music, which earned him a central place in the Italian instrumental renaissance of the 19th century. However, his success as a composer was overshadowed by his reputation as one of the finest concert violinists of the nineteenth century. He also contributed to a portion of Messa per Rossini, specifically the first section of II. Sequentia, Dies Irae.

Braccio da Montone

Braccio da Montone 4 Braccio da Montone, born Andrea Fortebraccio, was an Italian condottiero.                           

Emilio Morosini

Emilio Morosini 4 Emilio Morosini was an Italian patriot who participated in the Risorgimento.                       

Beatrice d'Este

Beatrice d'Este 4 Beatrice d'Este was Duchess of Bari and Milan by marriage to Ludovico Sforza. She was one of the most important personalities of the time and, despite her short life, she was a major player in Italian politics. A woman of culture, an important patron, a leader in fashion: alongside her illustrious husband she made Milan one of the greatest capitals of the European Renaissance. With her own determination and bellicose nature, she was the soul of the Milanese resistance against the enemy French during the first of the Italian Wars, when her intervention was able to repel the threats of the Duke of Orléans, who was on the verge of conquering Milan.

Enrico Pessina

Enrico Pessina 4 Enrico Pessina è stato un giurista, filosofo e politico italiano. Fu senatore del Regno d'Italia nella XIII legislatura.

Gaetano Negri

Gaetano Negri 4 Gaetano Negri was an Italian geologist, writer and politician who served as the 3rd Mayor of Milan from 1884 to 1889. He also served in the Chamber of Deputies of the Kingdom of Italy.

Antonio Genovesi

Antonio Genovesi 4 Antonio Genovesi was an Italian writer on philosophy and political economy.                         

Saint Quentin

Saint Quentin 4 Quentin also known as Quentin of Amiens, was an early Christian saint.                             

Oreste Salomone

Oreste Salomone 4 Oreste Salomone è stato un aviatore e militare italiano, che come pilota fu dapprima decorato di Medaglia d'argento al valor militare nella guerra di Libia, e poi di Medaglia d'oro a vivente nel corso della prima guerra mondiale. Fu membro della massoneria.

Lauro De Bosis

Lauro De Bosis 4 Lauro Adolfo De Bosis was an Italian poet, aviator, and anti-fascist.                               

Francesca Morvillo

Francesca Morvillo 4 Francesca Laura Morvillo was an Italian magistrate, wife of Giovanni Falcone and victim of the Sicilian Mafia. On May 23, 1992, she and her husband were killed in the Capaci bombing.

Clemente Rebora

Clemente Rebora 4 Clemente Rebora was a poet from Milan, Italy. He received a degree in Italian literature in Milan. In the early 1900s he worked for the magazines La Voce, Rivista d’Italia and La Riviera Ligure.