Famous people on Netherlands's street names

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Juliana of the Netherlands

Juliana of the Netherlands 587 Juliana was Queen of the Netherlands from 1948 until her abdication in 1980.                       

Wilhelmina of the Netherlands

Wilhelmina of the Netherlands 530 Wilhelmina was Queen of the Netherlands from 1890 until her abdication in 1948. She reigned for nearly 58 years, making her the longest-reigning monarch in Dutch history, as well as the longest-reigning female monarch outside the United Kingdom. Her reign saw World War I, the Dutch economic crisis of 1933 and World War II.

Beatrix of the Netherlands

Beatrix of the Netherlands 509 Beatrix is a member of the Dutch royal house who reigned as Queen of the Netherlands from 1980 until her abdication in 2013.

Prince Bernhard of Lippe-Biesterfeld

Prince Bernhard of Lippe-Biesterfeld 437 Prince Bernhard of Lippe-Biesterfeld was Prince of the Netherlands from 6 September 1948 to 30 April 1980 as the husband of Queen Juliana. They had four daughters together, including Beatrix, who was Queen of the Netherlands from 1980 to 2013.

Princess Irene of the Netherlands

Princess Irene of the Netherlands 381 Princess Irene of the Netherlands is the second child of Queen Juliana of the Netherlands and Prince Bernhard.

Emma of Waldeck and Pyrmont

Emma of Waldeck and Pyrmont 344 Emma of Waldeck and Pyrmont was Queen of the Netherlands and Grand Duchess of Luxembourg as the wife of King-Grand Duke William III. An immensely popular member of the Dutch Royal Family, Queen Emma served as regent for her daughter, Queen Wilhelmina, during the latter's minority from 1890 until 1898.

Princess Christina of the Netherlands

Princess Christina of the Netherlands 326 Princess Christina of the Netherlands was the youngest of four daughters of Queen Juliana of the Netherlands and Prince Bernhard of Lippe-Biesterfeld. She taught singing in New York and was a long-term supporter of the Youth Music Foundation in the Netherlands. Born visually impaired, she worked to share her knowledge of dance and sound therapy with the blind.

Willem-Alexander of the Netherlands

Willem-Alexander of the Netherlands 284 Willem-Alexander is King of the Netherlands.                                                       

Prince Henry of the Netherlands (1820–1879)

Prince Henry of the Netherlands (1820–1879) 257 Prince William Frederick Henry of the Netherlands was the third son of King William II of the Netherlands and his wife, Grand Duchess Anna Pavlovna of Russia. He was born at Soestdijk Palace.

Maurice, Prince of Orange

Maurice, Prince of Orange 204 Maurice of Orange was stadtholder of all the provinces of the Dutch Republic except for Friesland from 1585 at the earliest until his death in 1625. Before he became Prince of Orange upon the death of his eldest half-brother Philip William in 1618, he was known as Maurice of Nassau.

Rembrandt

Rembrandt 199 Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn, usually simply known as Rembrandt, was a Dutch Golden Age painter, printmaker, and draughtsman. He is generally considered one of the greatest visual artists in the history of art. It is estimated Rembrandt produced a total of about three hundred paintings, three hundred etchings, and two thousand drawings.

House of Nassau

House of Nassau 175 The House of Nassau is a diversified aristocratic dynasty in Europe. It is named after the lordship associated with Nassau Castle, located in present-day Nassau, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. With the fall of the Hohenstaufen in the first half of the 13th century royal power within Franconia evaporated and the former stem duchy fragmented into separate independent states. Nassau emerged as one of those independent states as part of the Holy Roman Empire. The lords of Nassau were originally titled "Count of Nassau", subject only to the Emperor, and then elevated to the princely class as "Princely Counts". Early on they divided into two main branches: the elder (Walramian) branch, that gave rise to the German king Adolf, and the younger (Ottonian) branch, that gave rise to the Princes of Orange and the monarchs of the Netherlands.

Frans Hals

Frans Hals 160 Frans Hals the Elder was a Dutch Golden Age painter, chiefly of individual and group portraits and of tronies, who lived and worked in Haarlem.

Princess Margriet of the Netherlands

Princess Margriet of the Netherlands 156 Princess Margriet of the Netherlands is the third daughter of Queen Juliana and Prince Bernhard. As an aunt of the reigning monarch, King Willem-Alexander, she is a member of the Dutch Royal House and currently eighth and last in the line of succession to the throne.

Johannes Vermeer

Johannes Vermeer 147 Johannes Vermeer was a Dutch Baroque Period painter who specialized in domestic interior scenes of middle-class life. He is considered one of the greatest painters of the Dutch Golden Age. During his lifetime, he was a moderately successful provincial genre painter, recognized in Delft and The Hague. He produced relatively few paintings, primarily earning his living as an art dealer. He was not wealthy; at his death, his wife was left in debt.

Vincent van Gogh

Vincent van Gogh 146 Vincent Willem van Gogh was a Dutch Post-Impressionist painter who is among the most famous and influential figures in the history of Western art. In just over a decade, he created approximately 2100 artworks, including around 860 oil paintings, most of them in the last two years of his life. His oeuvre includes landscapes, still lifes, portraits, and self-portraits, most of which are characterized by bold colors and dramatic brushwork that contributed to the rise of expressionism in modern art. Van Gogh's work was beginning to gain critical attention before he died at age 37, by what was suspected at the time to be a suicide. During his lifetime, only one of Van Gogh's paintings, The Red Vineyard, was sold.

Herman Schaepman

Herman Schaepman 146 Herman Johannes Aloysius Maria Schaepman was a Dutch priest, politician and poet.                   

Johan Rudolph Thorbecke

Johan Rudolph Thorbecke 144 Johan Rudolph Thorbecke was a Dutch liberal statesman, one of the most important Dutch politicians of the 19th century. Thorbecke is best known for heading the commission that drafted the revision of the Constitution of the Netherlands in 1848, amidst the liberal democratic revolutions of 1848. The new constitution transformed the country from an absolute monarchy into a constitutional monarchy, with the States General and the Council of Ministers becoming more powerful than the king. The amended constitution also granted individual rights to residents and citizens of the kingdom. This made the constitution one of the more progressive at the time. Thorbecke is generally considered a founding father of the modern political system of the Netherlands.

Michiel de Ruyter

Michiel de Ruyter 138 Michiel Adriaenszoon de Ruyter was a Dutch admiral. His achievements with the Dutch Navy during the Anglo-Dutch Wars earned him the reputation as one of the most skilled naval commanders in history.

Prince Claus of the Netherlands

Prince Claus of the Netherlands 135 Prince Claus of the Netherlands, Jonkheer van Amsberg was Prince of the Netherlands from 30 April 1980 until his death in 2002 as the husband of Queen Beatrix.

Ludwig van Beethoven

Ludwig van Beethoven 132 Ludwig van Beethoven was a German composer and pianist. He is one of the most revered figures in the history of Western music; his works rank among the most performed of the classical music repertoire and span the transition from the Classical period to the Romantic era in classical music. Beethoven's career has conventionally been divided into early, middle, and late periods. His early period, during which he forged his craft, is typically considered to have lasted until 1802. From 1802 to around 1812, his middle period showed an individual development from the styles of Joseph Haydn and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, and is sometimes characterized as heroic. During this time, he began to grow increasingly deaf. In his late period, from 1812 to 1827, he extended his innovations in musical form and expression.

William the Silent

William the Silent 132 William the Silent or William the Taciturn, more commonly known in the Netherlands as William of Orange, was the leader of the Dutch revolt against the Spanish Habsburgs that set off the Eighty Years' War (1568–1648) and resulted in the formal independence of the United Provinces in 1648. Born into the House of Nassau, he became Prince of Orange in 1544 and is thereby the founder of the Orange-Nassau branch and the ancestor of the monarchy of the Netherlands. In the Netherlands, he is also known as Father of the Fatherland.

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart 132 Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was a prolific and influential composer of the Classical period. Despite his short life, his rapid pace of composition resulted in more than 800 works representing virtually every Western classical genre of his time. Many of these compositions are acknowledged as pinnacles of the symphonic, concertante, chamber, operatic, and choral repertoire. Mozart is widely regarded as being one of the greatest composers in the history of Western music, with his music admired for its "melodic beauty, its formal elegance and its richness of harmony and texture".

Joost van den Vondel

Joost van den Vondel 130 Joost van den Vondel was a Dutch playwright, poet, literary translator and writer. He is generally regarded as the greatest writer in the Dutch language as well as an important figure in the history of Western literature. In his native country, Vondel is often called the “Prince of Poets” and the Dutch language is sometimes referred to as “the language of Vondel”. His oeuvre consists of 33 plays, a large number of poems in different genres and forms, an epic poem and many translations of predominantly classical literature. Vondel lived in the Dutch Republic during the Eighty Years' War and became the leading literary figure of the Dutch Golden Age.

Jan Steen

Jan Steen 127 Jan Havickszoon Steen was a Dutch Golden Age painter, one of the leading genre painters of the 17th century. His works are known for their psychological insight, sense of humour and abundance of colour.

John William Friso

John William Friso 126 John William Friso became the (titular) Prince of Orange in 1702. He was the Stadtholder of Friesland and Groningen in the Dutch Republic until his death by accidental drowning in the Hollands Diep in 1711. From 1938 to 2022, Friso and his wife, Marie Louise, were the most recent common ancestors of all then-reigning European monarchs. As of 2023, the most recent common ancestors of all currently-reigning European monarchs are Louis IX, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt and his wife Countess Palatine Caroline of Zweibrücken.

Paulus Potter

Paulus Potter 125 Paulus Potter was a Dutch painter who specialized in animals within landscapes, usually with a low vantage point.

Karel Doorman

Karel Doorman 125 Karel Willem Frederik Marie Doorman was a Dutch naval officer who during World War II commanded remnants of the short-lived American-British-Dutch-Australian Command naval strike forces in the Battle of the Java Sea. He was killed in action when his flagship HNLMS De Ruyter was torpedoed during the battle, having chosen to go down with the ship.

Johann Sebastian Bach

Johann Sebastian Bach 122 Johann Sebastian Bach was a German composer and musician of the late Baroque period. He is known for his prolific authorship of music across a variety of instruments and forms, including; orchestral music such as the Brandenburg Concertos; solo instrumental works such as the cello suites and sonatas and partitas for solo violin; keyboard works such as the Goldberg Variations and The Well-Tempered Clavier; organ works such as the Schubler Chorales and the Toccata and Fugue in D minor; and choral works such as the St Matthew Passion and the Mass in B minor. Since the 19th-century Bach Revival, he has been generally regarded as one of the greatest composers in the history of Western music.

Abraham Kuyper

Abraham Kuyper 117 Abraham Kuyper was the Prime Minister of the Netherlands between 1901 and 1905, an influential neo-Calvinist pastor and a journalist. He established the Reformed Churches in the Netherlands, which upon its foundation became the second largest Reformed denomination in the country behind the state-supported Dutch Reformed Church.

Piet Pieterszoon Hein

Piet Pieterszoon Hein 116 Piet Pieterszoon Hein was a Dutch admiral and privateer for the Dutch Republic during the Eighty Years' War. Hein was the first and the last to capture a large part of a Spanish treasure fleet which transported huge amounts of gold and silver from Spanish America to Spain. The amount of silver taken was so large that it resulted in the rise of the price of silver worldwide and the near bankruptcy of Spain.

John F. Kennedy

John F. Kennedy 114 John Fitzgerald Kennedy, often referred to as JFK, was an American politician who served as the 35th president of the United States from 1961 until his assassination in 1963. He was the youngest person elected president. Kennedy served at the height of the Cold War, and the majority of his foreign policy concerned relations with the Soviet Union and Cuba. A Democrat, Kennedy represented Massachusetts in both houses of the United States Congress prior to his presidency.

Pieter Jelles Troelstra

Pieter Jelles Troelstra 109 Pieter Jelles Troelstra was a Dutch lawyer, journalist and politician active in the socialist workers' movement. He is most remembered for his fight for universal suffrage and his failed call for revolution at the end of World War I. From 1888 to 1904, Troelstra was married to Sjoukje Bokma de Boer, a well-known children's book writer, under the pen name of Nienke van Hichtum.

Frédéric Chopin

Frédéric Chopin 109 Frédéric François Chopin was a Polish composer and virtuoso pianist of the Romantic period, who wrote primarily for solo piano. He has maintained worldwide renown as a leading musician of his era, one whose "poetic genius was based on a professional technique that was without equal in his generation".

Henry Dunant

Henry Dunant 108 Henry Dunant, also known as Henri Dunant, was a Swiss humanitarian, businessman, social activist, and co-founder of the Red Cross. His humanitarian efforts won him the first Nobel Peace Prize in 1901.

Thomas Edison

Thomas Edison 103 Thomas Alva Edison was an American inventor and businessman. He developed many devices in fields such as electric power generation, mass communication, sound recording, and motion pictures. These inventions, which include the phonograph, the motion picture camera, and early versions of the electric light bulb, have had a widespread impact on the modern industrialized world. He was one of the first inventors to apply the principles of organized science and teamwork to the process of invention, working with many researchers and employees. He established the first industrial research laboratory.

Franz Schubert

Franz Schubert 103 Franz Peter Schubert was an Austrian composer of the late Classical and early Romantic eras. Despite his short life, Schubert left behind a vast oeuvre, including more than 600 secular vocal works, seven complete symphonies, sacred music, operas, incidental music, and a large body of piano and chamber music. His major works include the art songs "Erlkönig", "Gretchen am Spinnrade", "Ave Maria"; the Trout Quintet, the unfinished Symphony No. 8 in B minor, the "Great" Symphony No. 9 in C major, the String Quartet No. 14 Death and the Maiden, a String Quintet, the two sets of Impromptus for solo piano, the three last piano sonatas, the Fantasia in F minor for piano four hands, the opera Fierrabras, the incidental music to the play Rosamunde, and the song cycles Die schöne Müllerin, Winterreise and Schwanengesang.

Jan Pieterszoon Sweelinck

Jan Pieterszoon Sweelinck 99 Jan Pieterszoon Sweelinck was a Dutch composer, organist, and pedagogue whose work straddled the end of the Renaissance and beginning of the Baroque eras. He was among the first major keyboard composers of Europe, and his work as a teacher helped establish the north German organ tradition.

Willem Bilderdijk

Willem Bilderdijk 98 Willem Bilderdijk was a Dutch poet, historian, lawyer, and linguist.                               

Jacob Cats

Jacob Cats 97 Jacob Cats was a Dutch poet, humorist, jurist and politician. He is most famous for his emblem books.

Giuseppe Verdi

Giuseppe Verdi 93 Giuseppe Fortunino Francesco Verdi was an Italian composer best known for his operas. He was born near Busseto to a provincial family of moderate means, receiving a musical education with the help of a local patron, Antonio Barezzi. Verdi came to dominate the Italian opera scene after the era of Gioachino Rossini, Vincenzo Bellini, and Gaetano Donizetti, whose works significantly influenced him.

Maarten Tromp

Maarten Tromp 92 Maarten Harpertszoon Tromp or Maarten van Tromp was an army general and admiral in the Dutch navy during much of the Eighty Years' War and throughout the First Anglo-Dutch War. Son of a ship's captain, Tromp spent much of his childhood at sea, during which time he was captured by pirates and enslaved by Barbary Corsairs. In adult life, he became a renowned ship captain and naval commander, successfully leading Dutch forces fighting for independence in the Eighty Years War, and then against England in the First Anglo-Dutch War, proving an innovative tactician and enabling the newly independent Dutch nation to become a major sea power. He was killed in battle by a sharpshooter from an English ship. Several ships of the Royal Netherlands Navy have carried the name HNLMS Tromp after him and/or his son Cornelis, also a Dutch Admiral of some renown.

Johan van Galen

Johan van Galen 92 Johan "Jan" van Galen was a Commodore of the Republic of the Seven United Provinces of the Netherlands. he participated in the First Anglo-Dutch War.

Meindert Hobbema

Meindert Hobbema 91 Meindert Lubbertszoon Hobbema was a Dutch Golden Age painter of landscapes, specializing in views of woodland, although his most famous painting, The Avenue at Middelharnis, shows a different type of scene.

Hendrik Lorentz

Hendrik Lorentz 90 Hendrik Antoon Lorentz was a Dutch physicist who shared the 1902 Nobel Prize in Physics with Pieter Zeeman for the discovery and theoretical explanation of the Zeeman effect. He derived the Lorentz transformation of the special theory of relativity, as well as the Lorentz force, which describes the combined electric and magnetic forces acting on a charged particle in an electromagnetic field. Lorentz was also responsible for the Lorentz oscillator model, a classical model used to describe the anomalous dispersion observed in dielectric materials when the driving frequency of the electric field was near the resonant frequency, resulting in abnormal refractive indices.

Adriaen van Ostade

Adriaen van Ostade 87 Adriaen van Ostade was a Dutch Golden Age painter of genre works, showing everyday life of ordinary men and women.

Jacob van Ruisdael

Jacob van Ruisdael 85 Jacob Isaackszoon van Ruisdael was a Dutch painter, draughtsman, and etcher. He is generally considered the pre-eminent landscape painter of the Dutch Golden Age, a period of great wealth and cultural achievement when Dutch painting became highly popular.

Guglielmo Marconi

Guglielmo Marconi 84 Guglielmo Giovanni Maria Marconi, 1st Marquis of Marconi was an Italian inventor and electrical engineer, known for his creation of a practical radio wave–based wireless telegraph system. This led to Marconi's being credited as the inventor of radio, and he shared the 1909 Nobel Prize in Physics with Karl Ferdinand Braun "in recognition of their contributions to the development of wireless telegraphy".

Saint Joseph

Saint Joseph 83 Joseph was a 1st-century Jewish man of Nazareth who, according to the canonical Gospels, was married to Mary, the mother of Jesus, and was the legal father of Jesus.

Anthony of Padua

Anthony of Padua 81 Anthony of Padua, OFM or Anthony of Lisbon was a Portuguese Catholic priest and friar of the Franciscan Order.

Hieronymus Bosch

Hieronymus Bosch 81 Hieronymus Bosch was a Dutch painter from Brabant. He is one of the most notable representatives of the Early Netherlandish painting school. His work, generally oil on oak wood, mainly contains fantastic illustrations of religious concepts and narratives. Within his lifetime his work was collected in the Netherlands, Austria, and Spain, and widely copied, especially his macabre and nightmarish depictions of hell.

Winston Churchill

Winston Churchill 81 Sir Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill was a British statesman, soldier, and writer who twice served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, from 1940 to 1945 during the Second World War, and again from 1951 to 1955. Apart from two years between 1922 and 1924, he was a Member of Parliament (MP) from 1900 to 1964 and represented a total of five constituencies. Ideologically an adherent to economic liberalism and imperialism, he was for most of his career a member of the Conservative Party, which he led from 1940 to 1955. He was a member of the Liberal Party from 1904 to 1924.

George Frideric Handel

George Frideric Handel 80 George Frideric Handel was a German-British Baroque composer well known for his operas, oratorios, anthems, concerti grossi, and organ concertos. Handel received his training in Halle and worked as a composer in Hamburg and Italy before settling in London in 1712, where he spent the bulk of his career and became a naturalised British subject in 1727. He was strongly influenced both by the middle-German polyphonic choral tradition and by composers of the Italian Baroque. In turn, Handel's music forms one of the peaks of the "high baroque" style, bringing Italian opera to its highest development, creating the genres of English oratorio and organ concerto, and introducing a new style into English church music. He is consistently recognized as one of the greatest composers of his age.

Peter Paul Rubens

Peter Paul Rubens 80 Sir Peter Paul Rubens was a Flemish artist and diplomat. He is considered the most influential artist of the Flemish Baroque tradition. Rubens's highly charged compositions reference erudite aspects of classical and Christian history. His unique and immensely popular Baroque style emphasized movement, colour, and sensuality, which followed the immediate, dramatic artistic style promoted in the Counter-Reformation. Rubens was a painter producing altarpieces, portraits, landscapes, and history paintings of mythological and allegorical subjects. He was also a prolific designer of cartoons for the Flemish tapestry workshops and of frontispieces for the publishers in Antwerp.

Pieter Corneliszoon Hooft

Pieter Corneliszoon Hooft 79 Pieter Corneliszoon Hooft - Knight in the Order of Saint Michael - was a Dutch historian, poet and playwright who lived during the Dutch Golden Age in literature.

Guillaume Groen van Prinsterer

Guillaume Groen van Prinsterer 79 Guillaume Groen van Prinsterer, was a Dutch politician and historian.                               

Willem Drees

Willem Drees 78 Willem Drees Sr. was a Dutch politician of the Social Democratic Workers' Party (SDAP) and later co-founder of the Labour Party (PvdA) and historian who served as Prime Minister of the Netherlands from 7 August 1948 to 22 December 1958.

Alphons Diepenbrock

Alphons Diepenbrock 76 Alphonsus Johannes Maria Diepenbrock was a Dutch composer, essayist and classicist.                 

Gerrit Dou

Gerrit Dou 75 Gerrit Dou, also known as Gerard Douw or Dow, was a Dutch Golden Age painter, whose small, highly polished paintings are typical of the Leiden fijnschilders. He specialised in genre scenes and is noted for his trompe-l'œil "niche" paintings and candlelit night-scenes with strong chiaroscuro. He was a student of Rembrandt.

Willem Hubert Nolens

Willem Hubert Nolens 75 Mgr. mr. dr. Wilhelmus Hubertus (Wiel) Nolens was a Dutch politician and a Roman Catholic priest.   

Isaac da Costa

Isaac da Costa 75 Isaäc da Costa was a Jewish Dutch poet.                                                             

Hendrik Willem Mesdag

Hendrik Willem Mesdag 74 Hendrik Willem Mesdag was a Dutch marine painter.                                                   

Dirk van Hogendorp

Dirk van Hogendorp 74 Dirk van Hogendorp was a Dutch military officer, politician, colonial administrator and diplomat. In 1812 he was governor of Vilnius, in 1813 he was appointed as the governor of Hamburg. He was an early critic of the Dutch colonial system as implemented under the VOC. His ideas about reforms in the Dutch East Indies were to a large extent realized by the Commissioners-General of the Dutch East Indies, through the behind the scenes influence of his friend Herman Warner Muntinghe, first as adviser of Stamford Raffles, and later as adviser of the Commissioners-General.

Christiaan Huygens

Christiaan Huygens 73 Christiaan Huygens, Lord of Zeelhem, was a Dutch mathematician, physicist, engineer, astronomer, and inventor who is regarded as a key figure in the Scientific Revolution. In physics, Huygens made seminal contributions to optics and mechanics, while as an astronomer he studied the rings of Saturn and discovered its largest moon, Titan. As an engineer and inventor, he improved the design of telescopes and invented the pendulum clock, the most accurate timekeeper for almost 300 years. A talented mathematician and physicist, his works contain the first idealization of a physical problem by a set of mathematical parameters, and the first mathematical and mechanistic explanation of an unobservable physical phenomenon.

Jozef Israëls

Jozef Israëls 72 Jozef Israëls was a Dutch painter. He was a leading member of the group of landscape painters referred to as the Hague School and was, during his lifetime, "the most respected Dutch artist of the second half of the nineteenth century."

Catharina-Amalia, Princess of Orange

Catharina-Amalia, Princess of Orange 72 Catharina-Amalia, Princess of Orange is the heir apparent to the throne of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the constituent countries of Aruba, Curaçao, the Netherlands, and Sint Maarten.

Albert Schweitzer

Albert Schweitzer 71 Ludwig Philipp Albert Schweitzer was an Alsatian polymath. He was a theologian, organist, musicologist, writer, humanitarian, philosopher, and physician. A Lutheran minister, Schweitzer challenged both the secular view of the historical Jesus as depicted by the historical-critical method current at this time, as well as the traditional Christian view. His contributions to the interpretation of Pauline Christianity concern the role of Paul's mysticism of "being in Christ" as primary and the doctrine of justification by faith as secondary.

Alexander de Savornin Lohman

Alexander de Savornin Lohman 70 Jhr. Alexander Frederik de Savornin Lohman was a Dutch politician and leader of the Christian Historical Union during the first quarter of the 20th century.

Anthony Christiaan Winand Staring

Anthony Christiaan Winand Staring 70 Anthony Christiaan Winand Staring, heer van de Wildenborch was een Nederlandse landheer, landbouwkundige en dichter.

Nicolaas Beets

Nicolaas Beets 70 Nicolaas Beets was a Dutch theologian, writer and poet. He published also under the pseudonym Hildebrand.

Antonio Vivaldi

Antonio Vivaldi 70 Antonio Lucio Vivaldi was an Italian composer, virtuoso violinist and impresario of Baroque music. Along with Johann Sebastian Bach and George Frideric Handel, Vivaldi ranks amongst the greatest Baroque composers and his influence during his lifetime was widespread across Europe, giving origin to many imitators and admirers. He pioneered many developments in orchestration, violin technique and programmatic music. He consolidated the emerging concerto form into a widely accepted and followed idiom.

Alessandro Volta

Alessandro Volta 69 Alessandro Giuseppe Antonio Anastasio Volta was an Italian physicist and chemist who was a pioneer of electricity and power and is credited as the inventor of the electric battery and the discoverer of methane. He invented the voltaic pile in 1799, and reported the results of his experiments in 1800 in a two-part letter to the president of the Royal Society. With this invention Volta proved that electricity could be generated chemically and debunked the prevalent theory that electricity was generated solely by living beings. Volta's invention sparked a great amount of scientific excitement and led others to conduct similar experiments, which eventually led to the development of the field of electrochemistry.

Hendrick van Brederode

Hendrick van Brederode 69 Henry (Hendrik), Lord of Bréderode, also styled Count of Brederode, was a member of the Dutch noble family Van Brederode. He was the leader of the allied Dutch nobles, the so-called Compromise of Nobles of 1566 and the Geuzen at the beginning of the Eighty Years' War. Van Brederode was named the "Grote Geus" or the "Big Beggar".

Jan Toorop

Jan Toorop 68 Johannes Theodorus "Jan" Toorop was a Dutch painter who worked in various styles, including Symbolism, Art Nouveau, and Pointillism. His early work was influenced by the Amsterdam Impressionism movement.

Abel Tasman

Abel Tasman 67 Abel Janszoon Tasman was a Dutch seafarer and explorer, best known for his voyages of 1642 and 1644 in the service of the Dutch East India Company (VOC).

Cornelis Evertsen the Youngest

Cornelis Evertsen the Youngest 66 Cornelis Evertsen the Youngest was a Dutch naval officer from Vlissingen who served as Lieutenant Admiral of Zeeland and Supreme Commander of the Confederated Dutch Navy. Of a family that included several other naval admirals, including his father, Evertsen is noted for his distinguished service during the Second Anglo-Dutch War, Third Anglo-Dutch War, the Franco-Dutch War, the Glorious Revolution invasion, and the Battle of Beachy Head during the Nine Years' War.

André-Marie Ampère

André-Marie Ampère 66 André-Marie Ampère was a French physicist and mathematician who was one of the founders of the science of classical electromagnetism, which he referred to as "electrodynamics". He is also the inventor of numerous applications, such as the solenoid and the electrical telegraph. As an autodidact, Ampère was a member of the French Academy of Sciences and professor at the École polytechnique and the Collège de France.

Johannes Brahms

Johannes Brahms 66 Johannes Brahms was a German composer, pianist, and conductor of the mid-Romantic period. Born in Hamburg into a Lutheran family, he spent much of his professional life in Vienna. He is sometimes grouped with Johann Sebastian Bach and Ludwig van Beethoven as one of the "Three Bs" of music, a comment originally made by the nineteenth-century conductor Hans von Bülow.

Jacob Maris

Jacob Maris 66 Jacob Henricus Maris was a Dutch painter, who with his brothers Willem and Matthijs belonged to what has come to be known as the Hague School of painters. He was considered to be the most important and influential Dutch landscape painter of the last quarter of the nineteenth century. His first teacher was painter J.A.B. Stroebel who taught him the art of painting from 1849 to 1852. Jacob Maris's most known works are the series of portraits of the royal House of Orange, he worked on these with his brother Matthijs Maris. He is also known for landscapes such as Ship on the Scheveningen beach.

Albert Einstein

Albert Einstein 65 Albert Einstein was a German-born theoretical physicist who is widely held to be one of the greatest and most influential scientists of all time. Best known for developing the theory of relativity, Einstein also made important contributions to quantum mechanics, and was thus a central figure in the revolutionary reshaping of the scientific understanding of nature that modern physics accomplished in the first decades of the twentieth century. His mass–energy equivalence formula E = mc2, which arises from relativity theory, has been called "the world's most famous equation". He received the 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics "for his services to theoretical physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect", a pivotal step in the development of quantum theory. His work is also known for its influence on the philosophy of science. In a 1999 poll of 130 leading physicists worldwide by the British journal Physics World, Einstein was ranked the greatest physicist of all time. His intellectual achievements and originality have made the word Einstein broadly synonymous with genius.

Witte de With

Witte de With 65 Witte Corneliszoon de With was a Dutch naval officer who served during the Eighty Years' War and the First Anglo-Dutch War.

James Watt

James Watt 65 James Watt was a Scottish inventor, mechanical engineer, and chemist who improved on Thomas Newcomen's 1712 Newcomen steam engine with his Watt steam engine in 1776, which was fundamental to the changes brought by the Industrial Revolution in both his native country Great Britain, and the rest of the world.

Henri Poels

Henri Poels 65 Hendrikus Andreas (Henri) Poels, ook bekend als dr. Poels, was een Nederlands rooms-katholiek priester, theoloog en filantroop.

Pieter de Hooch

Pieter de Hooch 64 Pieter de Hooch (Dutch: [ˈpitər də ɦoːx], also spelled "Hoogh" or "Hooghe"; 20 December 1629 – after 1683, was a Dutch Golden Age painter famous for his genre works of quiet domestic scenes with an open doorway. He was a contemporary, in the Delft Guild of St. Luke, of Jan Vermeer with whom his work shares themes and style. De Hooch was first recorded in Delft on 5 August 1652, when he and another painter, Hendrick van der Burch witnessed the signing of a will. He was active in 1683, but his date of death is unknown.

Joseph Haydn

Joseph Haydn 63 Franz Joseph Haydn was an Austrian composer of the Classical period. He was instrumental in the development of chamber music such as the string quartet and piano trio. His contributions to musical form have led him to be called "Father of the Symphony" and "Father of the String quartet".

Piet Mondrian

Piet Mondrian 63 Pieter Cornelis Mondriaan, after 1906 known as Piet Mondrian, was a Dutch painter and art theoretician who is regarded as one of the greatest artists of the 20th century. He is known for being one of the pioneers of 20th-century abstract art, as he changed his artistic direction from figurative painting to an increasingly abstract style, until he reached a point where his artistic vocabulary was reduced to simple geometric elements.

Jacob van Lennep

Jacob van Lennep 63 Jacob van Lennep was a Dutch poet and novelist.                                                     

Richard Wagner

Richard Wagner 62 Wilhelm Richard Wagner was a German composer, theatre director, polemicist, and conductor who is chiefly known for his operas. Unlike most opera composers, Wagner wrote both the libretto and the music for each of his stage works. Initially establishing his reputation as a composer of works in the romantic vein of Carl Maria von Weber and Giacomo Meyerbeer, Wagner revolutionised opera through his concept of the Gesamtkunstwerk, by which he sought to synthesise the poetic, visual, musical and dramatic arts, with music subsidiary to drama. He described this vision in a series of essays published between 1849 and 1852. Wagner realised these ideas most fully in the first half of the four-opera cycle Der Ring des Nibelungen.

Heike Kamerlingh Onnes

Heike Kamerlingh Onnes 62 Heike Kamerlingh Onnes was a Dutch physicist and Nobel laureate. He exploited the Hampson–Linde cycle to investigate how materials behave when cooled to nearly absolute zero and later to liquefy helium for the first time, in 1908. He also discovered superconductivity in 1911.

Hugo Grotius

Hugo Grotius 62 Hugo Grotius, also known as Hugo de Groot or Huig de Groot, was a Dutch humanist, diplomat, lawyer, theologian, jurist, statesman, poet and playwright. A teenage prodigy, he was born in Delft and studied at Leiden University. He was imprisoned in Loevestein Castle for his involvement in the controversies over religious policy of the Dutch Republic, but escaped hidden in a chest of books that was transported to Gorinchem. Grotius wrote most of his major works in exile in France.

House of Limburg-Stirum

House of Limburg-Stirum 62 The House of Limburg-Stirum, which adopted its name in the 12th century from the immediate county of Limburg an der Lenne in what is now Germany, is one of the oldest families in Europe. It is the eldest and only surviving branch of the House of Berg, which was among the most powerful dynasties in the region of the lower Rhine during the Middle Ages. Some historians link them to an even older dynasty, the Ezzonen, going back to the 9th century.

Herman Boerhaave

Herman Boerhaave 62 Herman Boerhaave was a Dutch botanist, chemist, Christian humanist, and physician of European fame. He is regarded as the founder of clinical teaching and of the modern academic hospital and is sometimes referred to as "the father of physiology," along with Venetian physician Santorio Santorio (1561–1636). Boerhaave introduced the quantitative approach into medicine, along with his pupil Albrecht von Haller (1708–1777) and is best known for demonstrating the relation of symptoms to lesions. He was the first to isolate the chemical urea from urine. He was the first physician to put thermometer measurements to clinical practice. His motto was Simplex sigillum veri: 'Simplicity is the sign of the truth'. He is often hailed as the "Dutch Hippocrates".

John the Apostle

John the Apostle 62 John the Apostle, also known as Saint John the Beloved and, in Eastern Orthodox Christianity, Saint John the Theologian, was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus according to the New Testament. Generally listed as the youngest apostle, he was the son of Zebedee and Salome. His brother James was another of the Twelve Apostles. The Church Fathers identify him as John the Evangelist, John of Patmos, John the Elder, and the Beloved Disciple, and testify that he outlived the remaining apostles and was the only one to die of natural causes, although modern scholars are divided on the veracity of these claims.

Simon Stevin

Simon Stevin 61 Simon Stevin, sometimes called Stevinus, was a Flemish mathematician, scientist and music theorist. He made various contributions in many areas of science and engineering, both theoretical and practical. He also translated various mathematical terms into Dutch, making it one of the few European languages in which the word for mathematics, wiskunde, was not a loanword from Greek but a calque via Latin. He also replaced the word chemie, the Dutch for chemistry, by scheikunde, made in analogy with wiskunde.

Aletta Jacobs

Aletta Jacobs 61 Aletta Henriëtte Jacobs was a Dutch physician and women's suffrage activist. As the first woman officially to attend a Dutch university, she became one of the first female physicians in the Netherlands. In 1882, she founded the world's first birth control clinic and was a leader in both the Dutch and international women's movements. She led campaigns aimed at deregulating prostitution, improving women's working conditions, promoting peace and calling for women's right to vote.

Marie Curie

Marie Curie 61 Maria Salomea Skłodowska-Curie, known simply as Marie Curie, was a Polish and naturalised-French physicist and chemist who conducted pioneering research on radioactivity. She was the first woman to win a Nobel Prize, the first person to win a Nobel Prize twice, and the only person to win a Nobel Prize in two scientific fields. Her husband, Pierre Curie, was a co-winner of her first Nobel Prize, making them the first-ever married couple to win the Nobel Prize and launching the Curie family legacy of five Nobel Prizes. She was, in 1906, the first woman to become a professor at the University of Paris.

Antonie van Leeuwenhoek

Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 60 Antonie Philips van Leeuwenhoek was a Dutch microbiologist and microscopist in the Golden Age of Dutch science and technology. A largely self-taught man in science, he is commonly known as "the Father of Microbiology", and one of the first microscopists and microbiologists. Van Leeuwenhoek is best known for his pioneering work in microscopy and for his contributions toward the establishment of microbiology as a scientific discipline.

Alfred Nobel

Alfred Nobel 59 Alfred Bernhard Nobel was a Swedish chemist, inventor, engineer and businessman. He is known for inventing dynamite as well as having bequeathed his fortune to establish the Nobel Prize. He also made several important contributions to science, holding 355 patents in his lifetime.

Princess Sophie of the Netherlands

Princess Sophie of the Netherlands 59 Princess Sophie of the Netherlands was the only daughter and last surviving child of King William II of the Netherlands and of his wife Grand Duchess Anna Pavlovna of Russia. She was heiress presumptive to her niece, Queen Wilhelmina of the Netherlands, for seven years, from the death of her brother until her own death.

Willem Barentsz

Willem Barentsz 59 Willem Barentsz, anglicized as William Barents or Barentz, was a Dutch navigator, cartographer, and Arctic explorer.

Martin of Tours

Martin of Tours 59 Martin of Tours, also known as Martin the Merciful, was the third bishop of Tours. He has become one of the most familiar and recognizable Christian saints in France, heralded as the patron saint of the Third Republic, and is patron saint of many communities and organizations across Europe. A native of Pannonia, he converted to Christianity at a young age. He served in the Roman cavalry in Gaul, but left military service at some point prior to 361, when he became a disciple of Hilary of Poitiers, establishing the monastery at Ligugé. He was consecrated as Bishop of Caesarodunum (Tours) in 371. As bishop, he was active in the suppression of the remnants of Gallo-Roman religion, but he opposed the violent persecution of the Priscillianist sect of ascetics.

Willibrord

Willibrord 58 Willibrord was an Anglo-Saxon missionary and saint, known as the "Apostle to the Frisians" in the modern Netherlands. He became the first Bishop of Utrecht and died at Echternach, Luxembourg.

Louis Pasteur

Louis Pasteur 58 Louis Pasteur was a French chemist, pharmacist, and microbiologist renowned for his discoveries of the principles of vaccination, microbial fermentation, and pasteurization, the last of which was named after him. His research in chemistry led to remarkable breakthroughs in the understanding of the causes and preventions of diseases, which laid down the foundations of hygiene, public health and much of modern medicine. Pasteur's works are credited with saving millions of lives through the developments of vaccines for rabies and anthrax. He is regarded as one of the founders of modern bacteriology and has been honored as the "father of bacteriology" and the "father of microbiology".

George Hendrik Breitner

George Hendrik Breitner 58 George Hendrik Breitner was a Dutch painter and photographer. An important figure in Amsterdam Impressionism, he is noted especially for his paintings of street scenes and harbours in a realistic style. He painted en plein air, and became interested in photography as a means of documenting street life and atmospheric effects – rainy weather in particular – as reference materials for his paintings.

Egbert Bartholomeusz Kortenaer

Egbert Bartholomeusz Kortenaer 58 Egbert Bartholomeuszoon Kortenaer or Egbert Meussen Cortenaer was an admiral of the United Provinces of the Netherlands who was killed in the Battle of Lowestoft.

Gerbrand Bredero

Gerbrand Bredero 57 Gerbrand Adriaenszoon Bredero was a Dutch poet and playwright in the period known as the Dutch Golden Age.

Jan van Goyen

Jan van Goyen 57 Jan Josephszoon van Goyen was a Dutch landscape painter. The scope of his landscape subjects was very broad as he painted forest landscapes, marine paintings, river landscapes, beach scenes, winter landscapes, cityscapes, architectural views and landscapes with peasants. The list of painters he influenced is much longer. He was an extremely prolific artist who left approximately twelve hundred paintings and more than one thousand drawings.

Ferdinand Bol

Ferdinand Bol 56 Ferdinand Bol was a Dutch painter, etcher and draftsman. Although his surviving work is rare, it displays Rembrandt's influence; like his master, Bol favored historical subjects, portraits, numerous self-portraits, and single figures in exotic finery.

Prince Constantijn of the Netherlands

Prince Constantijn of the Netherlands 56 Prince Constantijn of the Netherlands is the third and youngest son of the former Dutch queen, Beatrix, and her husband, Claus von Amsberg, and is the younger brother of the reigning Dutch king, Willem-Alexander. He is a member of the Dutch Royal House and currently fourth in the line of succession to the Dutch throne behind his nieces.

Johan van Oldenbarnevelt

Johan van Oldenbarnevelt 55 Johan van Oldenbarnevelt, Heer van Berkel en Rodenrijs (1600), Gunterstein (1611) and Bakkum (1613) was a Dutch statesman and revolutionary who played an important role in the Dutch struggle for independence from Spain. He is generally considered as one of the greatest and most important political figures in the history of The Netherlands.

Erasmus

Erasmus 54 Desiderius Erasmus Roterodamus was a Dutch Christian humanist, Catholic theologian, educationalist, satirist, and philosopher. Through his vast number of translations, books, essays, prayers and letters, he is considered one of the most influential thinkers of the Northern Renaissance and one of the major figures of Dutch and Western culture.

Guido Gezelle

Guido Gezelle 54 Guido Pieter Theodorus Josephus Gezelle was an influential writer and poet and a Roman Catholic priest from Belgium. He is famous for the use of the West Flemish dialect, but he also wrote in other languages like Dutch, English, French, German, Latin and Greek.

Gioachino Rossini

Gioachino Rossini 54 Gioachino Antonio Rossini was an Italian composer who gained fame for his 39 operas, although he also wrote many songs, some chamber music and piano pieces and some sacred music. He set new standards for both comic and serious opera before retiring from large-scale composition while still in his thirties, at the height of his popularity.

Aelbert Cuyp

Aelbert Cuyp 54 Aelbert Jacobszoon Cuyp or Cuijp was one of the leading Dutch Golden Age painters, producing mainly landscapes. The most famous of a family of painters, the pupil of his father, Jacob Gerritszoon Cuyp (1594–1651/52), he is especially known for his large views of Dutch riverside scenes in a golden early morning or late afternoon light. He was born and died in Dordrecht.

Stadtholder

Stadtholder 53 In the Low Countries, a stadtholder was a steward, first appointed as a medieval official and ultimately functioning as a national leader. The stadtholder was the replacement of the duke or count of a province during the Burgundian and Habsburg period.

Juliana of Stolberg

Juliana of Stolberg 53 Juliana, Countess of Stolberg-Wernigerode was the mother of William the Silent, the leader of the successful Dutch Revolt against the Spanish in the 16th century.

Hendrikus Colijn

Hendrikus Colijn 51 Hendrikus "Hendrik" Colijn was a Dutch politician of the Anti-Revolutionary Party. He served as Prime Minister of the Netherlands from 4 August 1925 until 8 March 1926, and from 26 May 1933 until 10 August 1939.

Franklin D. Roosevelt

Franklin D. Roosevelt 51 Franklin Delano Roosevelt, commonly known by his initials FDR, was an American statesman and politician who served as the 32nd president of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945. He was a member of the Democratic Party and is the only U.S. president to have served more than two terms. His initial two terms were centered on combating the Great Depression, while his third and fourth saw him shift his focus to America's involvement in World War II.

Hendrik Tollens

Hendrik Tollens 51 Henricus Franciscus Caroluszoon (Hendrik) Tollens was a Dutch poet best known for Wien Neêrlands Bloed, the national anthem of the Netherlands between 1815 and 1932.

Henriette Roland Holst

Henriette Roland Holst 51 Henriette Goverdine Anna "Jet" Roland Holst-van der Schalk was a Dutch poet and communist. She was nominated for the Nobel Prize in Literature.

Constantijn Huygens

Constantijn Huygens 51 Sir Constantijn Huygens, Lord of Zuilichem, was a Dutch Golden Age poet and composer. He was also secretary to two Princes of Orange: Frederick Henry and William II, and the father of the scientist Christiaan Huygens.

House of Orange-Nassau

House of Orange-Nassau 50 The House of Orange-Nassau is the current reigning house of the Netherlands. A branch of the European House of Nassau, the house has played a central role in the politics and government of the Netherlands and elsewhere in Europe, particularly since William the Silent organised the Dutch Revolt against Spanish rule, which after the Eighty Years' War (1568–1648) led to an independent Dutch state. William III of Orange led the resistance of the Netherlands and Europe to Louis XIV of France, and orchestrated the Glorious Revolution in England that established parliamentary rule. Similarly, Queen Wilhelmina of the Netherlands was instrumental in the Dutch resistance during World War II.

Isaac Newton

Isaac Newton 50 Sir Isaac Newton was an English polymath active as a mathematician, physicist, astronomer, alchemist, theologian, and author who was described in his time as a natural philosopher. He was a key figure in the Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment that followed. His pioneering book Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica, first published in 1687, consolidated many previous results and established classical mechanics. Newton also made seminal contributions to optics, and shares credit with German mathematician Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz for developing infinitesimal calculus, though he developed calculus years before Leibniz.

Paul Kruger

Paul Kruger 49 Stephanus Johannes Paulus Kruger, better known as Paul Kruger, was a South African politician. He was one of the dominant political and military figures in 19th-century South Africa, and State President of the South African Republic from 1883 to 1900. Nicknamed Oom Paul, he came to international prominence as the face of the Boer cause—that of the Transvaal and its neighbour the Orange Free State—against Britain during the Second Boer War of 1899–1902. He has been called a personification of Afrikanerdom, and remains a controversial figure; admirers venerate him as a tragic folk hero.

Marga Klompé

Marga Klompé 49 Margaretha Albertina Maria "Marga" Klompé was a Dutch politician of the defunct Catholic People's Party (KVP) now merged into the Christian Democratic Appeal (CDA) party and chemist. She was granted the honorary title of Minister of State on 17 July 1971.

Jan Leeghwater

Jan Leeghwater 49 Jan Adriaenszoon Leeghwater was a Dutch millwright and hydraulic engineer.                         

Maurice Ravel

Maurice Ravel 49 Joseph Maurice Ravel was a French composer, pianist and conductor. He is often associated with Impressionism along with his elder contemporary Claude Debussy, although both composers rejected the term. In the 1920s and 1930s Ravel was internationally regarded as France's greatest living composer.

Alfons Ariëns

Alfons Ariëns 48 Alphonse Marie Auguste Joseph Ariëns was een Nederlandse priester die een grote rol speelde in de rooms-katholieke arbeidersbeweging in Nederland en voor de ontwikkeling van een katholieke sociale leer.

Herman Gorter

Herman Gorter 48 Herman Gorter was a Dutch poet and Council Communist theorist. He was a leading member of the Tachtigers, a highly influential group of Dutch writers who worked together in Amsterdam in the 1880s, centered on De Nieuwe Gids.

Govert Flinck

Govert Flinck 48 Govert Teuniszoon Flinck was a Dutch painter of the Dutch Golden Age.                               

Salomon van Ruysdael

Salomon van Ruysdael 47 Salomon van Ruysdael was a Dutch Golden Age landscape painter. He was the uncle of Jacob van Ruisdael.

William Louis, Count of Nassau-Dillenburg

William Louis, Count of Nassau-Dillenburg 47 William Louis of Nassau-Dillenburg was Count of Nassau-Dillenburg from 1606 to 1620, and stadtholder of Friesland, Groningen, and Drenthe.

Rutger Jan Schimmelpenninck (1761-1825)

Rutger Jan Schimmelpenninck (1761-1825) 46 Rutger Jan graaf Schimmelpenninck, heer van Nijenhuis, Peckedam en Gellicum, was een Nederlands jurist, ambassadeur en politicus, onder andere raadpensionaris van het Bataafs Gemenebest.

Piet Aalberse Sr.

Piet Aalberse Sr. 46 Petrus Josephus Mattheus "Piet" Aalberse Sr. was a Dutch politician of the General League of Roman Catholic Caucuses, later the Roman Catholic State Party (RKSP) and later co-founder of the Catholic People's Party (KVP) and jurist. He was granted the honorary title of Minister of State on 31 December 1934.

Johan Wagenaar

Johan Wagenaar 46 Johan Wagenaar was a Dutch composer and organist.                                                   

Saint Anne

Saint Anne 46 According to apocrypha, as well as Christian and Islamic tradition, Saint Anne was the mother of Mary, the wife of Joachim and the maternal grandmother of Jesus. Mary's mother is not named in the Bible's canonical gospels. In writing, Anne's name and that of her husband Joachim come only from New Testament apocrypha, of which the Gospel of James seems to be the earliest that mentions them. The mother of Mary is mentioned but not named in the Quran.

Julius Röntgen

Julius Röntgen 46 Julius Engelbert Röntgen was a German-Dutch composer of classical music. He was a friend of Liszt, Brahms and Grieg.

Georges Bizet

Georges Bizet 46 Georges Bizet was a French composer of the Romantic era. Best known for his operas in a career cut short by his early death, Bizet achieved few successes before his final work, Carmen, which has become one of the most popular and frequently performed works in the entire opera repertoire.

Louise de Coligny

Louise de Coligny 45 Louise de Coligny was a Princess consort of Orange as the fourth and last spouse of William the Silent. She was the daughter of Gaspard II de Coligny and Charlotte de Laval.

Willem Pijper

Willem Pijper 45 Willem Frederik Johannes Pijper was a Dutch composer, music critic and music teacher. Pijper is considered to be among the most important Dutch composers of the first half of the 20th century.

Louis Couperus

Louis Couperus 44 Louis Marie-Anne Couperus was a Dutch novelist and poet. His oeuvre contains a wide variety of genres: lyric poetry, psychological and historical novels, novellas, short stories, fairy tales, feuilletons and sketches. Couperus is considered to be one of the foremost figures in Dutch literature. In 1923, he was awarded the Tollensprijs.

Hendrik Goeman Borgesius

Hendrik Goeman Borgesius 44 Hendrik Goeman Borgesius was a Dutch politician. He was a member of the House of Representatives of the Netherlands from 1877 until 1917, representing respectively Winschoten, Veendam, Zutphen, Enkhuizen, Rotterdam and finally Emmen. In 1885 he became leader of the Liberal Union. He was Minister of the Interior from 1897 to 1901 and was Speaker of the House of Representatives in the period from 17 September 1913 to 18 January 1917. After being a minister he became a member of the Council of State.

Tobias Asser

Tobias Asser 44 Tobias Michael Carel Asser was a Dutch lawyer and legal scholar. In 1911, he won the Nobel Peace Prize for his work in the field of private international law, and in particular for his achievements establishing the Hague Conference on Private International Law (HCCH).

Johan de Witt

Johan de Witt 44 Johan de Witt, Lord of Zuid- en Noord-Linschoten, Snelrewaard, Hekendorp en IJsselvere, was a Dutch statesman and a major political figure in the Dutch Republic in the mid-17th century, the First Stadtholderless Period, when its flourishing sea trade in a period of global colonisation made the republic a leading European trading and seafaring power – now commonly referred to as the Dutch Golden Age. De Witt was elected Grand pensionary of Holland, and together with his uncle Cornelis de Graeff, he controlled the Dutch political system from around 1650 until the Rampjaar of 1672. This progressive cooperation between the two statesmen, and the consequent support of Amsterdam under the rule of De Graeff, was an important political axis that organized the political system within the republic.

Cornelis de Houtman

Cornelis de Houtman 44 Cornelis de Houtman was a Dutch merchant seaman who commanded the first Dutch expedition to the East Indies. Although the voyage was difficult and yielded only a modest profit, Houtman showed that the Portuguese monopoly on the spice trade was vulnerable. A flurry of Dutch trading voyages followed, eventually leading to the displacement of the Portuguese and the establishment of a Dutch monopoly on spice trading in the East Indies.

Pieter Cort van der Linden

Pieter Cort van der Linden 44 Pieter Wilhelm Adrianus Cort van der Linden was a Dutch politician who served as Prime Minister of the Netherlands from August 1913 to September 1918.

Willem Kloos

Willem Kloos 43 Willem Johannes Theodorus Kloos was a nineteenth-century Dutch poet and literary critic. He was one of the prominent figures of the Movement of Eighty and became editor in chief of De Nieuwe Gids after the editorial fracture in 1893. He was nominated for the Nobel Prize in Literature five times.

Maarten van Heemskerck

Maarten van Heemskerck 43 Maarten van Heemskerck or Marten Jacobsz Heemskerk van Veen was a Dutch portrait and religious painter, who spent most of his career in Haarlem. He was a pupil of Jan van Scorel, and adopted his teacher's Italian-influenced style. He spent the years 1532–36 in Italy. He produced many designs for engravers, and is especially known for his depictions of the Wonders of the World.

Pieter Sjoerds Gerbrandy

Pieter Sjoerds Gerbrandy 43 Pieter Sjoerds Gerbrandy was a Dutch politician and jurist who served as Prime Minister of the Netherlands from 3 September 1940 until 25 June 1945. He oversaw the government-in-exile based in London under Queen Wilhelmina during the German occupation of the Netherlands. He was a member of the now-defunct Anti-Revolutionary Party (ARP), later merged into the Christian Democratic Appeal (CDA).

Anthony Fokker

Anthony Fokker 42 Anton Herman Gerard "Anthony" Fokker was a Dutch aviation pioneer, aviation entrepreneur, aircraft designer, and aircraft manufacturer. He produced fighter aircraft in Germany during the First World War such as the Eindecker monoplanes, the Dr.1 triplane and the D.VII biplane.

Saint George

Saint George 42 Saint George, also George of Lydda, was an early Christian martyr who is venerated as a saint in Christianity. According to tradition, he was a soldier in the Roman army. Of Cappadocian Greek origin, he became a member of the Praetorian Guard for Roman emperor Diocletian, but was sentenced to death for refusing to recant his Christian faith. He became one of the most venerated saints, heroes and megalomartyrs in Christianity, and he has been especially venerated as a military saint since the Crusades. He is respected by Christians, Druze, as well as some Muslims as a martyr of monotheistic faith.

Lambert of Maastricht

Lambert of Maastricht 42 Lambert of Maastricht, commonly referred to as Saint Lambert, was the bishop of Maastricht-Liège (Tongeren) from about 670 until his death. Lambert denounced Pepin's liaison with his mistress or bigamous wife Alpaida, the mother of Charles Martel. The bishop was murdered during the political turmoil that developed when various families fought for influence as the Merovingian dynasty gave way to the Carolingians. He is considered a martyr for his defence of marriage. His feast day is September 17.

Jan van Speyk

Jan van Speyk 42 Jan Carel Josephus van Speyk was a Dutch naval lieutenant commander with the United Netherlands Navy who became a hero in the Netherlands for his opposition to the Belgian Revolution.

Felix Mendelssohn

Felix Mendelssohn 42 Jakob Ludwig Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy, widely known as Felix Mendelssohn, was a German composer, pianist, organist and conductor of the early Romantic period. Mendelssohn's compositions include symphonies, concertos, piano music, organ music and chamber music. His best-known works include the overture and incidental music for A Midsummer Night's Dream, the Italian Symphony, the Scottish Symphony, the oratorio St. Paul, the oratorio Elijah, the overture The Hebrides, the mature Violin Concerto, the String Octet, and the melody used in the Christmas carol "Hark! The Herald Angels Sing". Mendelssohn's Songs Without Words are his most famous solo piano compositions.

C. H. D. Buys Ballot

C. H. D. Buys Ballot 41 Christophorus Henricus Diedericus Buys Ballot was a Dutch chemist and meteorologist after whom Buys Ballot's law and the Buys Ballot table are named. He was first chairman of the International Meteorological Organization, the organization that would become the World Meteorological Organization.

Franz Liszt

Franz Liszt 41 Franz Liszt was a Hungarian composer, virtuoso pianist, conductor and teacher of the Romantic period. With a diverse body of work spanning more than six decades, he is considered to be one of the most prolific and influential composers of his era, and his piano works continue to be widely performed and recorded.

Pieter Zeeman

Pieter Zeeman 40 Pieter Zeeman was a Dutch physicist who shared the 1902 Nobel Prize in Physics with Hendrik Lorentz for his discovery of the Zeeman effect.

Gerrit Rietveld

Gerrit Rietveld 40 Gerrit Rietveld was a Dutch furniture designer and architect.                                       

Anna van Egmont

Anna van Egmont 40 Anna van Egmont, mainly known as Anna van Buren, was a Dutch heiress who became the first wife of William the Silent, Prince of Orange.

Anna Blaman

Anna Blaman 40 Anna Blaman, pseudonym of Johanna Petronella Vrugt, was a Dutch writer and poet. She was a recipient of the P. C. Hooft Award. The literary award Anna Blaman Prijs is named after her.

Jacob Obrecht

Jacob Obrecht 39 Jacob Obrecht was a Flemish composer of masses, motets and songs. He was the most famous composer of masses in Europe of the late 15th century and was only eclipsed after his death by Josquin des Prez.

Herman Heijermans

Herman Heijermans 39 Herman Heijermans, was a Dutch playwright, novelist and sketch story writer, who is considered to be the greatest Dutch dramatist of the modern era. He is the most notable playwright from the Netherlands since Joost van den Vondel to have gained widespread recognition outside his own country.

Johann Strauss II

Johann Strauss II 39 Johann Baptist Strauss II, also known as Johann Strauss Jr., the Younger or the Son, was an Austrian composer of light music, particularly dance music and operettas as well as a violinist. He composed over 500 waltzes, polkas, quadrilles, and other types of dance music, as well as several operettas and a ballet. In his lifetime, he was known as "The Waltz King", and was largely responsible for the popularity of the waltz in Vienna during the 19th century. Some of Johann Strauss's most famous works include "The Blue Danube", "Kaiser-Walzer", "Tales from the Vienna Woods", "Frühlingsstimmen", and the "Tritsch-Tratsch-Polka". Among his operettas, Die Fledermaus and Der Zigeunerbaron are the best known.

Hubertus

Hubertus 39 Hubertus or Hubert was a Christian saint who became the first bishop of Liège in 708 A.D. He is the patron saint of hunters, mathematicians, opticians and metalworkers. Known as the "Apostle of the Ardennes", he was called upon, until the early 20th century, to cure rabies through the use of the traditional Saint Hubert's Key.

Albert Plesman

Albert Plesman 38 Albert Plesman was a Dutch pioneer in aviation and the first administrator and later director of the KLM, the oldest airline in the world still operating under its original name. Until his death, he was its CEO for over 35 years and was also on the board of the Dutch airline, which was to become one of the most important airlines in the world under his leadership.

Maria Tesselschade Visscher

Maria Tesselschade Visscher 38 Maria Tesselschade Roemers Visscher, also called Maria Tesselschade Roemersdochter Visscher or Tesselschade was a Dutch poet and glass engraver.

Claude Debussy

Claude Debussy 38 (Achille) Claude Debussy was a French composer. He is sometimes seen as the first Impressionist composer, although he vigorously rejected the term. He was among the most influential composers of the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

Johannes Diderik van der Waals

Johannes Diderik van der Waals 38 Johannes Diderik van der Waals was a Dutch theoretical physicist and thermodynamicist famous for his pioneering work on the equation of state for gases and liquids. Van der Waals started his career as a schoolteacher. He became the first physics professor of the University of Amsterdam when in 1877 the old Athenaeum was upgraded to Municipal University. Van der Waals won the 1910 Nobel Prize in physics for his work on the equation of state for gases and liquids.

Anna Pavlovna of Russia

Anna Pavlovna of Russia 38 Anna Pavlovna of Russia was Queen of the Netherlands by marriage to King William II of the Netherlands. She was a Russian patriot who upheld a strict royal etiquette in the Netherlands, where she never felt at home, and identified more as an Imperial Russian grand duchess than a Dutch queen. She had no political influence, but was active within charity.

Jan Luyken

Jan Luyken 37 Johannes or Jan Luyken was a Dutch poet, illustrator, and engraver.                                 

Blaise Pascal

Blaise Pascal 37 Blaise Pascal was a French mathematician, physicist, inventor, philosopher, and Catholic writer.   

Martin Luther King Jr.

Martin Luther King Jr. 37 Martin Luther King Jr. was an American Christian minister, activist, and political philosopher who was one of the most prominent leaders in the civil rights movement from 1955 until his assassination in 1968. A black church leader and a son of early civil rights activist and minister Martin Luther King Sr., King advanced civil rights for people of color in the United States through the use of nonviolent resistance and nonviolent civil disobedience against Jim Crow laws and other forms of legalized discrimination.

Béla Bartók

Béla Bartók 37 Béla Viktor János Bartók was a Hungarian composer, pianist and ethnomusicologist. He is considered one of the most important composers of the 20th century; he and Franz Liszt are regarded as Hungary's greatest composers. Through his collection and analytical study of folk music, he was one of the founders of comparative musicology, which later became known as ethnomusicology.

Roemer Visscher

Roemer Visscher 37 Roemer Pieterszoon Visscher was a successful Dutch merchant, the first Dutch underwriter and writer of the Dutch Golden Age.

Dwight D. Eisenhower

Dwight D. Eisenhower 36 Dwight David Eisenhower, nicknamed Ike, was an American military officer and statesman who served as the 34th president of the United States from 1953 to 1961. During World War II, he was Supreme Commander of the Allied Expeditionary Force in Europe and achieved the five-star rank as General of the Army. Eisenhower planned and supervised two of the most consequential military campaigns of World War II: Operation Torch in the North Africa campaign in 1942–1943 and the invasion of Normandy in 1944.

Aagje Deken

Aagje Deken 36 Agatha ("Aagje") Deken was a Dutch writer.                                                         

Anders Celsius

Anders Celsius 36 Anders Celsius was a Swedish astronomer, physicist and mathematician. He was professor of astronomy at Uppsala University from 1730 to 1744, but traveled from 1732 to 1735 visiting notable observatories in Germany, Italy and France. He founded the Uppsala Astronomical Observatory in 1741, and in 1742 proposed the Centigrade temperature scale which was later renamed Celsius in his honour.

Willem Schouten

Willem Schouten 36 Willem Cornelisz Schouten was a Dutch navigator for the Dutch East India Company. He was the first to sail the Cape Horn route to the Pacific Ocean.

Anne Frank

Anne Frank 36 Annelies Marie Frank was a German-born Jewish girl who kept a diary in which she documented life in hiding under Nazi persecution during the German occupation of the Netherlands. She is a celebrated diarist who described everyday life from her family hiding place in an Amsterdam attic. One of the most-discussed Jewish victims of the Holocaust, she gained fame posthumously with the 1947 publication of The Diary of a Young Girl, in which she documents her life in hiding from 1942 to 1944 — it is one of the world's best-known books and has been the basis for several plays and films.

Allard Pierson

Allard Pierson 36 Allard Pierson was a Dutch theologian, historian, and art historian. He was a leading proponent of radical criticism in the Netherlands.

Jan van Riebeeck

Jan van Riebeeck 35 Johan Anthoniszoon "Jan" van Riebeeck was a Dutch navigator and colonial administrator of the Dutch East India Company.

Valerius Maximus

Valerius Maximus 35 Valerius Maximus was a 1st-century Latin writer and author of a collection of historical anecdotes: Factorum et dictorum memorabilium libri IX. He worked during the reign of Tiberius.

Gustav Mahler

Gustav Mahler 35 Gustav Mahler was an Austro-Bohemian Romantic composer, and one of the leading conductors of his generation. As a composer he acted as a bridge between the 19th-century Austro-German tradition and the modernism of the early 20th century. While in his lifetime his status as a conductor was established beyond question, his own music gained wide popularity only after periods of relative neglect, which included a ban on its performance in much of Europe during the Nazi era. After 1945 his compositions were rediscovered by a new generation of listeners; Mahler then became one of the most frequently performed and recorded of all composers, a position he has sustained into the 21st century.

Willebrord Snellius

Willebrord Snellius 35 Willebrord Snellius was a Dutch astronomer and mathematician, commonly known as Snell. His name is usually associated with the law of refraction of light known as Snell's law.

Luigi Galvani

Luigi Galvani 34 Luigi Galvani was an Italian physician, physicist, biologist and philosopher, who studied animal electricity. In 1780, he discovered that the muscles of dead frogs' legs twitched when struck by an electrical spark. This was an early study of bioelectricity, following experiments by John Walsh and Hugh Williamson.

Simon Vestdijk

Simon Vestdijk 34 Simon Vestdijk was a Dutch writer.                                                                 

Hector Treub

Hector Treub 34 Hector Treub was, na de Leidse HBS en een studie in Leiden, vanaf 1886 hoogleraar verloskunde in Leiden en vanaf 1896 in Amsterdam. Hij volgde er zijn vroeg-overleden collega en vriend Van der Meij op, en maakte diens droom, een nieuwe Vrouwenkliniek, waar. Treub kreeg in 1898 hierover de leiding.

Pieter Bruegel the Elder

Pieter Bruegel the Elder 34 Pieter Bruegel the Elder was among the most significant artists of Dutch and Flemish Renaissance painting, a painter and printmaker, known for his landscapes and peasant scenes ; he was a pioneer in presenting both types of subject as large paintings.

Conrad Helfrich

Conrad Helfrich 33 Lieutenant Admiral Conrad Emil Lambert Helfrich of the Royal Netherlands Navy was a leading Dutch naval figure of World War II. He was born in Semarang.

Frederik van Eeden

Frederik van Eeden 33 Frederik Willem van Eeden was a late 19th-century and early 20th-century Dutch writer and psychiatrist. He was a leading member of the Tachtigers and the Significs Group, and had top billing among the editors of De Nieuwe Gids during its celebrated first few years of publication, starting in 1885.

Frans Adam van der Duyn van Maasdam

Frans Adam van der Duyn van Maasdam 33 Adam Frans Jules Armand, Count van der Duyn, lord of Maasdam and 's-Gravenmoer was Dutch officer and politician. He was part of the Triumvirate of 1813 that invited Prince William Frederick of Orange-Nassau to become Sovereign Prince of the Netherlands. He was born in Deventer, Overijssel.

Joke Smit

Joke Smit 33 Johanna Elisabeth "Joke" Smit was a well-known Dutch feminist and politician in the 1970s.         

Titus Brandsma

Titus Brandsma 33 Titus Brandsma, OCarm was a Dutch Carmelite friar, Catholic priest and professor of philosophy. Brandsma was vehemently opposed to Nazi ideology and spoke out against it many times before the Second World War. He was imprisoned at the Dachau concentration camp, where he was murdered. He was beatified by the Catholic Church in November 1985 as a martyr of the faith and canonized as a saint on 15 May 2022 by Pope Francis.

Queen Máxima of the Netherlands

Queen Máxima of the Netherlands 33 Máxima is Queen of the Netherlands as the wife of King Willem-Alexander.                           

Robert Koch

Robert Koch 32 Heinrich Hermann Robert Koch was a German physician and microbiologist. As the discoverer of the specific causative agents of deadly infectious diseases including tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax, he is regarded as one of the main founders of modern bacteriology. As such he is popularly nicknamed the father of microbiology, and as the father of medical bacteriology. His discovery of the anthrax bacterium in 1876 is considered as the birth of modern bacteriology. Koch used his discoveries to establish that germs "could cause a specific disease" and directly provided proofs for the germ theory of diseases, therefore creating the scientific basis of public health, saving millions of lives. For his life's work Koch is seen as one of the founders of modern medicine.

Betje Wolff

Betje Wolff 32 Elizabeth ("Betje") Wolff-Bekker was a Dutch novelist who, with Agatha "Aagje" Deken, wrote several popular epistolary novels such as Sara Burgerhart (1782) and Willem Levend (1784).

Floris V, Count of Holland

Floris V, Count of Holland 32 Floris V reigned as Count of Holland and Zeeland from 1256 until 1296. His life was documented in detail in the Rijmkroniek by Melis Stoke, his chronicler. He is credited with a mostly peaceful reign, modernizing administration, policies beneficial to trade, generally acting in the interests of his peasants at the expense of nobility, and reclaiming land from the sea. His dramatic murder, said by some to have been arranged by King Edward I of England and Guy, Count of Flanders, made him a hero in Holland.

Amalia of Solms-Braunfels

Amalia of Solms-Braunfels 32 Amalia of Solms-Braunfels was Princess of Orange by marriage to Frederick Henry, Prince of Orange. She acted as the political adviser of her spouse during his reign, and acted as his de facto deputy and regent during his infirmity from 1640 to 1647. She also served as chair of the regency council during the minority of her grandson William III, Prince of Orange from 1650 until 1672.

Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff

Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff 32 Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff Jr. was a Dutch physical chemist. A highly influential theoretical chemist of his time, van 't Hoff was the first winner of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry. His pioneering work helped found the modern theory of chemical affinity, chemical equilibrium, chemical kinetics, and chemical thermodynamics. In his 1874 pamphlet, van 't Hoff formulated the theory of the tetrahedral carbon atom and laid the foundations of stereochemistry. In 1875, he predicted the correct structures of allenes and cumulenes as well as their axial chirality. He is also widely considered one of the founders of physical chemistry as the discipline is known today.

Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit

Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit 32 Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit FRS was a physicist, inventor, and scientific instrument maker, born in Poland to a family of German extraction. Fahrenheit invented thermometers accurate and consistent enough to allow the comparison of temperature measurements between different observers using different instruments. Fahrenheit is also credited with inventing mercury-in-glass thermometers more accurate and superior to spirit-filled thermometers at the time. The popularity of his thermometers led to the widespread adoption of his Fahrenheit scale attached to his instruments.

Hector Berlioz

Hector Berlioz 32 Louis-Hector Berlioz was a French Romantic composer and conductor. His output includes orchestral works such as the Symphonie fantastique and Harold in Italy, choral pieces including the Requiem and L'Enfance du Christ, his three operas Benvenuto Cellini, Les Troyens and Béatrice et Bénédict, and works of hybrid genres such as the "dramatic symphony" Roméo et Juliette and the "dramatic legend" La Damnation de Faust.

Charlotte of Bourbon

Charlotte of Bourbon 32 Charlotte of Bourbon was a Princess consort of Orange as the third spouse of William the Silent, Prince of Orange, the main leader of the Dutch revolt against the Spanish. She was the fourth daughter of Louis III de Bourbon, Duke of Montpensier and Jacqueline de Longwy, Countess of Bar-sur-Seine.

Jan van Brakel

Jan van Brakel 32 Jan van Brakel was a Dutch rear admiral who distinguished himself on many occasions during the Second and Third Anglo-Dutch wars and the Nine Years War.

Anton Mauve

Anton Mauve 32 Anthonij "Anton" Rudolf Mauve was a Dutch realist painter who was a leading member of the Hague School. He signed his paintings 'A. Mauve' or with a monogrammed 'A.M.'. A master colorist, he was a very significant early influence on his cousin-in-law Vincent van Gogh.

Jacob van Maerlant

Jacob van Maerlant 32 Jacob van Maerlant was a Flemish poet of the 13th century and one of the most important Middle Dutch authors during the Middle Ages.

Hannie Schaft

Hannie Schaft 31 Jannetje Johanna (Jo) Schaft was a Dutch resistance fighter during World War II. She became known as "the girl with the red hair". Her secret name in the resistance movement was "Hannie".

Menno van Coehoorn

Menno van Coehoorn 31 Menno, Baron van Coehoorn was a Dutch soldier and engineer, regarded as one of the most significant figures in Dutch military history. In an era when siege warfare dominated military campaigns, he and his French counterpart Vauban were the acknowledged experts in designing, taking and defending fortifications.

Christiaan de Wet

Christiaan de Wet 31 Christiaan Rudolf de Wet was a Boer general, rebel leader and politician.                           

Archimedes

Archimedes 31 Archimedes of Syracuse was an Ancient Greek mathematician, physicist, engineer, astronomer, and inventor from the ancient city of Syracuse in Sicily. Although few details of his life are known, he is regarded as one of the leading scientists in classical antiquity. Considered the greatest mathematician of ancient history, and one of the greatest of all time, Archimedes anticipated modern calculus and analysis by applying the concept of the infinitely small and the method of exhaustion to derive and rigorously prove a range of geometrical theorems. These include the area of a circle, the surface area and volume of a sphere, the area of an ellipse, the area under a parabola, the volume of a segment of a paraboloid of revolution, the volume of a segment of a hyperboloid of revolution, and the area of a spiral.

Martinus Nijhoff

Martinus Nijhoff 31 Martinus Nijhoff was a Dutch poet and essayist. He studied literature in Amsterdam and law in Utrecht. His debut was in 1916 with his volume De wandelaar. He then gradually expanded his reputation by his unique style of poetry: not experimental, like Paul van Ostaijen, yet distinguished by the clarity of his language combined with mystical content. He was a literary craftsman who employed skilfully various verse forms from different literary periods.

Jan Hendrik van Kinsbergen

Jan Hendrik van Kinsbergen 31 Jan Hendrik van Kinsbergen, Count of Doggerbank, was a Dutch naval officer. Having had a good scientific education, Van Kinsbergen was a proponent of fleet modernization and wrote many books about naval organization, discipline and tactics.

Carl Linnaeus

Carl Linnaeus 30 Carl Linnaeus, also known after ennoblement in 1761 as Carl von Linné, was a Swedish biologist and physician who formalised binomial nomenclature, the modern system of naming organisms. He is known as the "father of modern taxonomy". Many of his writings were in Latin; his name is rendered in Latin as Carolus Linnæus and, after his 1761 ennoblement, as Carolus a Linné.

Jacobus Schroeder van der Kolk

Jacobus Schroeder van der Kolk 30 Jacobus Ludovicus Conradus Schroeder van der Kolk was a Dutch anatomist and physiologist and an influential researcher into the causes of epilepsy and mental illness.

Gerard ter Borch

Gerard ter Borch 30 Gerard ter Borch, also known as Gerard Terburg, was a Dutch genre painter who lived in the Dutch Golden Age. He influenced fellow Dutch painters Gabriel Metsu, Gerrit Dou, Eglon van der Neer and Johannes Vermeer. According to Arthur K. Wheelock Jr., Ter Borch "established a new framework for subject matter, taking people into the sanctum of the home", showing the figures' uncertainties and expertly hinting at their inner lives. His influence as a painter, however, was later surpassed by Vermeer.

Godfried Bomans

Godfried Bomans 30 Godfried Jan Arnold Bomans was a Dutch author and television personality. Much of his work remains untranslated into English.

Jacob van Wassenaer Obdam

Jacob van Wassenaer Obdam 30 Jacob, Banner Lord of Wassenaer, Lord Obdam, Hensbroek, Spanbroek, Opmeer, Zuidwijk and Kernhem was a Dutch nobleman who became lieutenant admiral, and supreme commander of the navy of the Dutch Republic. The name Obdam was then also spelled as Opdam. British contemporaneous sources typically refer to him as Admiral Opdam or Lord Obdam because it was not until 1657 that he bought the Wassenaar Estate from relatives and thus acquired its title. Modern Dutch sources sometimes less correctly insert a second "van" between "Wassenaer" and "Obdam" or use the modern spelling "Wassenaar".

Charles Ruijs de Beerenbrouck

Charles Ruijs de Beerenbrouck 29 Jonkheer Charles Joseph Marie Ruijs de Beerenbrouck was a Dutch politician of the Roman Catholic State Party (RKSP). He served as Prime Minister of the Netherlands from 9 September 1918 until 4 August 1925 and from 10 August 1929 until 26 May 1933.

Jacques Perk

Jacques Perk 29 Jacques Fabrice Herman Perk was an important Dutch poet of the late 19th century. His crown of sonnets Mathilde, published by Willem Kloos, was the first important announcement of a renewal in Dutch poetry brought about by artists that came to be known as the Tachtigers. Perk's lyrical poems about nature, especially his sonnets, were influenced by Percy Bysshe Shelley, and were of great importance to Dutch poetry.

Piet Cronjé

Piet Cronjé 29 Pieter Arnoldus "Piet" Cronjé was a South African Boer general during the Anglo-Boer Wars of 1880–1881 and 1899–1902.

Walraven van Hall

Walraven van Hall 29 Walraven "Wally" van Hall was a Dutch banker and resistance leader during the occupation of the Netherlands in World War II. He founded the bank of the Resistance, which was used to distribute funds to victims of the Nazi occupation of the Netherlands and fund the Dutch resistance. Van Hall was executed by the German occupier in Haarlem shortly before the end of the war and buried at the Erebegraafplaats Bloemendaal.

Jacobus Revius

Jacobus Revius 29 Jacobus Revius was a Dutch poet, Calvinist theologian and church historian. His most renowned collection of poems, the Over-ysselsche Sangen en Dichten (1630), forms a high point of Dutch baroque. According to Pieter Geyl,…the real spirit of Calvinism, in its unimpeachable austerity, in its ferocity as well as in its self-abnegation, was personified in Revius […]

J. Slauerhoff

J. Slauerhoff 29 Jan Jacob Slauerhoff, who published as J. Slauerhoff, was a Dutch poet and novelist. He is considered one of the most important Dutch language writers.

Anthonie Heinsius

Anthonie Heinsius 29 Anthonie Heinsius was a Dutch statesman who served as Grand Pensionary of Holland from 1689 to his death in 1720. Heinsius was a tough negotiator and one of the greatest and most obstinate opponents of the expansionist policies of Louis XIV's France. He was one of the driving forces behind the anti-France coalitions of the Nine Years' War (1688–97) and the War of the Spanish Succession (1701–14).

Jan Duiker

Jan Duiker 29 Jan Duiker was a Dutch architect. Partnership with Bernard Bijvoet from 1917 until 1935. For the commission of the Zonnestraal project the architects were recommended by Hendrik Berlage. Bijvoet's first wife Jacoba Ezerman was closely related to the'grand man' of Zonnestraal, Jan van Zutphen. Bijvoet leftthe Netherlands in 1925, where after some time, he started to work in Paris with Pierre Chareau for projects such as Maison de Verre et al. Jan Duiker is one of the most important representatives of the Modern movement,'Het Nieuwe Bouwen'. He is buried at Zorgvlied cemetery.

Arthur van Schendel

Arthur van Schendel 29 Arthur van Schendel was a Dutch writer of novels and short stories. One of his best known works is Het fregatschip Johanna Maria. His son Arthur F.E. van Schendel (1910–1979) was General Director of the Rijksmuseum Amsterdam from 1959–1975.

Johannes Bosboom

Johannes Bosboom 29 Johannes Bosboom was a Dutch painter and watercolorist of the Hague School, known especially for his paintings of church interiors.

Olivier van Noort

Olivier van Noort 29 Olivier van Noort was a Dutch merchant captain and pirate and the first Dutchman to circumnavigate the world.

Hercules

Hercules 28 Hercules is the Roman equivalent of the Greek divine hero Heracles, son of Jupiter and the mortal Alcmena. In classical mythology, Hercules is famous for his strength and for his numerous far-ranging adventures.

Saint Nicholas

Saint Nicholas 28 Saint Nicholas of Myra, also known as Nicholas of Bari, was an early Christian bishop of Greek descent from the maritime city of Patara in Anatolia during the time of the Roman Empire. Because of the many miracles attributed to his intercession, he is also known as Nicholas the Wonderworker. Saint Nicholas is the patron saint of sailors, merchants, archers, repentant thieves, children, brewers, pawnbrokers, toymakers, unmarried people, and students in various cities and countries around Europe. His reputation evolved among the pious, as was common for early Christian saints, and his legendary habit of secret gift-giving gave rise to the traditional model of Santa Claus through Sinterklaas.

Nicolaus Copernicus

Nicolaus Copernicus 28 Nicolaus Copernicus was a Renaissance polymath, active as a mathematician, astronomer, and Catholic canon, who formulated a model of the universe that placed the Sun rather than Earth at its center. In all likelihood, Copernicus developed his model independently of Aristarchus of Samos, an ancient Greek astronomer who had formulated such a model some eighteen centuries earlier.

Annie M.G. Schmidt

Annie M.G. Schmidt 28 Anna Maria Geertruida "Annie" Schmidt was a Dutch writer. She is called the mother of the Dutch theatrical song, and the queen of Dutch children's literature, praised for her "delicious Dutch idiom," and considered one of the greatest Dutch writers. An ultimate honour was extended to her posthumously, in 2007, when a group of Dutch historians compiled the "Canon of the Netherlands" and included Schmidt, alongside national icons such as Vincent van Gogh and Anne Frank.

Anne Zernike

Anne Zernike 28 Anne Zernike (1887–1972) was a Dutch, liberal theologian, who was the first ordained woman minister of the Netherlands. Though she began her career with the Mennonites, which was the only congregation that allowed female ministers at the time, the majority of her career was spent in the Dutch Protestant Association (NPB).

Saint Barbara

Saint Barbara 28 Saint Barbara, known in the Eastern Orthodox Church as the Great Martyr Barbara, was an early Christian Greek saint and martyr.

César Franck

César Franck 28 César-Auguste-Jean-Guillaume-Hubert Franck was a French Romantic composer, pianist, organist, and music teacher born in present-day Belgium.

Maria Theresa

Maria Theresa 27 Maria Theresa was ruler of the Habsburg dominions from 1740 until her death in 1780, and the only woman to hold the position suo jure. She was the sovereign of Austria, Hungary, Croatia, Bohemia, Transylvania, Mantua, Milan, Galicia and Lodomeria, the Austrian Netherlands, and Parma. By marriage, she was Duchess of Lorraine, Grand Duchess of Tuscany, and Holy Roman Empress.

Aarnoud van Heemstra

Aarnoud van Heemstra 27 Aarnoud Jan Anne Aleid, Baron van Heemstra was a Dutch nobleman, jurist and politician. He served as mayor of Arnhem between 1910 and 1920, and Governor-General of Suriname from 1921 until 1928. Van Heemstra was the grandfather of Audrey Hepburn.

Jan van der Heyden

Jan van der Heyden 27 Jan van der Heyden was a Dutch Baroque-era painter, glass painter, draughtsman and printmaker. Van der Heyden was one of the first Dutch painters to specialize in townscapes and became one of the leading architectural painters of the Dutch Golden Age. He painted a number of still lifes in the beginning and at the end of his career.

Adolf of Nassau (1540–1568)

Adolf of Nassau (1540–1568) 27 Adolf of Nassau was a count of Nassau, also known as Adolphus of Nassau. He was the fourth son and sixth child of William I, Count of Nassau-Siegen and Juliana of Stolberg. He was the second youngest brother of William the Silent.

Van Polanen family

Van Polanen family 27 Van Polanen was a noble family that played an important role in the Netherlands during the Middle Ages. The impact of the family transcended it's dissolution in the 15th century as the House of Nassau gained the vast properties of the House of Polanen in 1403 through marriage. The titles such as baron of Breda and lord of Polanen remain amongst the titles of the monarch of the Netherlands until today.

Pieter Cornelis Boutens

Pieter Cornelis Boutens 27 Pieter Cornelis Boutens was a Dutch poet, classicist, and mystic.                                   

Lord Kelvin

Lord Kelvin 27 William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin, was a British mathematician, mathematical physicist and engineer born in Belfast. He was the professor of Natural Philosophy at the University of Glasgow for 53 years, where he undertook significant research and mathematical analysis of electricity, the formulation of the first and second laws of thermodynamics, and contributed significantly to unifying physics, which was then in its infancy of development as an emerging academic discipline. He received the Royal Society's Copley Medal in 1883 and served as its president from 1890 to 1895. In 1892, he became the first British scientist to be elevated to the House of Lords.

Anna Bijns

Anna Bijns 27 Anna Bijns or Anna Byns was a Flemish poet who wrote in the Dutch language. She was an educator and the administrator of a primary school in Antwerp until the age of 80. Even while as a woman she was denied membership of a local chamber of rhetoric, she was able to publish her works and find widespread recognition for her literary talent among her contemporaries. She is the first author in Dutch-language literature who mainly owed her success to the recently invented printing press. Her works were reprinted multiple times during her lifetime. In the religious conflicts of her time she chose the side of the Catholic Church and expressed in her poems sharp criticism of the teachings of Martin Luther. She is also known for her verses criticising the institution of marriage.

Jacob Roggeveen

Jacob Roggeveen 26 Jacob Roggeveen was a Dutch explorer who was sent to find Terra Australis and Davis Land, but instead found Easter Island. Jacob Roggeveen also found Bora Bora and Maupiti of the Society Islands, as well as Samoa. He planned the expedition along with his brother Jan Roggeveen, who stayed in the Netherlands.

Henry Hudson

Henry Hudson 26 Henry Hudson was an English sea explorer and navigator during the early 17th century, best known for his explorations of present-day Canada and parts of the Northeastern United States.

Willem Einthoven

Willem Einthoven 26 Willem Einthoven was a Dutch medical doctor and physiologist. He invented the first practical electrocardiograph in 1895 and received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1924 for it.

Peter van Anrooy

Peter van Anrooy 26 Peter Gijsbert van Anrooij was a Dutch composer and conductor of classical music.                   

Albert Verwey

Albert Verwey 26 Albert Verwey was a Dutch poet belonging to the "Movement of Eighty". As a translator, staffer, and literary historian he played an important role in the literary life of The Netherlands in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

Ernest Casimir I, Count of Nassau-Dietz

Ernest Casimir I, Count of Nassau-Dietz 26 Ernest Casimir I was a Count of Nassau-Dietz and Stadtholder of Friesland, Groningen and Drenthe.   

Alexander Fleming

Alexander Fleming 26 Sir Alexander Fleming was a Scottish physician and microbiologist, best known for discovering the world's first broadly effective antibiotic substance, which he named penicillin. His discovery in 1928 of what was later named benzylpenicillin from the mould Penicillium rubens has been described as the "single greatest victory ever achieved over disease". For this discovery, he shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1945 with Howard Florey and Ernst Boris Chain.

Carel Fabritius

Carel Fabritius 26 Carel Pietersz. Fabritius was a Dutch painter. He was a pupil of Rembrandt and worked in his studio in Amsterdam. Fabritius, who was a member of the Delft School, developed his own artistic style and experimented with perspective and lighting. Among his works are A View of Delft, The Goldfinch (1654), and The Sentry (1654).

Suze Groeneweg

Suze Groeneweg 26 Suzanna "Suze" Groeneweg was a Dutch politician. She was the first woman to be elected into the Dutch parliament.

Bernard Zweers

Bernard Zweers 26 Bernard Zweers was a Dutch composer and music teacher.                                             

Joop den Uyl

Joop den Uyl 26 Johannes Marten den Uijl, better known as Joop den Uyl was a Dutch politician and economist who served as Prime Minister of the Netherlands from 1973 to 1977. He was a member of the Labour Party (PvdA).

Servatius of Tongeren

Servatius of Tongeren 25 Saint Servatius was bishop of Tongeren. Servatius is patron saint of the city of Maastricht and the towns of Schijndel and Grimbergen. He is one of the Ice Saints. His feast day is May 13.

Jean Sibelius

Jean Sibelius 25 Jean Sibelius was a Finnish composer of the late Romantic and early-modern periods. He is widely regarded as his country's greatest composer, and his music is often credited with having helped Finland develop a stronger national identity when his country was struggling from several attempts at Russification in the late 19th century.

John of Arkel

John of Arkel 25 John of Arkel or Jan van Arkel served as Prince and Bishop of Liège from 1364 until his death in 1378. He had previously served as Bishop of Utrecht from 1342 to 1364.

Johannes Post

Johannes Post 25 Johannes Post was a Dutch resistance leader during the Nazi occupation of the Netherlands. He helped lead part of the Landelijke Knokploegen and hid Jews in his village, Nieuwlande. Post was recognized as Righteous Among the Nations in 1965.

Anna Louisa Geertruida Bosboom-Toussaint

Anna Louisa Geertruida Bosboom-Toussaint 25 Anna Louisa Geertruida Bosboom-Toussaint was a Dutch novelist.                                     

H. P. Berlage

H. P. Berlage 25 Hendrik Petrus Berlage was a Dutch architect and designer. He is considered one of the fathers of the architecture of the Amsterdam School.

Nelson Mandela

Nelson Mandela 25 Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela was a South African anti-apartheid activist, politician, and statesman who served as the first president of South Africa from 1994 to 1999. He was the country's first black head of state and the first elected in a fully representative democratic election. His government focused on dismantling the legacy of apartheid by fostering racial reconciliation. Ideologically an African nationalist and socialist, he served as the president of the African National Congress (ANC) party from 1991 to 1997.

Mina Kruseman

Mina Kruseman 25 Wilhelmina Jacoba Pauline Rudolphine "Mina" Kruseman was a 19th-century Dutch feminist, actrice and author who used to call herself Oristorio di Frama.

André Henri Constant van Hasselt

André Henri Constant van Hasselt 25 André Henri Constant van Hasselt was a Dutch-Belgian writer and poet who wrote mainly in French.   

Galileo Galilei

Galileo Galilei 25 Galileo di Vincenzo Bonaiuti de' Galilei, commonly referred to as Galileo Galilei or simply Galileo, was an Italian astronomer, physicist and engineer, sometimes described as a polymath. He was born in the city of Pisa, then part of the Duchy of Florence. Galileo has been called the father of observational astronomy, modern-era classical physics, the scientific method, and modern science.

Gerlacus van den Elsen

Gerlacus van den Elsen 24 Gerlacus van den Elsen, O. Praem. was een Nederlandse pater van de Abdij van Berne te Heeswijk en is de geschiedenis ingegaan als de 'Boerenapostel'.

Bartholomeus van der Helst

Bartholomeus van der Helst 24 Bartholomeus van der Helst was a Dutch painter. Considered to be one of the leading portrait painters of the Dutch Golden Age, his elegant portraits gained him the patronage of Amsterdam's elite as well as the Stadtholder's circle. Besides portraits, van der Helst painted a few genre pictures as well as some biblical scenes and mythological subjects.

Alberdingk

Alberdingk 24 Alberdingk is the name of a Dutch patrician family.                                                 

Aert Jansse van Nes

Aert Jansse van Nes 24 Aert Jansse van Nes was a 17th-century Dutch naval commander, notable for commanding the second squadron in the raid on the Medway in 1667.

Benjamin Franklin

Benjamin Franklin 24 Benjamin Franklin was an American polymath, a leading writer, scientist, inventor, statesman, diplomat, printer, publisher, and political philosopher. Among the most influential intellectuals of his time, Franklin was one of the Founding Fathers of the United States; a drafter and signer of the Declaration of Independence; and the first postmaster general.

Bernard Montgomery

Bernard Montgomery 24 Field Marshal Bernard Law Montgomery, 1st Viscount Montgomery of Alamein,, nicknamed "Monty", was a senior British Army officer who served in the First World War, the Irish War of Independence and the Second World War.

Willem Marinus Dudok

Willem Marinus Dudok 24 Willem Marinus Dudok was a Dutch modernist architect. He was born in Amsterdam. He became City Architect for the town of Hilversum in 1928 where he was best known for the brick Hilversum Town Hall, completed in 1931. Not only did he design the building, but also the interior including the carpets, furniture and even the mayor's meeting hammer. He also designed and built about 75 houses, public buildings and entire neighborhoods.

Robert Schumann

Robert Schumann 24 Robert Schumann was a German composer, pianist, and influential music critic. He is widely regarded as one of the greatest composers of the Romantic era. Schumann left the study of law, intending to pursue a career as a virtuoso pianist. His teacher, Friedrich Wieck, a German pianist, had assured him that he could become the finest pianist in Europe, but a hand injury ended this dream. Schumann then focused his musical energies on composing.

Princess Ariane of the Netherlands

Princess Ariane of the Netherlands 24 Princess Ariane of the Netherlands, Princess of Orange-Nassau is the third and youngest daughter of King Willem-Alexander and Queen Máxima. Princess Ariane is a member of the Dutch Royal House and currently third in the line of succession to the Dutch throne.

Ernest Douwes Dekker

Ernest Douwes Dekker 24 Ernest François Eugène Douwes Dekker also known as Setyabudi or Setiabudi was an Indonesian-Dutch nationalist and politician of Indo descent. He was related to the famous Dutch anti-colonialism writer Multatuli, whose real name was Eduard Douwes Dekker. In his youth, he fought in the Second Boer War in South Africa on the Boer side. His thoughts were highly influential in the early years of the Indonesian freedom movement.

Hendrik Marsman

Hendrik Marsman 24 Hendrik Marsman was a Dutch poet and writer. He died while escaping to Great Britain, when the ship he was sailing on, the S.S. Berenice, either suffered a fatal engine-room explosion, or was torpedoed by a German submarine which mistook Berenice for another vessel.

Joost Banckert

Joost Banckert 24 Joost van Trappen Banckert was a Dutch vice admiral who spent most of his career in the service of the admiralty of Zeeland.

Anna of Saxony

Anna of Saxony 24 Anna of Saxony was the heiress of Maurice, Elector of Saxony, and Agnes, eldest daughter of Philip I, Landgrave of Hesse. Maurice's only son, Albert, died in infancy. Anna was the second wife of William the Silent.

Wilhelmina Drucker

Wilhelmina Drucker 24 Wilhelmina Drucker was a Dutch politician and writer. One of the first Dutch feminists, she was also known under her pseudonyms Gipsy, Gitano, and E. Prezcier.

Saint Peter

Saint Peter 24 Saint Peter, also known as Peter the Apostle, Simon Peter, Simeon, Simon, or Cephas, was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus Christ and one of the first leaders of the early Christian Church. He appears repeatedly and prominently in all four New Testament gospels as well as the Acts of the Apostles. Catholic tradition accredits Peter as the first bishop of Rome‍—‌or pope‍—‌and also as the first bishop of Antioch.

Christopher Columbus

Christopher Columbus 23 Christopher Columbus was an Italian explorer and navigator from the Republic of Genoa who completed four Spanish-based voyages across the Atlantic Ocean sponsored by the Catholic Monarchs, opening the way for the widespread European exploration and European colonization of the Americas. His expeditions were the first known European contact with the Caribbean and Central and South America.

Mahatma Gandhi

Mahatma Gandhi 23 Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was an Indian lawyer, anti-colonial nationalist and political ethicist who employed nonviolent resistance to lead the successful campaign for India's independence from British rule. He inspired movements for civil rights and freedom across the world. The honorific Mahātmā, first applied to him in South Africa in 1914, is now used throughout the world.

Anthony van Dyck

Anthony van Dyck 23 Sir Anthony van Dyck was a Flemish Baroque artist who became the leading court painter in England after success in the Spanish Netherlands and Italy.

Jacqueline, Countess of Hainaut

Jacqueline, Countess of Hainaut 23 Jacqueline, of the House of Wittelsbach, was a noblewoman who ruled the counties of Holland, Zeeland and Hainaut in the Low Countries from 1417 to 1433. She was also Dauphine of France for a short time between 1415 and 1417 and Duchess of Gloucester in the 1420s, if her marriage to Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester, is accepted as valid.

Jan Ligthart

Jan Ligthart 23 Jan Ligthart was a Dutch teacher and philosopher. He became known for his innovative educational methods and the modernisation of the Dutch education system. He wrote many articles and books about education.

Isabelle de Charrière

Isabelle de Charrière 23 Isabelle de Charrière, known as Belle van Zuylen in the Netherlands, née Isabella Agneta Elisabeth van Tuyll van Serooskerken, and [Madame] Isabelle de Charrière elsewhere, was a Dutch and Swiss writer of the Enlightenment who lived the latter half of her life in Colombier, Neuchâtel. She is now best known for her letters and novels, although she also wrote pamphlets, music and plays. She took a keen interest in the society and politics of her age, and her work around the time of the French Revolution is regarded as being of particular interest.

Francis of Assisi

Francis of Assisi 23 Giovanni di Pietro di Bernardone, known as Francis of Assisi, was an Italian mystic, poet and Catholic friar who founded the religious order of the Franciscans. He was inspired to lead a Christian life of poverty as a beggar and itinerant preacher. One of the most venerated figures in Christianity, Francis was canonized by Pope Gregory IX on 16 July 1228. He is commonly portrayed wearing a brown habit with a rope tied around his waist, featuring three knots that symbolize the three Franciscan vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience.

James the Great

James the Great 22 James the Great was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus. According to the New Testament, he was the second of the apostles to die, and the first to be martyred. Saint James is the patron saint of Spain and, according to tradition, his remains are held in Santiago de Compostela in Galicia.

Saint Sebastian

Saint Sebastian 22 Sebastian was an early Christian saint and martyr. According to traditional belief, he was killed during the Diocletianic Persecution of Christians. He was initially tied to a post or tree and shot with arrows, though this did not kill him. He was, according to tradition, rescued and healed by Irene of Rome, which became a popular subject in 17th-century painting. In all versions of the story, shortly after his recovery he went to Diocletian to warn him about his sins, and as a result was clubbed to death. He is venerated in the Catholic Church and the Orthodox Church.

Nicolaes Maes

Nicolaes Maes 22 Nicolaes Maes was a Dutch painter known for his genre scenes, portraits, religious compositions and the occasional still life. A pupil of Rembrandt in Amsterdam, he returned to work in his native city of Dordrecht for 20 years. In the latter part of his career he returned to Amsterdam where he became the leading portrait painter of his time. Maes contributed to the development of genre painting in the Netherlands and was the most prominent portrait painter working in Amsterdam in the final three decades of the 17th century.

Aeneas Mackay Jr.

Aeneas Mackay Jr. 22 Æneas, Baron Mackay was a Dutch Anti-Revolutionary politician who served as Prime Minister of the Netherlands from 1888 to 1891. Born into a noble family from Gelderland, he studied law in Utrecht and worked as lawyer and a judge. He was elected into the House of Representatives in 1876, and retained his seat for twelve years before his premiership. In his cabinet, he served as minister of the Interior and minister of Colonial Affairs. After another thirteen years in the House, he became a member of the Council of State, receiving the honorary title Minister of State.

Rhijnvis Feith

Rhijnvis Feith 22 Jhr. Rhijnvis Feith was a Dutch poet.                                                               

Annie Romein-Verschoor

Annie Romein-Verschoor 22 Anna Helena Margaretha (Annie) Romein-Verschoor was a Dutch writer and historian. She received the Constantijn Huygens Prize in 1970.

John Dalton

John Dalton 22 John Dalton was an English chemist, physicist and meteorologist. He introduced the atomic theory into chemistry. He also researched colour blindness; as a result, the umbrella term for red-green congenital colour blindness disorders is Daltonism in several languages.

Antoon Coolen

Antoon Coolen 22 Antoon Coolen was a well-known Dutch writer of novels. He wrote the Boekenweekgeschenk for the Boekenweek of 1947 and a novel that was part of the Boekenweekgeschenk in 1939.

Gaspar Fagel

Gaspar Fagel 22 Gaspar Fagel was a Dutch politician, jurist, and diplomat who authored correspondence from and on behalf of William III, Prince of Orange, during the English Revolution of 1688.

Louis Botha

Louis Botha 22 Louis Botha was a South African politician who was the first prime minister of the Union of South Africa – the forerunner of the modern South African state. A Boer war veteran during the Second Boer War, he eventually fought to have South Africa become a British Dominion.

Gerrit van der Veen

Gerrit van der Veen 21 Gerrit van der Veen was a Dutch sculptor. He was a member of the Dutch underground, which resisted the German occupation of Amsterdam during World War II. The historian Robert-Jan van Pelt wrote: In 1940, after the German occupation, van der Veen was one of the few who refused to sign the so-called “Arierverklaring,” the Declaration of Aryan Ancestry. In the years that followed, he tried to help Jews both in practical and symbolic ways. Together with the musician Jan van Gilse and the artist, art historian, and critic Willem Arondeus, van der Veen established the underground organization De Vrije Kunstenaar. Van der Veen and the other artists published a newsletter calling for resistance against the occupation. When the Germans introduced identity documents (Persoonsbewijzen) that distinguished between Jews and non-Jews, van der Veen, Arondeus and the printer Frans Duwaer produced some 80,000 false identity papers.

Pieter Caland

Pieter Caland 21 Pieter Caland was a Dutch civil engineer in the service of the Rijkswaterstaat. He devised the plan for the Nieuwe Waterweg and implemented it from 1864 to 1872.

Willem Albert Scholten

Willem Albert Scholten 21 Willem Albert Scholten was a Dutch industrialist and landowner. He established the potato starch factory Eureka in Foxhol which laid the foundation of an industrial empire. Scholten would own 24 factories in Europe. He owned large plots of land in Drenthe for peat extraction, and was one of the founders of what would become the Holland America Line. In Groningen, Scholten built the Scholtenhuis, a large residential house on the Grote Markt, the main square, opposite the City Hall.

Gerard van Swieten

Gerard van Swieten 21 Gerard van Swieten was a Dutch physician who from 1745 was the personal physician of the Holy Roman Empress Maria Theresa and transformed the Austrian health service and medical university education. He was the father of Gottfried van Swieten, patron of Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven.

Niccolò Paganini

Niccolò Paganini 21 Niccolò Paganini was an Italian violinist and composer. He was the most celebrated violin virtuoso of his time, and left his mark as one of the pillars of modern violin technique. His 24 Caprices for Solo Violin Op. 1 are among the best known of his compositions and have served as an inspiration for many prominent composers.

William Bentinck, 1st Earl of Portland

William Bentinck, 1st Earl of Portland 20 William Bentinck, 1st Earl of Portland, was a Dutch-born English nobleman who became in an early stage the favourite of William, Prince of Orange, Stadtholder in the Netherlands, and future King of England. He was reportedly steady, sensible, modest and usually moderate. The friendship and cooperation stopped in 1699.

Jan van Scorel

Jan van Scorel 20 Jan van Scorel was a Dutch painter, who played a leading role in introducing aspects of Italian Renaissance painting into Dutch and Flemish Renaissance painting. He was one of the early painters of the Romanist style who had spent a number of years in Italy, where he thoroughly absorbed the Italian style of painting. His trip to Italy coincided with the brief reign of the only Dutch pope in history, Adrian VI in 1522–23. The pope made him a court painter and superintendent of his collection of antiquities. His stay in Italy lasted from 1518 to 1524 and he also visited Nuremberg, Venice and Jerusalem. Venetian art had an important impact on the development of his style.

Albert I, Duke of Bavaria

Albert I, Duke of Bavaria 20 Albert I, Duke of Lower Bavaria, was a feudal ruler of the counties of Holland, Hainaut, and Zeeland in the Low Countries. Additionally, he held a portion of the Bavarian province of Straubing, his Bavarian ducal line's appanage and seat, Lower Bavaria.

Felix Timmermans

Felix Timmermans 20 Leopold Maximiliaan Felix Timmermans is a much translated author from Flanders. He was nominated for the Nobel Prize in Literature three times.

Louis Braille

Louis Braille 20 Louis Braille was a French educator and the inventor of a reading and writing system named after him, braille, intended for use by visually impaired people. His system is used worldwide and remains virtually unchanged to this day.

Rudolf Diesel

Rudolf Diesel 20 Rudolf Christian Karl Diesel was a German inventor and mechanical engineer who is famous for having invented the Diesel engine, which burns Diesel fuel; both are named after him.

Menno ter Braak

Menno ter Braak 20 Menno ter Braak was a Dutch modernist writer, critic, essayist, and journalist.                     

Haya van Someren

Haya van Someren 20 Haya Victoria van Someren-Downer was a Dutch politician of the People's Party for Freedom and Democracy (VVD) and journalist.

Maria Montessori

Maria Montessori 20 Maria Tecla Artemisia Montessori was an Italian physician and educator best known for her philosophy of education and her writing on scientific pedagogy. At an early age, Montessori enrolled in classes at an all-boys technical school, with hopes of becoming an engineer. She soon had a change of heart and began medical school at the Sapienza University of Rome, becoming one of the first women to attend medical school in Italy; she graduated with honors in 1896. Her educational method is in use today in many public and private schools globally.

Ferdinand Domela Nieuwenhuis

Ferdinand Domela Nieuwenhuis 20 Ferdinand Jacobus Domela Nieuwenhuis was a Dutch socialist politician and later a social anarchist and anti-militarist. He was a Lutheran preacher who, after he lost his faith, started a political fight for workers. He was a founder of the Dutch socialist movement and the first socialist in the Dutch parliament.

Richard Hol

Richard Hol 20 Richard Hol was a Dutch composer and conductor, based for most of his career at Utrecht. His conservative music showed the influence of Ludwig van Beethoven, Felix Mendelssohn, and Robert Schumann and the Leipzig school, though as a conductor he offered Dutch audiences the more revolutionary music of Hector Berlioz and Richard Wagner.

William III of the Netherlands

William III of the Netherlands 20 William III was King of the Netherlands and Grand Duke of Luxembourg from 1849 until his death in 1890. He was also the Duke of Limburg from 1849 until the abolition of the duchy in 1866.

Heinrich von Veldeke

Heinrich von Veldeke 20 Heinrich von Veldeke is the first writer in the Low Countries known by name who wrote in a European language other than Latin. He was born in Veldeke, which was a hamlet of Spalbeek, part of the municipality of Hasselt, Limburg, Belgium, since 1977. The "Vel(de)kermolen", a water mill on the Demer River, is the only remainder of the hamlet. In Limburg, he is celebrated as a writer of Old Limburgish.

Johanna Naber

Johanna Naber 19 Johanna Wilhelmina Antoinette Naber was a Dutch feminist, historian and author during the first feminist wave. She was one of the three founders of the International Archives for the Women's Movement (1935), now known as Atria Institute on gender equality and women's history, and was herself a prolific author of historical texts about influential women and the women's movement.

Wilhelmus Marinus Bekkers

Wilhelmus Marinus Bekkers 19 Wilhelmus Marinus Bekkers was een Nederlands rooms-katholiek bisschop. Bekkers werd in 1957 coadjutor en titulair-bisschop van Thasos. Hij was bisschop van het bisdom 's-Hertogenbosch van 27 juni 1960 tot 9 mei 1966.

Anton van Duinkerken

Anton van Duinkerken 19 Wilhelmus Johannes Maria Antonius Asselbergs, better known under his pseudonym Anton van Duinkerken, was a Dutch poet, essayist, and academic.

Johannes Zwijsen

Johannes Zwijsen 19 Johannes Zwijsen was a Dutch Catholic prelate who served as the first Archbishop of Utrecht after the reestablishment of the episcopal hierarchy in the Netherlands in 1853.

Pieter Langendijk

Pieter Langendijk 19 Pieter Langendijk was a damask weaver, city artist, dramatist, and poet.                           

Willem Bontekoe

Willem Bontekoe 19 Willem Ysbrandtszoon Bontekoe was a skipper in the Dutch East India Company (VOC), who made only one voyage for the company (1618–1625). He became widely known because of the journal of his adventures that was published in 1646 under the title Journael ofte gedenckwaerdige beschrijvinge van de Oost-Indische reyse van Willem Ysbrantsz. Bontekoe van Hoorn, begrijpende veel wonderlijcke en gevaerlijcke saecken hem daer in wedervaren.

Louis Bouwmeester

Louis Bouwmeester 19 Louis Frederik Johannes Bouwmeester was a Dutch actor best known for his Shakespeare interpretations. He is also known as Louis Bouwmeester Sr. for distinction from his son.

Duke Ellington

Duke Ellington 19 Edward Kennedy "Duke" Ellington was an American jazz pianist, composer, and leader of his eponymous jazz orchestra from 1923 through the rest of his life.

Herman Bernard Wiardi Beckman

Herman Bernard Wiardi Beckman 19 Herman Bernard Wiardi Beckman, bijgenaamd Stuuf, was een Nederlands politicus en een Nederlandse verzetsstrijder tijdens de Tweede Wereldoorlog. Wiardi Beckman was namens de Sociaal-Democratische Arbeiderspartij (SDAP) lid van de Eerste Kamer.

Catharina van Rennes

Catharina van Rennes 19 Catharina van Rennes was a Dutch music educator, soprano singer and composer.                       

Jacob van Heemskerck

Jacob van Heemskerck 19 Jacob van Heemskerck was a Dutch explorer and naval admiral. He is generally known for his victory over the Spanish at the Battle of Gibraltar, where he ultimately lost his life.

Jan Pieterszoon Coen

Jan Pieterszoon Coen 18 Jan Pieterszoon Coen was an officer of the Dutch East India Company (VOC) in the early 17th century, holding two terms as governor-general of the Dutch East Indies. He was the founder of Batavia, capital of the Dutch East Indies. Renowned for providing the impulse that set the VOC on the path to dominance in the Dutch East Indies, he was long considered a national hero in the Netherlands. Since the 19th century, his legacy has become controversial due to the brutal violence he employed in order to secure a trade monopoly on nutmeg, mace and clove. During the last stage of the Dutch conquest of the Banda Islands, Coen depopulated the islands to such a degree he massacred about 14,400 people in Banda, about 800 of whom were transferred to Batavia.

Saint Lawrence

Saint Lawrence 18 Saint Lawrence or Laurence was one of the seven deacons of the city of Rome under Pope Sixtus II who were martyred in the persecution of the Christians that the Roman Emperor Valerian ordered in 258.

Johannes Verhulst

Johannes Verhulst 18 Johannes Josephus Hermanus Verhulst was a Dutch composer and conductor. As a composer mainly of songs and as administrator of Dutch musical life, his influence during his lifetime was considerable.

Gerardus Mercator

Gerardus Mercator 18 Gerardus Mercator was a Flemish geographer, cosmographer and cartographer. He is most renowned for creating the 1569 world map based on a new projection which represented sailing courses of constant bearing as straight lines—an innovation that is still employed in nautical charts.

Jan Campert

Jan Campert 18 Jan Remco Theodoor Campert was a Dutch journalist, theater critic and writer who lived in Amsterdam. During the German occupation of the Netherlands in World War II Campert was arrested for aiding Jews. He was held in the Neuengamme concentration camp, where he died.

Peter Stuyvesant

Peter Stuyvesant 18 Peter Stuyvesant was a Dutch colonial officer who served as the last Dutch director-general of the colony of New Netherland from 1647 until it was ceded provisionally to the English in 1664, after which it was split into New York and New Jersey with lesser territory becoming parts of other colonies, and later, states. He was a major figure in the early history of New York City and his name has been given to various landmarks and points of interest throughout the city.

Florence Nightingale

Florence Nightingale 18 Florence Nightingale was an English social reformer, statistician and the founder of modern nursing. Nightingale came to prominence while serving as a manager and trainer of nurses during the Crimean War, in which she organised care for wounded soldiers at Constantinople. She significantly reduced death rates by improving hygiene and living standards. Nightingale gave nursing a favourable reputation and became an icon of Victorian culture, especially in the persona of "The Lady with the Lamp" making rounds of wounded soldiers at night.

Jan Tinbergen

Jan Tinbergen 18 Jan Tinbergen was a Dutch economist who was awarded the first Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences in 1969, which he shared with Ragnar Frisch for having developed and applied dynamic models for the analysis of economic processes. He is widely considered to be one of the most influential economists of the 20th century and one of the founding fathers of econometrics.

Judith Leyster

Judith Leyster 18 Judith Jans Leyster was a Dutch Golden Age painter of genre works, portraits, and still lifes. Her work was highly regarded by her contemporaries, but largely forgotten after her death. Her entire oeuvre came to be attributed to Frans Hals or to her husband, Jan Miense Molenaer. In 1893, she was rediscovered and scholars began to attribute her works correctly.

Theo Dobbe

Theo Dobbe 18 Theodorus (Theo) Dobbe was een leidende Nederlandse verzetsstrijder tijdens de Tweede Wereldoorlog. In 1943 werd hij hoofd van de zogenaamde 'opruimingsdienst' van de Landelijke Knokploegen, KPO.

Karel de Bazel

Karel de Bazel 18 Karel Petrus Cornelis de Bazel was a modern Dutch architect, engraver, draftsman, furniture designer, carpet designer, glass artist and bookbinding designer. He was the teacher of Adriaan Frederik van der Weij and the first chairman of the Bond van Nederlandse Architecten, beginning in 1909.

Gerrit Achterberg

Gerrit Achterberg 18 Gerrit Achterberg was a Dutch poet. His early poetry concerned a desire to be united with a beloved in death.

Melis Stoke

Melis Stoke 18 Melis Stoke was a Dutch writer who lived in the 13th century.                                       

Marie Koenen

Marie Koenen 17 Maria Hubertina Jacoba Isabella Koenen was een Nederlands romanschrijfster.                         

Willem Hendrik Keesom

Willem Hendrik Keesom 17 Willem Hendrik Keesom was a Dutch physicist who, in 1926, invented a method to freeze liquid helium. He also developed the first mathematical description of dipole–dipole interactions in 1921. Thus, dipole–dipole interactions are also known as Keesom interactions. He was previously a student of Heike Kamerlingh Onnes, who had discovered superconductivity.

Louis Bonaparte

Louis Bonaparte 17 Louis Napoléon Bonaparte was a younger brother of Napoleon I, Emperor of the French. He was a monarch in his own right from 1806 to 1810, ruling over the Kingdom of Holland. In that capacity, he was known as Louis I.

Baruch Spinoza

Baruch Spinoza 17 Baruch (de) Spinoza, also known under his Latinized pen name Benedictus de Spinoza, was a philosopher of Portuguese-Jewish origin. As a forerunner of the Age of Reason, Spinoza significantly influenced modern biblical criticism, 17th-century Rationalism, and contemporary conceptions of the self and the universe, establishing himself as one of the most important and radical philosophers of the early modern period. He was influenced by Stoicism, Maimonides, Niccolò Machiavelli, René Descartes, Thomas Hobbes, and a variety of heterodox Christian thinkers of his day.

Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor

Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor 17 Charles V was Holy Roman Emperor and Archduke of Austria from 1519 to 1556, King of Spain from 1516 to 1556, and Lord of the Netherlands as titular Duke of Burgundy from 1506 to 1555. He was heir to and then head of the rising House of Habsburg. His dominions in Europe included the Holy Roman Empire, extending from Germany to northern Italy with rule over the Austrian hereditary lands and Burgundian Low Countries, and Spain with its possessions of the southern Italian kingdoms of Naples, Sicily and Sardinia. In the Americas, he oversaw the continuation of Spanish colonization and a short-lived German colonization. The personal union of the European and American territories he ruled was the first collection of realms labelled "the empire on which the sun never sets".

Carry van Bruggen

Carry van Bruggen 17 Carry van Bruggen was a Dutch writer. She also wrote under the name Justine Abbing.                 

Aart van der Leeuw

Aart van der Leeuw 17 Aart van der Leeuw was a Dutch writer of prose fiction and poetry. His reputation rests mostly on two novels, Ik en mijn speelman (1927) and De kleine Rudolf (1930).

Cornelis Drebbel

Cornelis Drebbel 17 Cornelis Jacobszoon Drebbel was a Dutch engineer and inventor. He was the builder of the first operational submarine in 1620 and an innovator who contributed to the development of measurement and control systems, optics and chemistry.

Charles Darwin

Charles Darwin 17 Charles Robert Darwin was an English naturalist, geologist and biologist, widely known for his contributions to evolutionary biology. His proposition that all species of life have descended from a common ancestor is now generally accepted and considered a fundamental concept in science. In a joint publication with Alfred Russel Wallace, he introduced his scientific theory that this branching pattern of evolution resulted from a process he called natural selection, in which the struggle for existence has a similar effect to the artificial selection involved in selective breeding. Darwin has been described as one of the most influential figures in human history and was honoured by burial in Westminster Abbey.

Carel Willink

Carel Willink 17 Albert Carel Willink was a Dutch painter who called his style of Magic realism "imaginary realism". 

Gabriël Metsu

Gabriël Metsu 17 Gabriël Metsu (1629–1667) was a Dutch painter of history paintings, still lifes, portraits, and genre works. He was "a highly eclectic artist, who did not adhere to a consistent style, technique, or one type of subject for long periods". Only 14 of his 133 works are dated.

Willem Elsschot

Willem Elsschot 17 Alphonsus Josephus de Ridder was a Belgian writer and poet who wrote under the pseudonym Willem Elsschot. One of the most prominent Flemish authors, his most famous work, Cheese (1933) is the most translated Flemish-language novel of all time.

Herman de Man

Herman de Man 17 Salomon Herman "Sal" Hamburger, known under his pseudonym Herman de Man, was a Dutch novelist.     

Adriaen Brouwer

Adriaen Brouwer 17 Adriaen Brouwer was a Flemish painter active in Flanders and the Dutch Republic in the first half of the 17th century. Brouwer was an important innovator of genre painting through his vivid depictions of peasants, soldiers and other "lower class" individuals engaged in drinking, smoking, card or dice playing, fighting, music making etc. in taverns or rural settings. Brouwer contributed to the development of the genre of tronies, i.e. head or facial studies, which investigate varieties of expression. In his final year he produced a few landscapes of a tragic intensity. Brouwer's work had an important influence on the next generation of Flemish and Dutch genre painters. Although Brouwer produced only a small body of work, Dutch masters Peter Paul Rubens and Rembrandt collected it.

Marco Polo

Marco Polo 16 Marco Polo was a Venetian merchant, explorer and writer who travelled through Asia along the Silk Road between 1271 and 1295. His travels are recorded in The Travels of Marco Polo, a book that described to Europeans the then-mysterious culture and inner workings of the Eastern world, including the wealth and great size of the Mongol Empire and China under the Yuan dynasty, giving their first comprehensive look into China, Persia, India, Japan, and other locations throughout Asia.

Robert Baden-Powell, 1st Baron Baden-Powell

Robert Baden-Powell, 1st Baron Baden-Powell 16 Lieutenant-General Robert Stephenson Smyth Baden-Powell, 1st Baron Baden-Powell, was a British Army officer, writer, founder and first Chief Scout of the world-wide Scout Movement, and founder, with his sister Agnes, of the world-wide Girl Guide/Girl Scout Movement. Baden-Powell wrote the seminal work Scouting for Boys, which, with his previous 1899 book Aids to Scouting for N.-C.Os and Men captured the imagination of the boys of Britain and led to the creation of the Scout Movement.

Jacob van Deventer (general)

Jacob van Deventer (general) 16 Lieutenant-General Sir Jacob Louis van Deventer KCB CMG DTD was a South African military commander. 

Jeltje de Bosch Kemper

Jeltje de Bosch Kemper 16 Jkvr. Jeltje de Bosch Kemper was a Dutch feminist.                                                 

John Bosco

John Bosco 16 John Melchior Bosco, SDB, popularly known as Don Bosco, was an Italian Catholic priest, educator and writer of the 19th century. While working in Turin, where the population suffered many of the ill effects of industrialization and urbanization, he dedicated his life to the betterment and education of street children, juvenile delinquents, and other disadvantaged youth. He developed teaching methods based on love rather than punishment, a method that became known as the Salesian Preventive System.

Steve Biko

Steve Biko 16 Bantu Stephen Biko OMSG was a South African anti-apartheid activist. Ideologically an African nationalist and African socialist, he was at the forefront of a grassroots anti-apartheid campaign known as the Black Consciousness Movement during the late 1960s and 1970s. His ideas were articulated in a series of articles published under the pseudonym Frank Talk.

Simon Carmiggelt

Simon Carmiggelt 16 Simon Carmiggelt was a Dutch writer, journalist, and poet who became a well known public figure in the Netherlands because of his daily newspaper columns and his television appearances.

Carel Steven Adama van Scheltema

Carel Steven Adama van Scheltema 16 Carel Steven Adama van Scheltema was a Dutch socialist poet.                                       

Conrad Busken Huet

Conrad Busken Huet 16 Conrad Busken Huet was a Dutch pastor, journalist and literary critic.                             

Johann VI, Count of Nassau-Dillenburg

Johann VI, Count of Nassau-Dillenburg 16 Count John VI of Nassau-Dillenburg was the second son of William the Rich and the younger brother of William the Silent. He has a special place in the history of the Netherlands because he is the male-line forefather of the House of Orange.

Plato

Plato 16 Plato, born Aristocles, was an ancient Greek philosopher of the Classical period who is considered a foundational thinker in Western philosophy and an innovator of the written dialogue and dialectic forms. He raised problems for what became all the major areas of both theoretical philosophy and practical philosophy, and was the founder of the Platonic Academy, a philosophical school in Athens where Plato taught the doctrines that would later become known as Platonism.

Charley Toorop

Charley Toorop 16 Charley Toorop was a Dutch painter and lithographer. Her full name was Annie Caroline Pontifex Fernhout-Toorop.

Rosa Manus

Rosa Manus 16 Rosette Susanna "Rosa" Manus (Dutch pronunciation: [roːˈsɛtə syˈsɑnaː ˈroːsaː ˈmaːnʏs] was born 20 August 1881 and died either at Auschwitz or Ravensbruck in 1942. She was a Jewish Dutch pacifist and female suffragist and was involved in women's movements and anti-war movements. She served as the President of the Society for Female Suffrage, the Vice President of the Dutch Association for Women's Interests and Equal Citizenship, and was one of the founding members of the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom as well as its secretary. She firmly believed that women could work together across the world to bring peace. Although Manus was fairly well known in feminist circles in the 1920s and 1930s, she remains relatively unknown today. She was involved in feminist work for about thirty years during her lifetime and was known as a "feminist liberal internationalist."

Fridtjof Nansen

Fridtjof Nansen 16 Fridtjof Wedel-Jarlsberg Nansen was a Norwegian polymath and Nobel Peace Prize laureate. He gained prominence at various points in his life as an explorer, scientist, diplomat, humanitarian and co-founded the Fatherland League.

Paul Gabriël

Paul Gabriël 16 Paul Joseph Constantin Gabriël or Paul Gabriël was a painter, draftsman, watercolorist, and etcher who belonged to the Hague School.

Betsy Perk

Betsy Perk 16 Christina Elizabeth (Betsy) Perk, was a Dutch author of novels and plays, and a pioneer of the Dutch women's movement, who wrote under the pen names Philemon, Liesbeth van Altena, and Spirito. She is known as the founding member of the Algemeene Nederlandsche Vrouwenvereeniging Arbeid Adelt in 1871, the women's magazine Onze Roeping, and the weekly magazine for women Ons Streven in 1869, the latter publication being the country's first women's periodical. In later years, her influence and activism diminished due to poor health, and she mainly focused on writing historical novels. From 1880 to 1890, she lived in Belgium. She is buried at the cemetery Rustoord in Nijmegen.

Johannes de Jong

Johannes de Jong 16 Johannes de Jong was a Dutch Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church. He served as Archbishop of Utrecht from 1936 until his death, and was elevated to the cardinalate in 1946 by Pope Pius XII.

Jan Lievens

Jan Lievens 16 Jan Lievens was a Dutch Golden Age painter who was associated with his close contemporary Rembrandt, a year older, in the early parts of their careers. They shared a birthplace in Leiden, training with Pieter Lastman in Amsterdam, where they shared a studio for about five years until 1631. Like Rembrandt he painted both portraits and history paintings, but unlike him Lievens' career took him away from Amsterdam to London, Antwerp, The Hague and Berlin.

Henriëtte Bosmans

Henriëtte Bosmans 16 Henriëtte Hilda Bosmans was a Dutch composer and pianist.                                           

Jan Sluyters

Jan Sluyters 16 Johannes Carolus Bernardus (Jan) Sluijters, or Sluyters was a Dutch painter and co-founder of the Moderne Kunstkring.

Pope Cornelius

Pope Cornelius 16 Pope Cornelius was the bishop of Rome from 6th or 13th March 251 until his martyrdom in June 253. He was pope during and following a period of persecution of the church, while a schism occurred over how repentant church members who had practiced pagan sacrifices to protect themselves could be readmitted to the church. He agreed with Cyprian of Carthage that those who had lapsed could be restored to communion after varying forms of Reinitiation and Penance. This position was in contrast to the Novatianists, who held that those who failed to maintain their confession of faith under persecution would not be received again into communion with the church. This resulted in a short-lived schism in the Church of Rome that spread as each side sought to gather support. Cornelius held a synod that confirmed his election and excommunicated Novatian, but the controversy regarding lapsed members continued for years.

Lou van den Dries

Lou van den Dries 16 Laurentius Petrus Dignus "Lou" van den Dries is a Dutch mathematician working in model theory. He is a professor emeritus of mathematics at the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign.

Hugo de Vries

Hugo de Vries 15 Hugo Marie de Vries was a Dutch botanist and one of the first geneticists. He is known chiefly for suggesting the concept of genes, rediscovering the laws of heredity in the 1890s while apparently unaware of Gregor Mendel's work, for introducing the term "mutation", and for developing a mutation theory of evolution.

Pieter van Vollenhoven

Pieter van Vollenhoven 15 Pieter van Vollenhoven Jr. is the husband of Princess Margriet of the Netherlands and a member, by marriage, of the Dutch royal house.

Charlemagne

Charlemagne 15 Charlemagne was King of the Franks from 768, King of the Lombards from 774, and Emperor of the Carolingian Empire from 800, holding all these titles until his death in 814. Charlemagne succeeded in uniting the majority of Western Central Europe, and was the first recognized emperor to rule in the west after the fall of the Western Roman Empire approximately three centuries earlier. Charlemagne's rule saw a program of political and social changes that had a lasting impact on Europe in the Middle Ages.

Johan Jongkind

Johan Jongkind 15 Johan Barthold Jongkind was a Dutch painter and printmaker. He painted marine landscapes in a free manner and is regarded as a forerunner of Impressionism.

Thomas à Kempis

Thomas à Kempis 15 Thomas à Kempis, CRV was a German-Dutch Catholic canon regular of the late medieval period and the author of The Imitation of Christ, published anonymously in Latin in the Netherlands c. 1418–1427, one of the most popular and best known Christian devotional books. His name means "Thomas of Kempen", Kempen being his home town.

Frans van Mieris the Elder

Frans van Mieris the Elder 15 Frans van Mieris the Elder, was a Dutch Golden Age genre and portrait painter. The leading member of a Leiden family of painters, his sons Jan (1660–1690) and Willem (1662–1747) and his grandson Frans van Mieris the Younger (1689–1763) were also accomplished genre painters.

Andrew the Apostle

Andrew the Apostle 15 Andrew the Apostle, also called Saint Andrew, was an apostle of Jesus. According to the New Testament, he was a fisherman and one of the Twelve Apostles chosen by Jesus. The title First-Called stems from the Gospel of John, where Andrew, initially a disciple of John the Baptist, follows Jesus and, recognizing him as the Messiah, introduces his brother Simon Peter to him.

John van Ruysbroeck

John van Ruysbroeck 15 John van Ruysbroeck, original Middle Dutch name Jan van Ruusbroec, was an Augustinian canon and one of the most important of the medieval mystics of the Low Countries. Some of his main literary works include The Kingdom of the Divine Lovers, The Twelve Beguines, The Spiritual Espousals, A Mirror of Eternal Blessedness, The Little Book of Enlightenment, and The Sparkling Stone. Some of his letters also survive, as well as several short sayings. He wrote in the Dutch vernacular, the language of the common people of the Low Countries, rather than in Latin, the language of the Catholic Church liturgy and official texts, in order to reach a wider audience.

Hugo van der Goes

Hugo van der Goes 15 Hugo van der Goes was one of the most significant and original Flemish painters of the late 15th century. Van der Goes was an important painter of altarpieces as well as portraits. He introduced important innovations in painting through his monumental style, use of a specific colour range and individualistic manner of portraiture. From 1483 onwards, the presence of his masterpiece, the Portinari Triptych, in Florence played a role in the development of realism and the use of colour in Italian Renaissance art.

Socrates

Socrates 15 Socrates was a Greek philosopher from Athens who is credited as the founder of Western philosophy and among the first moral philosophers of the ethical tradition of thought. An enigmatic figure, Socrates authored no texts and is known mainly through the posthumous accounts of classical writers, particularly his students Plato and Xenophon. These accounts are written as dialogues, in which Socrates and his interlocutors examine a subject in the style of question and answer; they gave rise to the Socratic dialogue literary genre. Contradictory accounts of Socrates make a reconstruction of his philosophy nearly impossible, a situation known as the Socratic problem. Socrates was a polarizing figure in Athenian society. In 399 BC, he was accused of impiety and corrupting the youth. After a trial that lasted a day, he was sentenced to death. He spent his last day in prison, refusing offers to help him escape.

Harriët Freezer

Harriët Freezer 15 Harriët Freezer, pseudoniem van Wilhelmina (Miep) Eybergen was een Nederlandse prozaschrijfster, journaliste en feministe.

Jan van Eyck

Jan van Eyck 15 Jan van Eyck was a Flemish painter active in Bruges who was one of the early innovators of what became known as Early Netherlandish painting, and one of the most significant representatives of Early Northern Renaissance art. According to Vasari and other art historians including Ernst Gombrich, he invented oil painting, though most now regard that claim as an oversimplification.

Dorus Rijkers

Dorus Rijkers 15 Theodorus "Dorus" Rijkers was a famous Dutch lifeboat captain and folk hero, most famous for his sea rescues of 487 shipwrecked victims over a total of 38 rescue operations, and at least 25 before joining the lifeboat-service.

Pieter van Musschenbroek

Pieter van Musschenbroek 15 Pieter van Musschenbroek was a Dutch scientist. He was a professor in Duisburg, Utrecht, and Leiden, where he held positions in mathematics, philosophy, medicine, and astronomy. He is credited with the invention of the first capacitor in 1746: the Leyden jar. He performed pioneering work on the buckling of compressed struts. Musschenbroek was also one of the first scientists (1729) to provide detailed descriptions of testing machines for tension, compression, and flexure testing. An early example of a problem in dynamic plasticity was described in the 1739 paper.

Robert Schuman

Robert Schuman 15 Jean-Baptiste Nicolas Robert Schuman was a Luxembourg-born French statesman. Schuman was a Christian democratic political thinker and activist. Twice Prime Minister of France, a reformist Minister of Finance and a Foreign Minister, he was instrumental in building postwar European and trans-Atlantic institutions and was one of the founders of the European Communities, the Council of Europe and NATO. The 1964–1965 academic year at the College of Europe was named in his honour. In 2021, Schuman was declared venerable by Pope Francis in recognition of his acting on Christian principles.

Aurelia (mother of Caesar)

Aurelia (mother of Caesar) 15 Aurelia was the mother of the Roman general and statesman Julius Caesar.                           

Dag Hammarskjöld

Dag Hammarskjöld 14 Dag Hjalmar Agne Carl Hammarskjöld was a Swedish economist and diplomat who served as the second Secretary-General of the United Nations from April 1953 until his death in a plane crash in September 1961. As of 2023, he remains the youngest person to have held the post, having been only 47 years old when he was appointed. He was a son of Hjalmar Hammarskjöld, who served as Prime Minister of Sweden from 1914 to 1917.

Saint Roch

Saint Roch 14 Roch, also called Rock in English, was a Majorcan Catholic confessor whose death is commemorated on 16 August and 9 September in Italy; he was especially invoked against the plague. He has the designation of Rollox in Glasgow, Scotland, said to be a corruption of Roch's Loch, which referred to a small loch once near a chapel dedicated to Roch in 1506.

Franciscus Donders

Franciscus Donders 14 Franciscus (Franz) Cornelius Donders FRS FRSE was a Dutch ophthalmologist. During his career, he was a professor of physiology in Utrecht, and was internationally regarded as an authority on eye diseases, directing the Netherlands Hospital for Eye Patients. Along with Graefe and Helmholtz, he was one of the primary founders of scientific ophthalmology.

George Gershwin

George Gershwin 14 George Gershwin was an American composer and pianist whose compositions spanned popular, jazz and classical genres. Among his best-known works are the orchestral compositions Rhapsody in Blue (1924) and An American in Paris (1928), the songs "Swanee" (1919) and "Fascinating Rhythm" (1924), the jazz standards "Embraceable You" (1928) and "I Got Rhythm" (1930), and the opera Porgy and Bess (1935), which included the hit "Summertime".

Aristotle

Aristotle 14 Aristotle was an Ancient Greek philosopher and polymath. His writings cover a broad range of subjects spanning the natural sciences, philosophy, linguistics, economics, politics, psychology, and the arts. As the founder of the Peripatetic school of philosophy in the Lyceum in Athens, he began the wider Aristotelian tradition that followed, which set the groundwork for the development of modern science.

Michael (archangel)

Michael (archangel) 14 Michael, also called Saint Michael the Archangel, Archangel Michael and Saint Michael the Taxiarch is an archangel in Judaism, Christianity, Islam, and the Baha'i faith. The earliest surviving mentions of his name are in third- and second-century-BC Jewish works, often but not always apocalyptic, where he is the chief of the angels and archangels, and he is the guardian prince of Israel and is responsible for the care of Israel. Christianity conserved nearly all the Jewish traditions concerning him, and he is mentioned explicitly in Revelation 12:7–12, where he does battle with Satan, and in the Epistle of Jude, where the author denounces heretics by contrasting them with Michael.

Charles Richter

Charles Richter 14 Charles Francis Richter was an American seismologist and physicist. He is the namesake and one of the creators of the Richter magnitude scale, which, until the development of the moment magnitude scale in 1979, was widely used to quantify the size of earthquakes. Inspired by Kiyoo Wadati's 1928 paper on shallow and deep earthquakes, Richter first used the scale in 1935 after developing it in collaboration with Beno Gutenberg; both worked at the California Institute of Technology.

Van Rechteren

Van Rechteren 14 The House of Rechteren is the name of an old noble family belonging to the Dutch and German nobility. The German branch of Counts von Rechteren-Limpurg-Speckfeld has been mediatised.

Willem Oltmans

Willem Oltmans 14 Willem Leonard Oltmans was a Dutch investigative journalist and author active in international politics.

Michael Faraday

Michael Faraday 14 Michael Faraday was a British scientist who contributed to the study of electromagnetism and electrochemistry. His main discoveries include the principles underlying electromagnetic induction, diamagnetism and electrolysis. Although Faraday received little formal education, as a self-made man, he was one of the most influential scientists in history. It was by his research on the magnetic field around a conductor carrying a direct current that Faraday established the concept of the electromagnetic field in physics. Faraday also established that magnetism could affect rays of light and that there was an underlying relationship between the two phenomena. He similarly discovered the principles of electromagnetic induction, diamagnetism, and the laws of electrolysis. His inventions of electromagnetic rotary devices formed the foundation of electric motor technology, and it was largely due to his efforts that electricity became practical for use in technology.

Janus Henricus Donker Curtius

Janus Henricus Donker Curtius 14 Jan Hendrik Donker Curtius was the last Opperhoofd of the Dutch trading post in Japan (1852-1855), located at Dejima an artificial island in the harbor of Nagasaki. To negotiate with the Japanese government for a treaty, he received the title "Dutch Commissioner in Japan" in 1855.

Frank van Borssele

Frank van Borssele 14 Frank II of Borssele was a 15th-century Zeelandic nobleman.                                         

Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling

Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling 14 Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling, later von Schelling, was a German philosopher. Standard histories of philosophy make him the midpoint in the development of German idealism, situating him between Johann Gottlieb Fichte, his mentor in his early years, and Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, his one-time university roommate, early friend, and later rival. Interpreting Schelling's philosophy is regarded as difficult because of its evolving nature.

Fien de la Mar

Fien de la Mar 14 Josephina Johanna (Fien) de la Mar was een Nederlands actrice en cabaretière. Ze werd voor de oorlog meestal aangeduid als Fientje de la Mar.

John III, Lord of Renesse

John III, Lord of Renesse 14 Jan van Renesse was a member of the Zeeland nobility. Together with Wolfert van Borselen he co-led a party favoring Flanders and against Holland, with considerable influence in Zeeland. With the support of Edward I of England, Jan van Renesse governed Zeeland on behalf of John I, Count of Holland, but van Borselen took up arms against him, and he was expelled after the failure of Edward I's invasion of Flanders. John was a descendant of Henry, Count of Looz.

Saint Boniface

Saint Boniface 14 Boniface, OSB was an English Benedictine monk and leading figure in the Anglo-Saxon mission to the Germanic parts of Francia during the eighth century. He organised significant foundations of the church in Germany and was made bishop of Mainz by Pope Gregory III. He was martyred in Frisia in 754, along with 52 others, and his remains were returned to Fulda, where they rest in a sarcophagus which remains a site of Christian pilgrimage.

Saint Lucy

Saint Lucy 14 Lucia of Syracuse (283–304), also called Saint Lucia was a Roman Christian martyr who died during the Diocletianic Persecution. She is venerated as a saint in Catholic, Anglican, Lutheran, and Eastern Orthodox Christianity. She is one of eight women explicitly commemorated by Catholics in the Canon of the Mass. Her traditional feast day, known in Europe as Saint Lucy's Day, is observed by Western Christians on 13 December. Lucia of Syracuse was honored in the Middle Ages and remained a well-known saint in early modern England. She is one of the best known virgin martyrs, along with Agatha of Sicily, Agnes of Rome, Cecilia of Rome, and Catherine of Alexandria.

William I, Count of Holland

William I, Count of Holland 14 William I was count of Holland from 1203 to 1222. He was the younger son of Floris III and Ada of Huntingdon.

Mary Magdalene

Mary Magdalene 14 Mary Magdalene was a woman who, according to the four canonical gospels, traveled with Jesus as one of his followers and was a witness to his crucifixion and resurrection. She is mentioned by name twelve times in the canonical gospels, more than most of the apostles and more than any other woman in the gospels, other than Jesus's family. Mary's epithet Magdalene may be a toponymic surname, meaning that she came from the town of Magdala, a fishing town on the western shore of the Sea of Galilee in Roman Judea.

Johannes Kepler

Johannes Kepler 14 Johannes Kepler was a German astronomer, mathematician, astrologer, natural philosopher and writer on music. He is a key figure in the 17th-century Scientific Revolution, best known for his laws of planetary motion, and his books Astronomia nova, Harmonice Mundi, and Epitome Astronomiae Copernicanae, influencing among others Isaac Newton, providing one of the foundations for his theory of universal gravitation. The variety and impact of his work made Kepler one of the founders and fathers of modern astronomy, the scientific method, natural and modern science. He has been described as the "father of science fiction" for his novel Somnium.

Simon de Vlieger

Simon de Vlieger 14 Simon de Vlieger was a Dutch painter, draughtsman and designer of tapestries, etchings, stained glass windows. While he is mainly known for his marine paintings he also painted beach scenes, landscapes and genre scenes.

Ina Boudier-Bakker

Ina Boudier-Bakker 13 Klaziena "Ina" Boudier-Bakker was a Dutch novelist. Her most famous work is De klop op de deur, written in 1930.

Frederick, Crown Prince of Denmark

Frederick, Crown Prince of Denmark 13 Frederick, Crown Prince of Denmark may refer to:Frederick, Hereditary Prince of Denmark (1753–1805), heir presumptive from 1766 to 1768 Frederick IV of Denmark (1671–1730), King of Denmark and Norway, Crown Prince from 1671 to 1699 Frederick V of Denmark (1723–1766), King of Denmark and Norway, Crown Prince from 1730 to 1746 Frederick VI of Denmark (1768–1839), King of Denmark and Norway, Crown Prince from 1768 to 1808 Frederick VII of Denmark (1808–1863), King of Denmark, Crown Prince from 1839 to 1848 Frederick VIII of Denmark (1843–1912), King of Denmark, Crown Prince from 1863 to 1906 Frederik IX of Denmark (1899–1972), King of Denmark, Crown Prince from 1912 to 1947 Frederik X, King of Denmark, Crown Prince from 1972 to 2024

Jan Olieslagers

Jan Olieslagers 13 Lieutenant Jan Olieslagers was a Belgian motorcycle and aviation pioneer who set world records with both types of machinery. He became a flying ace during World War I despite his indifference in claiming victories; he was credited with six confirmed victories, seventeen unconfirmed, and an unknown number unclaimed. He later was instrumental in developing Antwerp's airport.

Leo Gestel

Leo Gestel 13 Leo Gestel was a Dutch painter. His father Willem Gestel was also an artist. Leo Gestel experimented with cubism, expressionism, futurism and postimpressionism. Along with Piet Mondrian and Jan Sluyters he was among the leading artists of Dutch modernism.

Domenico Scarlatti

Domenico Scarlatti 13 Giuseppe Domenico Scarlatti, also known as Domingo or Doménico Scarlatti, was an Italian composer. He is classified primarily as a Baroque composer chronologically, although his music was influential in the development of the Classical style. Like his renowned father Alessandro Scarlatti, he composed in a variety of musical forms, although today he is known mainly for his 555 keyboard sonatas. He spent much of his life in the service of the Portuguese and Spanish royal families.

Vincenzo Bellini

Vincenzo Bellini 13 Vincenzo Salvatore Carmelo Francesco Bellini was an Italian opera composer, who was known for his long-flowing melodic lines for which he was named "the Swan of Catania". Many years later, in 1898, Giuseppe Verdi "praised the broad curves of Bellini's melody: 'there are extremely long melodies as no-one else had ever made before'."

Paulus Buys

Paulus Buys 13 Paulus Buys, heer van Zevenhoven and Capelle ter Vliet was Land's Advocate of Holland between 1572 and 1584.

Lodewijk van Deyssel

Lodewijk van Deyssel 13 Lodewijk van Deyssel was the pseudonym of Karel Joan Lodewijk Alberdingk Thijm, a Dutch novelist, prose-poet and literary critic and a leading member of the Tachtigers. He was a son of Joseph Alberdingk Thijm.

E. du Perron

E. du Perron 13 Charles Edgar du Perron, more commonly known as E. du Perron, was a Dutch poet and author. He is best known for his literary acclaimed masterpiece Land van herkomst of 1935. Together with Menno ter Braak and Maurice Roelants he founded the short-lived but influential literary magazine Forum in 1932.

Johannes Tak van Poortvliet

Johannes Tak van Poortvliet 13 Johannes Pieter Roetert Tak van Poortvliet, lord of the manor of Poortvliet and Cleverskerke, was a Dutch politician.

Princess Alexia of the Netherlands

Princess Alexia of the Netherlands 13 Princess Alexia of the Netherlands, Princess of Orange-Nassau is the second daughter of Willem-Alexander of the Netherlands and Queen Máxima of the Netherlands. Princess Alexia is a member of the Dutch royal house and second in the line of succession to the Dutch throne.

Nienke van Hichtum

Nienke van Hichtum 13 Sjoukje Maria Diderika Troelstra-Bokma de Boer, better known under her pseudonym Nienke van Hichtum, was a well-known Frisian Dutch children's author and translator. Van Hichtum wrote books and stories in both West Frisian and Dutch.

Helena Kuipers-Rietberg

Helena Kuipers-Rietberg 13 Helena Theodora Kuipers-Rietberg was a Dutch resistance member who played an important role during World War II, when she was one of the driving forces of a national underground organization that supported those who were hiding from the German occupying forces. She was known as "Tante Riek", or "Aunt Riek".

Ida Gerhardt

Ida Gerhardt 13 Ida Gerhardt was a classicist and Dutch poet of a post-symbolist tradition.                         

Willem Landré

Willem Landré 13 Guillaume Louis Frédéric (Willem) Landré was een Nederlands componist.                             

Tacitus

Tacitus 13 Publius Cornelius Tacitus, known simply as Tacitus, was a Roman historian and politician. Tacitus is widely regarded as one of the greatest Roman historians by modern scholars.

Wim Sonneveld

Wim Sonneveld 13 Willem "Wim" Sonneveld was a Dutch cabaret artist and singer. Together with Toon Hermans and Wim Kan, he is considered to be one of the 'Great Three' of Dutch cabaret. Sonneveld is generally viewed as a Dutch cultural icon for his work and legacy in theatre, musicals and music.

Cornelis Dopper

Cornelis Dopper 13 Cornelis 'Kees' Dopper was a Dutch composer, conductor and teacher.                                 

Niels Bohr

Niels Bohr 13 Niels Henrik David Bohr was a Danish physicist who made foundational contributions to understanding atomic structure and quantum theory, for which he received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1922. Bohr was also a philosopher and a promoter of scientific research.

Theo van Doesburg

Theo van Doesburg 13 Theo van Doesburg was a Dutch artist, who practiced painting, writing, poetry and architecture. He is best known as the founder and leader of De Stijl. He was married to artist, pianist and choreographer Nelly van Doesburg.

Roald Amundsen

Roald Amundsen 13 Roald Engelbregt Gravning Amundsen was a Norwegian explorer of polar regions. He was a key figure of the period known as the Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration.

Pieter Post

Pieter Post 13 Pieter Jansz Post was a Dutch Golden Age architect, painter and printmaker.                         

De Vos van Steenwijk

De Vos van Steenwijk 13 De Vos van Steenwijk is an old Dutch noble family from the Dutch province of Overijssel.           

Beelaerts van Blokland

Beelaerts van Blokland 13 Beelaerts van Blokland is an old Dutch patrician family.                                           

Charles the Bold

Charles the Bold 13 Charles Martin called The Bold, was the last Duke of Burgundy from the Burgundian cadet branch of House of Valois from 1467 to 1477. He was the only legitimate son of Philip the Good and his third wife, Isabella of Portugal. Appointed as the Count of Charolais upon his birth, Charles vied for power and influence even before succeeding his father. He had a deep rooted rivalry with Louis XI, the King of France, which was the cause to many disputes and events during his life, starting with the War of the Public Weal, a revolt of French vassals under the leadership of Charles.

Jacob van Campen

Jacob van Campen 13 Jacob van Campen was a Dutch artist and architect of the Golden Age.                               

Johannes Linthorst Homan

Johannes Linthorst Homan 13 Johannes (Hans) Linthorst Homan was a Dutch politician and diplomat.                               

Mary Zeldenrust-Noordanus

Mary Zeldenrust-Noordanus 13 Mary Noordanus, beter bekend als Mary Zeldenrust-Noordanus was psycholoog-psychotherapeut en voorzitter van de NVSH.

Luke the Evangelist

Luke the Evangelist 13 Luke the Evangelist is one of the Four Evangelists—the four traditionally ascribed authors of the canonical gospels. The Early Church Fathers ascribed to him authorship of both the Gospel of Luke and the Acts of the Apostles. Prominent figures in early Christianity such as Jerome and Eusebius later reaffirmed his authorship, although a lack of conclusive evidence as to the identity of the author of the works has led to discussion in scholarly circles, both secular and religious.

William I of the Netherlands

William I of the Netherlands 13 William I was king of the Netherlands and grand duke of Luxembourg from 1815 until his abdication in 1840.

Henry I van Vianden

Henry I van Vianden 12 Henry van Vianden was a bishop of Utrecht from 1249 to 1267.                                       

Augustine of Hippo

Augustine of Hippo 12 Augustine of Hippo, also known as Saint Augustine, was a theologian and philosopher of Berber origin and the bishop of Hippo Regius in Numidia, Roman North Africa. His writings influenced the development of Western philosophy and Western Christianity, and he is viewed as one of the most important Church Fathers of the Latin Church in the Patristic Period. His many important works include The City of God, On Christian Doctrine, and Confessions.

Simon van Slingelandt

Simon van Slingelandt 12 Simon van Slingelandt, lord of the manor of Patijnenburg was an influential Dutch politician and diplomat during the 18th century. He served as the Grand Pensionary of Holland, the most important political position in the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands, from 17 July 1727 until his death on 1 December 1736. Van Slingelandt is often regarded as a capable and pragmatic administrator and an effective diplomat.

Catherine of Alexandria

Catherine of Alexandria 12 Catherine of Alexandria, also spelled Katherine is, according to tradition, a Christian saint and virgin, who was martyred in the early fourth century at the hands of the emperor Maxentius. According to her hagiography, she was both a princess and a noted scholar who became a Christian around the age of 14, converted hundreds of people to Christianity and was martyred around the age of 18. More than 1,100 years after Catherine's martyrdom, Joan of Arc identified her as one of the saints who appeared to and counselled her.

Fie Carelsen

Fie Carelsen 12 Fie Carelsen, artiestennaam van Sophia de Jong, was een Nederlandse actrice.                       

Petrus Plancius

Petrus Plancius 12 Petrus Plancius was a Dutch-Flemish astronomer, cartographer and clergyman. He was born as Pieter Platevoet in Dranouter, now in Heuvelland, West Flanders. He studied theology in Germany and England. At the age of 24 he became a minister in the Dutch Reformed Church.

Vasco da Gama

Vasco da Gama 12 Vasco da Gama, 1st Count of Vidigueira, was a Portuguese explorer and the first European to reach India by sea.

Roosje Vos

Roosje Vos 12 Roosje Vos was a Dutch seamstress who became an activist in the push for labor protections of working women. Founding trade unions and editing journals, she advocated for suffrage, women's economic independence and an eight-hour work day. An active member of the socialist party and later the communist party, she ran for election to the Groningen Provincial Council and served from 1919–1927.

L. L. Zamenhof

L. L. Zamenhof 12 L. L. Zamenhof was the creator of Esperanto, the most widely used constructed international auxiliary language.

Van Karnebeek

Van Karnebeek 12 Van Karnebeek is een uit Vreden afkomstig geslacht waarvan leden sinds 1847 tot de Nederlandse adel behoren.

Anna Maria van Schurman

Anna Maria van Schurman 12 Anna Maria van Schurman was a Dutch painter, engraver, poet, classical scholar, philosopher, and feminist writer who is best known for her exceptional learning and her defence of female education. She was a highly educated woman, who excelled in art, music, and literature, and became a polyglot proficient in fourteen languages, including Latin, Ancient Greek, Biblical Hebrew, Arabic, Syriac, Aramaic, and Ethiopic, as well as various contemporary European languages. She was the first woman to unofficially study at a Dutch university.

Hendrick Avercamp

Hendrick Avercamp 12 Hendrick Avercamp was a Dutch painter during the Dutch Golden Age of painting. He was one of the earliest landscape painters of the 17th-century Dutch school, he specialized in painting the Netherlands in winter. His paintings are colorful and lively, with carefully crafted images of the people in the landscape. His works give a vivid depiction of sport and leisure in the Netherlands in the beginning of the 17th century. Many of Avercamp's paintings feature people ice skating on frozen lakes.

A.M. de Jong

A.M. de Jong 12 Adrianus Michiel de Jong was een Nederlandse schrijver. Hij publiceerde zijn meeste werk onder eigen naam, maar enkele werken werden onder pseudoniem uitgegeven.

Glenn Miller

Glenn Miller 12 Alton Glen "Glenn" Miller was an American big band conductor, arranger, composer, trombone player, and recording artist before and during World War II, when he was an officer in the US Army Air Forces. His civilian band, Glenn Miller and His Orchestra were one of the most popular and successful bands of the 20th century and the big band era. His military group, the Major Glenn Miller Army Air Forces Orchestra, was also popular and successful.

Fanny Blankers-Koen

Fanny Blankers-Koen 12 Francina Elsje "Fanny" Blankers-Koen was a Dutch track and field athlete, best known for winning four gold medals at the 1948 Summer Olympics in London. She competed there as a 30-year-old mother of two, earning her the nickname "the Flying Housewife", and was the most successful athlete at the event.

Isidore of Seville

Isidore of Seville 12 Isidore of Seville was a Hispano-Roman scholar, theologian, and archbishop of Seville. He is widely regarded, in the words of 19th-century historian Montalembert, as "the last scholar of the ancient world".

Mathilde Berdenis van Berlekom

Mathilde Berdenis van Berlekom 12 Mathilde Berdenis van Berlekom, ook wel bekend als Mathilde Wibaut, was politica en feministe. Ze was getrouwd met Floor Wibaut, de bekende Amsterdamse wethouder. Zelf is ze vooral bekend als voorzitster van de Bond van Sociaal-Democratische Vrouwenclubs.

Andreas Schelfhout

Andreas Schelfhout 12 Andreas Schelfhout (1787–1870) was a Dutch painter, etcher and lithographer, known for his landscape paintings.

Jan Huyghen van Linschoten

Jan Huyghen van Linschoten 12 Jan Huygen van Linschoten was a Dutch merchant, traveller and writer.                               

Philip William, Prince of Orange

Philip William, Prince of Orange 12 Philip William, Prince of Orange was the eldest son of William the Silent by his first wife Anna van Egmont. He became Prince of Orange in 1584 and Knight of the Golden Fleece in 1599.

Princess Marianne of the Netherlands

Princess Marianne of the Netherlands 12 Princess Marianne of the Netherlands, Princess of Orange-Nassau was the youngest child of King William I of the Netherlands and Princess Wilhelmine of Prussia.

Albrecht Rodenbach

Albrecht Rodenbach 12 Albertus "Albrecht" Petrus Josephus Mansuetus Ferdinandus Rodenbach was a Flemish poet, and a leader in the revival of Flemish literature that occurred in the late 19th century. He is more noteworthy as a symbol of the Flemish movement, than for his actual activities, since he died at the age of 23. Hugo Verriest called Rodenbach the poet, the soul, the heart, the mind, the word of Reborn Flanders!

Willem Maris

Willem Maris 12 Willem Maris was a Dutch landscape painter of the Hague School.                                     

Hélène Swarth

Hélène Swarth 12 Stéphanie Hélène Swarth was a prolific Dutch poet active from 1879 to 1938. She is considered one of the Tachtigers and acquired a reputation as a sonneteer.

Johanna Westerdijk

Johanna Westerdijk 12 Johanna Westerdijk was a Dutch plant pathologist and the first female professor in the Netherlands. 

Jacob Jordaens

Jacob Jordaens 12 Jacob (Jacques) Jordaens was a Flemish painter, draughtsman and a designer of tapestries and prints. He was a prolific artist who created biblical, mythological, and allegorical compositions, genre scenes, landscapes, illustrations of Flemish sayings and portraits. After the death of Rubens and Anthony van Dyck, he became the leading Flemish Baroque painter of his time. Unlike those illustrious contemporaries he never travelled abroad to study the Antique and Italian painting and, except for a few short trips to locations elsewhere in the Low Countries, he resided in Antwerp his entire life. He also remained largely indifferent to Rubens and van Dyck's intellectual and courtly aspirations. This attitude was expressed in his art through a lack of idealistic treatment which contrasted with that of these contemporaries.

Stijn Streuvels

Stijn Streuvels 12 Stijn Streuvels, born Franciscus (Frank) Petrus Maria Lateur, was a Flemish Belgian writer.         

Albertine Agnes of Nassau

Albertine Agnes of Nassau 12 Albertine Agnes of Nassau, was the regent of Friesland, Groningen and Drenthe during the minority of her son Henry Casimir II, Count of Nassau-Dietz, between 1664 and 1679. She was the sixth child and fifth daughter of stadtholder Frederick Henry, Prince of Orange and Amalia of Solms-Braunfels.

Jan Wolkers

Jan Wolkers 11 Jan Hendrik Wolkers was a Dutch author, sculptor and painter. Wolkers is considered by some to be one of the "Great Four" writers of post-World War II Dutch literature, alongside Willem Frederik Hermans, Harry Mulisch and Gerard Reve.

Immanuel Kant

Immanuel Kant 11 Immanuel Kant was a German philosopher and one of the central Enlightenment thinkers. Born in Königsberg, Kant's comprehensive and systematic works in epistemology, metaphysics, ethics, and aesthetics have made him one of the most influential and controversial figures in modern Western philosophy, being called the "father of modern ethics", the "father of modern aesthetics", and for bringing together rationalism and empiricism earned the title of "father of modern philosophy".

Johan Huizinga

Johan Huizinga 11 Johan Huizinga was a Dutch historian and one of the founders of modern cultural history.           

Willem Roelofs

Willem Roelofs 11 Willem Roelofs was a Dutch painter, water-colourist, etcher, lithographer and draughtsman. Roelofs was one of the forerunners of the Dutch Revival art, after the Romantic Classicism of the beginning of the 19th century, which led to the formation of The Hague school. His landscapes, especially the early ones with their dominating cloudy skies, demure bodies of water and populated with cattle, are typical for the School of Barbizon.

Jac. P. Thijsse

Jac. P. Thijsse 11 Jacobus Pieter Thijsse was a Dutch conservationist and botanist. He founded the Society for Preservation of Nature Monuments in the Netherlands.

Pieter Lastman

Pieter Lastman 11 Pieter Lastman (1583–1633) was a Dutch painter. Lastman is considered important because of his work as a painter of history pieces and because his pupils included Rembrandt and Jan Lievens. In his paintings Lastman paid careful attention to the faces, hands and feet.

Heinrich Hertz

Heinrich Hertz 11 Heinrich Rudolf Hertz was a German physicist who first conclusively proved the existence of the electromagnetic waves predicted by James Clerk Maxwell's equations of electromagnetism. The unit of frequency, cycle per second, was named the "hertz" in his honor.

J. H. Leopold

J. H. Leopold 11 Jan Hendrik Leopold was a Dutch poet and classicist.                                               

Hendrik Casimir

Hendrik Casimir 11 Hendrik Brugt Gerhard Casimir was a Dutch physicist who made significant contributions to the field of quantum mechanics and quantum electrodynamics. He is best known for his work on the Casimir effect, which describes the attractive force between two uncharged plates in a vacuum due to quantum fluctuations of the electromagnetic field.

Charles Lindbergh

Charles Lindbergh 11 Charles Augustus Lindbergh was an American aviator and military officer. On May 20–21, 1927, he made the first nonstop flight from New York City to Paris, a distance of 3,600 miles (5,800 km), flying alone for 33.5 hours. His aircraft, the Spirit of St. Louis, was designed and built by the Ryan Airline Company specifically to compete for the Orteig Prize for the first flight between the two cities. Although not the first transatlantic flight, it was the first solo transatlantic flight and the longest at the time by nearly 2,000 miles (3,200 km). It became known as one of the most consequential flights in history and ushered in a new era of air transportation between parts of the globe.

Cicero

Cicero 11 Marcus Tullius Cicero was a Roman statesman, lawyer, scholar, philosopher, writer and Academic skeptic, who tried to uphold optimate principles during the political crises that led to the establishment of the Roman Empire. His extensive writings include treatises on rhetoric, philosophy and politics. He is considered one of Rome's greatest orators and prose stylists and the innovator of what became known as "Ciceronian rhetoric". Cicero was educated in Rome and in Greece. He came from a wealthy municipal family of the Roman equestrian order, and served as consul in 63 BC.

Seneca the Younger

Seneca the Younger 11 Lucius Annaeus Seneca the Younger, usually known mononymously as Seneca, was a Stoic philosopher of Ancient Rome, a statesman, dramatist, and in one work, satirist, from the post-Augustan age of Latin literature.

Willem Joseph van Ghent

Willem Joseph van Ghent 11 Willem Joseph baron van Ghent tot Drakenburgh was a 17th-century Dutch admiral. His surname is also sometimes rendered Gendt or Gent; he was the first commander of the Dutch marines.

William of Jülich

William of Jülich 11 William of Jülich, called the Younger, was one of the Flemish noblemen that opposed the annexation policies of the French king Philip IV, together with Pieter de Coninck.

Harry Bannink

Harry Bannink 11 Harry Bannink was a Dutch composer, arranger and pianist. He wrote over 3,000 songs.               

Rosa Spier

Rosa Spier 11 Rozalie (Rosa) Spier was een Nederlands harpiste.                                                   

Gerard Majella

Gerard Majella 11 Gerard Majella was an Italian lay brother of the Congregation of the Redeemer, better known as the Redemptorists, who is honored as a saint by the Catholic Church.

Eduard van Beinum

Eduard van Beinum 11 Eduard Alexander van Beinum was a Dutch conductor.                                                 

Bart van der Leck

Bart van der Leck 11 Bart van der Leck was a Dutch painter, designer, and ceramicist. With Theo van Doesburg and Piet Mondrian he founded the De Stijl art movement.

Iman Jacob van den Bosch

Iman Jacob van den Bosch 11 Iman Jacob van den Bosch was een Nederlandse verzetsstrijder tijdens de Tweede Wereldoorlog.       

Ignaz Semmelweis

Ignaz Semmelweis 11 Ignaz Philipp Semmelweis was a Hungarian physician and scientist of German descent, who was an early pioneer of antiseptic procedures, and was described as the "saviour of mothers". Postpartum infection, also known as puerperal fever or childbed fever, consists of any bacterial infection of the reproductive tract following birth, and in the 19th century was common and often fatal. Semmelweis discovered that the incidence of infection could be drastically reduced by requiring healthcare workers in obstetrical clinics to disinfect their hands. In 1847, he proposed hand washing with chlorinated lime solutions at Vienna General Hospital's First Obstetrical Clinic, where doctors' wards had three times the mortality of midwives' wards. The maternal mortality rate dropped from 18% to less than 2%, and he published a book of his findings, Etiology, Concept and Prophylaxis of Childbed Fever, in 1861.

Frans Erens

Frans Erens 11 Maria Joseph Franciscus Peter Hubertus Erens was een Nederlandse criticus en prozaschrijver. Hij behoort tot de stroming van de Tachtigers.

Cornelis Jacobus Snijders

Cornelis Jacobus Snijders 11 Cornelis Jacobus Snijders was a Dutch military leader. He was Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces of the Netherlands during World War I.

Suze Robertson

Suze Robertson 11 Suze Robertson was a Dutch painter. She belonged to a group of artists known as the Amsterdamse Joffers.

Lucas van Leyden

Lucas van Leyden 11 Lucas van Leyden, also named either Lucas Hugensz or Lucas Jacobsz, was a Dutch painter and printmaker in engraving and woodcut. Lucas van Leyden was among the first Dutch exponents of genre painting and was a very accomplished engraver.

Andrei Sakharov

Andrei Sakharov 11 Andrei Dmitrievich Sakharov was a Soviet physicist and a Nobel Peace Prize laureate, which he was awarded in 1975 for emphasizing human rights around the world.

Jan Wiegers

Jan Wiegers 11 Jan Wiegers was a Dutch expressionist painter.Wiegers was educated as a sculptor at the Academie Minerva in Groningen, but he also studied painting at the Academies of Rotterdam under A. H. R. Van Maasdijk and The Hague under Frederik Jansen.

Willem Vliegen

Willem Vliegen 11 Wilhelmus Hubertus Vliegen was een Nederlandse journalist en politicus.                             

Leonard Bernstein

Leonard Bernstein 11 Leonard Bernstein was an American conductor, composer, pianist, music educator, author, and humanitarian. Considered to be one of the most important conductors of his time, he was the first American-born conductor to receive international acclaim. Bernstein was "one of the most prodigiously talented and successful musicians in American history" according to music critic Donal Henahan. Bernstein's honors and accolades include seven Emmy Awards, two Tony Awards, and 16 Grammy Awards as well as an Academy Award nomination. He received the Kennedy Center Honor in 1981.

Willem de Mérode

Willem de Mérode 10 Willem de Mérode was the pseudonym of the Dutch poet, Willem Eduard Keuning.                       

Achilles

Achilles 10 In Greek mythology, Achilles or Achilleus was a hero of the Trojan War who was known as being the greatest of all the Greek warriors. A central character in Homer's Iliad, he was the son of the Nereid Thetis and Peleus, king of Phthia and famous Argonaut. Achilles was raised in Phthia along with his childhood companion Patroclus and received his education by the centaur Chiron. In the Iliad, he is presented as the commander of the mythical tribe of the Myrmidons.

Agatha of Sicily

Agatha of Sicily 10 Agatha of Sicily is a Christian saint. Her feast is on 5 February. Agatha was born in Catania, part of the Roman Province of Sicily, and was martyred c. 251. She is one of several virgin martyrs who are commemorated by name in the Canon of the Mass.

Cornelis Troost

Cornelis Troost 10 Cornelis Troost was an 18th-century actor and painter from Amsterdam.                               

Folke Bernadotte

Folke Bernadotte 10 Folke Bernadotte, Count of Wisborg was a Swedish nobleman and diplomat. In World War II he negotiated the release of about 450 Danish Jews and 30,550 non-Jewish prisoners from many nations from the Nazi German Theresienstadt concentration camp. They were released on 14 April 1945. In 1945 he received a German surrender offer from Heinrich Himmler, though the offer was ultimately rejected by the allies.

Gerardus Vossius

Gerardus Vossius 10 Gerrit Janszoon Vos, often known by his Latin name Gerardus Vossius, was a Dutch classical scholar and theologian.

David Teniers the Younger

David Teniers the Younger 10 David Teniers the Younger or David Teniers II was a Flemish Baroque painter, printmaker, draughtsman, miniaturist painter, staffage painter, copyist and art curator. He was an extremely versatile artist known for his prolific output. He was an innovator in a wide range of genres such as history painting, genre painting, landscape painting, portrait and still life. He is now best remembered as the leading Flemish genre painter of his day. Teniers is particularly known for developing the peasant genre, the tavern scene, pictures of collections and scenes with alchemists and physicians.

William I, Count of Nassau-Siegen

William I, Count of Nassau-Siegen 10 William I of Nassau-Siegen, nicknamed the Elder or the Rich, was Count of Nassau-Siegen and of half Diez from 1516. He descended from the Ottonian Line of the House of Nassau.

Homer

Homer 10 Homer was a Greek poet who is credited as the author of the Iliad and the Odyssey, two epic poems that are foundational works of ancient Greek literature. Homer is considered one of the most revered and influential authors in history.

Rie Mastenbroek

Rie Mastenbroek 10 Hendrika "Rie" Wilhelmina Mastenbroek was a Dutch swimmer and a triple Olympic champion.           

Leonardo da Vinci

Leonardo da Vinci 10 Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci was an Italian polymath of the High Renaissance who was active as a painter, draughtsman, engineer, scientist, theorist, sculptor, and architect. While his fame initially rested on his achievements as a painter, he has also become known for his notebooks, in which he made drawings and notes on a variety of subjects, including anatomy, astronomy, botany, cartography, painting, and paleontology. Leonardo is widely regarded to have been a genius who epitomized the Renaissance humanist ideal, and his collective works comprise a contribution to later generations of artists matched only by that of his younger contemporary Michelangelo.

Dirk Stork

Dirk Stork 10 Charles Theodorus (Dirk) Stork was de oprichter van het Nederlandse bedrijf Stork.                 

Anne de Vries

Anne de Vries 10 Anne de Vries was a Dutch teacher and writer, particularly famous in the Netherlands for his novels of regional life.

Jan Fabricius

Jan Fabricius 10 Jan Fabricius was a Dutch playwright and journalist. He was the father of Johan Fabricius, a writer. Although he wrote continuously from the 1890s to his death, his greatest period of success was during 1904-1916, when his plays sold out theatres in Rotterdam and were translated into multiple languages. During the height of his popularity he was considered by the Encyclopaedie van Nederlandsch-Indië to be the leading Dutch playwright writing plays set in the Indies.

Johan de Meester (schrijver)

Johan de Meester (schrijver) 10 Eliza Johannes (Johan) de Meester,, was een Nederlandse journalist, literatuurcriticus en auteur.   

Matthijs Vermeulen

Matthijs Vermeulen 10 Matthijs Vermeulen, was a Dutch composer and music journalist.                                     

Pythagoras

Pythagoras 10 Pythagoras of Samos was an ancient Ionian Greek philosopher, polymath and the eponymous founder of Pythagoreanism. His political and religious teachings were well known in Magna Graecia and influenced the philosophies of Plato, Aristotle, and, through them, the West in general. Knowledge of his life is clouded by legend; modern scholars disagree regarding Pythagoras's education and influences, but they do agree that, around 530 BC, he travelled to Croton in southern Italy, where he founded a school in which initiates were sworn to secrecy and lived a communal, ascetic lifestyle. This lifestyle entailed a number of dietary prohibitions, traditionally said to have included aspects of vegetarianism.

Crispin and Crispinian

Crispin and Crispinian 10 Saints Crispin and Crispinian are the Christian patron saints of cobblers, curriers, tanners, and leather workers. They were beheaded during the reign of Diocletian; the date of their execution is given as 25 October 285 or 286.

Ary Scheffer

Ary Scheffer 10 Ary Scheffer was a Dutch-French Romantic painter. He was known mostly for his works based on literature, with paintings based on the works of Dante, Goethe, Lord Byron and Walter Scott, as well as religious subjects. He was also a prolific painter of portraits of famous and influential people in his lifetime. Politically, Scheffer had strong ties to King Louis Philippe I, having been employed as a teacher of the latter's children, which allowed him to live a life of luxury for many years until the French Revolution of 1848.

Hans Memling

Hans Memling 10 Hans Memling was a German-Flemish painter who worked in the tradition of Early Netherlandish painting. Born in the Middle Rhine region, he probably spent his childhood in Mainz. During his apprenticeship as a painter he moved to the Netherlands and spent time in the Brussels workshop of Rogier van der Weyden. In 1465 he was made a citizen of Bruges, where he became one of the leading artists and the master of a large workshop. A tax document from 1480 lists him among the wealthiest citizens. Memling's religious works often incorporated donor portraits of the clergymen, aristocrats, and burghers who were his patrons. These portraits built upon the styles which Memling learned in his youth.

Pieter Oud

Pieter Oud 10 Pieter Jacobus Oud was a Dutch politician of the defunct Free-thinking Democratic League (VDB) party and later co-founder of the Labour Party (PvdA) and the People's Party for Freedom and Democracy (VVD) and historian. He was granted the honorary title of Minister of State on 9 November 1963.

Caro van Eyck

Caro van Eyck 10 Caro van Eyck, pseudoniem van Gerarda Jacoba Everdina Taytelbaum was een Nederlands actrice.       

René Descartes

René Descartes 10 René Descartes was a French philosopher, scientist, and mathematician, widely considered a seminal figure in the emergence of modern philosophy and science. Mathematics was paramount to his method of inquiry, and he connected the previously separate fields of geometry and algebra into analytic geometry. Descartes spent much of his working life in the Dutch Republic, initially serving the Dutch States Army, and later becoming a central intellectual of the Dutch Golden Age. Although he served a Protestant state and was later counted as a deist by critics, Descartes was Roman Catholic.

Ovid

Ovid 10 Publius Ovidius Naso, known in English as Ovid, was a Roman poet who lived during the reign of Augustus. He was a younger contemporary of Virgil and Horace, with whom he is often ranked as one of the three canonical poets of Latin literature. The Imperial scholar Quintilian considered him the last of the Latin love elegists. Although Ovid enjoyed enormous popularity during his lifetime, the emperor Augustus exiled him to Tomis, the capital of the newly-organised province of Moesia, on the Black Sea, where he remained for the last nine or ten years of his life. Ovid himself attributed his banishment to a "poem and a mistake", but his reluctance to disclose specifics has resulted in much speculation among scholars.

Virgil

Virgil 10 Publius Vergilius Maro, usually called Virgil or Vergil in English, was an ancient Roman poet of the Augustan period. He composed three of the most famous poems in Latin literature: the Eclogues, the Georgics, and the epic Aeneid. A number of minor poems, collected in the Appendix Vergiliana, were attributed to him in ancient times, but modern scholars consider his authorship of these poems to be dubious.

Livy

Livy 10 Titus Livius, known in English as Livy, was a Roman historian. He wrote a monumental history of Rome and the Roman people, titled Ab Urbe Condita, ''From the Founding of the City'', covering the period from the earliest legends of Rome before the traditional founding in 753 BC through the reign of Augustus in Livy's own lifetime. He was on good terms with members of the Julio-Claudian dynasty and was a friend of Augustus, whose young grandnephew, the future emperor Claudius, he encouraged to take up the writing of history.

Louis Armstrong

Louis Armstrong 10 Louis Daniel Armstrong, nicknamed "Satchmo", "Satch", and "Pops", was an American trumpeter and vocalist. He was among the most influential figures in jazz. His career spanned five decades and several eras in the history of jazz. He received numerous accolades including the Grammy Award for Best Male Vocal Performance for Hello, Dolly! in 1965, as well as a posthumous win for the Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award in 1972, and induction into the National Rhythm & Blues Hall of Fame in 2017.

Abraham Crijnssen

Abraham Crijnssen 10 Abraham Crijnssen was a Dutch naval commander, notable for capturing the English colony in Suriname in 1667 during the Second Anglo-Dutch War, resulting in the establishment of a long-term colony under Dutch control. The minesweeper HNLMS Abraham Crijnssen and the frigate HNLMS Abraham Crijnssen have been named after him.

Evangelista Torricelli

Evangelista Torricelli 10 Evangelista Torricelli was an Italian physicist and mathematician, and a student of Galileo. He is best known for his invention of the barometer, but is also known for his advances in optics and work on the method of indivisibles. The torr is named after him.

Jean Monnet

Jean Monnet 10 Jean Omer Marie Gabriel Monnet was a French civil servant, entrepreneur, diplomat, financier, administrator, and political visionary. An influential supporter of European unity, he is considered one of the founding fathers of the European Union.

Friedrich Wilhelm Raiffeisen

Friedrich Wilhelm Raiffeisen 10 Friedrich Wilhelm Raiffeisen was a German mayor and cooperative pioneer. Several credit union systems and cooperative banks have been named after Raiffeisen, who pioneered rural credit unions.

James Clerk Maxwell

James Clerk Maxwell 10 James Clerk Maxwell was a Scottish physicist with broad interests who was responsible for the classical theory of electromagnetic radiation, which was the first theory to describe electricity, magnetism and light as different manifestations of the same phenomenon. Maxwell's equations for electromagnetism have been called the "second great unification in physics" where the first one had been realised by Isaac Newton.

Karel van Mander

Karel van Mander 10 Karel van Mander (I) or Carel van Mander I (May 1548 – 2 September 1606) was a Flemish painter, playwright, poet, art historian and art theoretician, who established himself in the Dutch Republic in the latter part of his life. He is mainly remembered as a biographer of Early Netherlandish painters and Northern Renaissance artists in his Schilder-boeck. As an artist and art theoretician he played a significant role in the spread and development of Northern Mannerism in the Dutch Republic.

Salvador Allende

Salvador Allende 10 Salvador Guillermo Allende Gossens was a Chilean socialist politician who served as the 28th president of Chile from 1970 until his death in 1973. As a democratic socialist committed to democracy, he has been described as the first Marxist to be elected president in a liberal democracy in Latin America.

Anthony Modderman

Anthony Modderman 10 Anthony Ewoud Jan Modderman was a Dutch liberal politician.                                         

Klaas Kater

Klaas Kater 10 Klaas Kater was een Nederlands vakbondsleider. Hij richtte in 1877 het Nederlandsch Werkliedenverbond Patrimonium op.

Koos de la Rey

Koos de la Rey 10 Jacobus Herculaas de la Rey, better known as Koos de la Rey, was a South African military officer who served as a Boer general during the Second Boer War. De la Rey also had a political career and was one of the leading advocates of Boer independence.

Lieven de Key

Lieven de Key 10 Lieven de Key was a Flemish renaissance architect who after working in his native Flanders moved to work in the Dutch Republic. He is mostly known today for his works in Haarlem. His style is described by Simon Schama as Mannerist.

Van Rijckevorsel

Van Rijckevorsel 10 Van Rijckevorsel is een Nederlandse en Belgische familie waarvan leden vanaf 1829 tot de Nederlandse adel en vanaf 1976 tot de Belgische adel behoren.

Philip the Good

Philip the Good 10 Philip III the Good ruled as Duke of Burgundy from 1419 until his death in 1467. He was a member of a cadet line of the Valois dynasty, to which all 15th-century kings of France belonged. During his reign, the Burgundian State reached the apex of its prosperity and prestige, and became a leading centre of the arts.

Friedrich Paulus

Friedrich Paulus 10 Friedrich Wilhelm Ernst Paulus was a German Generalfeldmarschall during World War II who is best known for his surrender of the German 6th Army during the Battle of Stalingrad. The battle ended in disaster for the Wehrmacht when Soviet forces encircled the Germans within the city, leading to the ultimate death or capture of most of the 265,000-strong 6th Army, their Axis allies, and collaborators.

Piet Lieftinck

Piet Lieftinck 10 Pieter "Piet" Lieftinck (30 September 1902 – 9 July 1989) was a Dutch politician of the Christian Historical Union (CHU) party and later the Labour Party (PvdA) and economist.

Frans Naerebout

Frans Naerebout 10 Frans Naerebout was een vermaarde Nederlandse loods en mensenredder.                               

Odile of Alsace

Odile of Alsace 10 Odile of Alsace, also known as Odilia and Ottilia, born c. 662 - c. 720 at Mont Sainte-Odile), is a saint venerated in the Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church. She is a patroness saint of good eyesight and of the region of Alsace.

Floris Verster

Floris Verster 10 Floris Hendrik Verster was a Dutch painter.                                                         

Carel Goseling

Carel Goseling 10 Carolus Maria Joannes Franciscus (Carel) Goseling was a Dutch lawyer and politician for the Roman Catholic State Party (RKSP).

Adriaen van Bergen

Adriaen van Bergen 9 A Dutch skipper from Leur, Adriaen van Bergen devised the plot to recapture the city of Breda from the Spanish during the Eighty Years' War. In February 1590, he approached Prince Maurice with a Trojan Horse-type plan.

Willem de Clercq

Willem de Clercq 9 Willem de Clercq was a poet and leader of the Réveil, the Protestant Church Revival in the Netherlands. He is known for his diary entries, which contain extensive reports of the events he witnessed. He was also a secretary (1824-1831) and later a director (1831–1844) of the Netherlands Trading Society.

Jan van de Cappelle

Jan van de Cappelle 9 Jan van de Cappelle was a Dutch Golden Age painter of seascapes and winter landscapes, also notable as an industrialist and art collector. He is "now considered the outstanding marine painter of 17th century Holland".

Willem Marinus van Rossum

Willem Marinus van Rossum 9 Willem Marinus van Rossum, C.Ss.R. was a Dutch prelate of the Roman Catholic Church. He was made a cardinal in 1911, led the Apostolic Penitentiary from 1915 to 1918, and served as Prefect of the Congregation for the Propagation of the Faith from 1918 until his death.

M. Vasalis

M. Vasalis 9 M. Vasalis, was a Dutch poet and psychiatrist.                                                     

Jan Thijssen (verzetsstrijder)

Jan Thijssen (verzetsstrijder) 9 Jan Thijssen was een Nederlandse verzetsstrijder tijdens de Tweede Wereldoorlog. Zijn schuilnamen waren Lange Jan en Karel. Hij werkte bij de Ordedienst (OD) als hoofd van de Radiodienst. Op 31 december 1943 werd hij door jhr. Pieter Jacob Six (1894-1986), de chef staf van de OD, wegens eigengereid optreden uit de OD gezet. Op 1 mei 1943 richtte hij samen met zes geestverwanten de Raad van Verzet (RVV) op. Ten behoeve van de RVV bouwde hij een nieuwe Radiodienst op. Hij vervulde bij de RVV de functie van hoofd van het Operatiecentrum. Op 1 november 1944 werd hij door kolonel Henri Koot (1883-1959), de commandant van de Binnenlandse Strijdkrachten (BS), gelast met onmiddellijke inwerkingtreding van dit bevel het commando over het Operatiecentrum van de RVV en over de daaronder ressorterende brigades neer te leggen. Op 9 november 1944 werd Thijssen door de Sicherheitspolizei und SD op de rijksweg tussen Den Haag en Rotterdam tijdens een autocontrole gearresteerd. Op 8 maart 1945 werd Thijssen samen met 116 verzetsstrijders bij de "Woeste Hoeve" op de weg naar Apeldoorn gefusilleerd.

Van Foreest

Van Foreest 9 Van Foreest is the name of an aristocratic family that most probably originates from the region of Aachen, Germany, but is already found in the County of Holland in the 13th century. The family was already noble from earliest times ("Uradel"). In the early modern period, the family played a role in the city councils of Haarlem, Delft and Alkmaar. Members of the family are jonkheer.

Martinus Theunis Steyn

Martinus Theunis Steyn 9 Martinus Theunis Steyn was a South African lawyer, politician, and statesman. He was the sixth and last president of the independent Orange Free State from 1896 to 1902.

Martijn Smit

Martijn Smit 9 Martijn Erasmus Smit is een Nederlands PvdA-politicus en bestuurder. Sinds 18 mei 2017 is hij burgemeester van Beverwijk.

Jacques van Marken

Jacques van Marken 9 Jacob Cornelis (Jacques) van Marken was een vooruitstrevend ondernemer. Hij was de eerste sociaal-ondernemer die tal van op de arbeiders gerichte verbeteringen doorvoerde, zoals een ongevallenverzekering, winstdeling, bedrijfsopleidingen, scholing voor de kinderen van de arbeiders, de bouw van een fabrieksdorp, verzorgen van vertier en uitstapjes voor de arbeiders, het leiden van een model-onderneming enzovoort. Als eerste werkgever in Nederland stelde hij een ondernemingsraad ('Kern') in, en De Fabrieksbode, het eerste bedrijfsblad in Nederland. Hij was ook de grondlegger van het oorspronkelijke begrip social engineering, dat later naar de Verenigde Staten overwaaide.

Petrus Augustus de Génestet

Petrus Augustus de Génestet 9 Petrus Augustus de Génestet was a Dutch poet and theologian.                                       

Giovanni Battista Pergolesi

Giovanni Battista Pergolesi 9 Giovanni Battista Draghi, usually referred to as Giovanni Battista Pergolesi, was an Italian Baroque composer, violinist, and organist, leading exponent of the Baroque; he is considered one of the greatest Italian musicians of the first half of the 18th century and one of the most important representatives of the Neapolitan school.

Claudio Monteverdi

Claudio Monteverdi 9 Claudio Giovanni Antonio Monteverdi was an Italian composer, choirmaster and string player. A composer of both secular and sacred music, and a pioneer in the development of opera, he is considered a crucial transitional figure between the Renaissance and Baroque periods of music history.

Theo Thijssen

Theo Thijssen 9 Theodorus Johannes Thijssen was a Dutch writer, teacher and socialist politician. He is best known for the book Kees de Jongen.

Thea Beckman

Thea Beckman 9 Theodora Beckmann, better known by her pen name Thea Beckman, was a Dutch author of children's books.

Hendrikus Chabot

Hendrikus Chabot 9 Hendrikus "Henk" Chabot was a Dutch painter and sculptor.                                           

Jan Kappeyne van de Coppello

Jan Kappeyne van de Coppello 9 Joannes "Jan" Kappeyne van de Coppello was a Dutch liberal politician who served as Prime Minister of the Netherlands from 1877 to 1879.

William Booth

William Booth 9 William Booth was an English Methodist preacher who, along with his wife, Catherine, founded the Salvation Army and became its first General (1878–1912). The Christian movement with a quasi-military structure and government founded in 1865 has spread from London to many parts of the world. It is known for being one of the largest distributors of humanitarian aid.

Coba Ritsema

Coba Ritsema 9 Jacoba Johanna (Coba) Ritsema, was a portrait painter from the Netherlands.                         

Etty Hillesum

Etty Hillesum 9 Esther (Etty) Hillesum was a Dutch Jewish author of confessional letters and diaries which describe both her religious awakening and the persecutions of Jewish people in Amsterdam during the German occupation. In 1943, she was deported and murdered in the Auschwitz concentration camp.

Jan van Schaffelaar

Jan van Schaffelaar 9 Jan van Schaffelaar was a cavalry officer in the duchy of Guelders, the Netherlands. Born in the region of Barneveld in the Veluwe Quarter about 1445, he was in the military service of David of Burgundy, the Bishop of Utrecht during the region's factional war known as the Hook and Cod Wars. He famously jumped to his death to spare his besieged troops.

Frederik Hendrik van Oranje

Frederik Hendrik van Oranje 9 Frederik Hendrik, prins van Oranje en graaf van Nassau, was stadhouder, kapitein-generaal en admiraal-generaal van de Republiek der Zeven Verenigde Nederlanden. Vanwege zijn succesvolle belegeringen kreeg hij de bijnaam 'stedendwinger'.

George S. Patton

George S. Patton 9 George Smith Patton Jr. was a general in the United States Army who commanded the Seventh Army in the Mediterranean Theater of World War II, and the Third Army in France and Germany after the Allied invasion of Normandy in June 1944.

Horatius Cocles

Horatius Cocles 9 Publius Horatius Cocles was an officer in the army of the early Roman Republic who famously defended the Pons Sublicius from the invading army of Etruscan King Lars Porsena of Clusium in the late 6th century BC, during the war between Rome and Clusium. By defending the narrow end of the bridge, he and his companions were able to hold off the attacking army long enough to allow other Romans to destroy the bridge behind him, blocking the Etruscans' advance and saving the city.

Johan Buziau

Johan Buziau 9 Johannes Franciscus Buziau was een Nederlandse clowneske komiek en revue-artiest.                   

Alcide De Gasperi

Alcide De Gasperi 9 Alcide Amedeo Francesco De Gasperi was an Italian politician who founded the Christian Democracy party and served as prime minister of Italy in eight successive coalition governments from 1945 to 1953.

Faust

Faust 9 Faust is the protagonist of a classic German legend based on the historical Johann Georg Faust.     

Max Planck

Max Planck 9 Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck was a German theoretical physicist whose discovery of energy quanta won him the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1918.

Charlotte van Pallandt

Charlotte van Pallandt 9 Charlotte van Pallandt was a Dutch painter and sculptor.                                           

Willem Witsen

Willem Witsen 9 Willem Arnoldus Witsen was a Dutch painter and photographer associated with the Amsterdam Impressionism movement. Witsen's work, influenced by James McNeill Whistler, often portrayed calm urban landscapes as well as agricultural scenes. He also created portraits and photographs of prominent figures of the Amsterdam art world, as well as other artists, such as French Symbolist poet Paul Verlaine.

Hercules Seghers

Hercules Seghers 9 Hercules Pieterszoon Seghers or Segers was a Dutch painter and printmaker of the Dutch Golden Age. He has been called "the most inspired, experimental and original landscapist" of his period and an even more innovative printmaker.

Gregor Mendel

Gregor Mendel 9 Gregor Johann Mendel OSA was an Austrian-Czech biologist, meteorologist, mathematician, Augustinian friar and abbot of St. Thomas' Abbey in Brno (Brünn), Margraviate of Moravia. Mendel was born in a German-speaking family in the Silesian part of the Austrian Empire and gained posthumous recognition as the founder of the modern science of genetics. Though farmers had known for millennia that crossbreeding of animals and plants could favor certain desirable traits, Mendel's pea plant experiments conducted between 1856 and 1863 established many of the rules of heredity, now referred to as the laws of Mendelian inheritance.

Paul the Apostle

Paul the Apostle 9 Paul, commonly known as Paul the Apostle and Saint Paul, was a Christian apostle who spread the teachings of Jesus in the first-century world. For his contributions towards the New Testament, he is generally regarded as one of the most important figures of the Apostolic Age, and he also founded several Christian communities in Asia Minor and Europe from the mid-40s to the mid-50s AD.

Edward Jenner

Edward Jenner 9 Edward Jenner was an English physician and scientist who pioneered the concept of vaccines and created the smallpox vaccine, the world's first vaccine. The terms vaccine and vaccination are derived from Variolae vaccinae, the term devised by Jenner to denote cowpox. He used it in 1798 in the title of his Inquiry into the Variolae vaccinae known as the Cow Pox, in which he described the protective effect of cowpox against smallpox.

Pim Mulier

Pim Mulier 9 Willem Johan Herman Mulier, known as Pim Mulier was one of the leading figures in the sporting history of the Netherlands.

Perseus

Perseus 9 In Greek mythology, Perseus is the legendary founder of the Perseid dynasty. He was, alongside Cadmus and Bellerophon, the greatest Greek hero and slayer of monsters before the days of Heracles. He beheaded the Gorgon Medusa for Polydectes and saved Andromeda from the sea monster Cetus. He was the son of Zeus and the mortal Danaë, as well as the half-brother and great-grandfather of Heracles.

Gerrit Jan van Heuven Goedhart

Gerrit Jan van Heuven Goedhart 9 Gerrit Jan van Heuven Goedhart was a Dutch politician, diplomat and journalist. A member of the Labour Party (PvdA), he was Minister of Justice from 1944 to 1945 under Prime Minister Pieter Sjoerds Gerbrandy. He later served as the first United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees from 1951 until 1956.

Robert Stolz

Robert Stolz 9 Robert Elisabeth Stolz was an Austrian songwriter and conductor as well as a composer of operettas and film music.

Jodocus Hondius

Jodocus Hondius 9 Jodocus Hondius was a Flemish and Dutch engraver and cartographer. He is sometimes called Jodocus Hondius the Elder to distinguish him from his son Jodocus Hondius II. Hondius is best known for his early maps of the New World and Europe, for re-establishing the reputation of the work of Gerard Mercator, and for his portraits of Francis Drake. He inherited and republished the plates of Mercator, thus reviving his legacy, also making sure to include independent revisions to his work. One of the notable figures in the Golden Age of Dutch cartography, he helped establish Amsterdam as the center of cartography in Europe in the 17th century.

Harry S. Truman

Harry S. Truman 9 Harry S. Truman was the 33rd president of the United States, serving from 1945 to 1953. A member of the Democratic Party, he previously served as a United States senator from Missouri from 1935 to 1945 and briefly as the 34th vice president in 1945 under Franklin D. Roosevelt. Assuming the presidency after Roosevelt's death, Truman implemented the Marshall Plan in the wake of World War II to rebuild the economy of Western Europe and established both the Truman Doctrine and NATO to contain the expansion of Soviet communism. He proposed numerous liberal domestic reforms, but few were enacted by the conservative coalition that dominated the Congress.

Clara Wichmann

Clara Wichmann 9 Clara Gertrud Wichmann was a German–Dutch lawyer and anarchist feminist activist, who became a leading advocate of criminal justice reform and prison abolition in the Netherlands.

John Brugman

John Brugman 9 John Brugman, was a 15th-century Franciscan friar who became a renowned preacher in the Netherlands.

Rob Graafland

Rob Graafland 9 Rob Graafland was a Dutch painter. His work was part of the painting event in the art competition at the 1936 Summer Olympics.

Óscar Romero

Óscar Romero 9 Óscar Arnulfo Romero y Galdámez was a prelate of the Catholic Church in El Salvador. He served as Auxiliary Bishop of the Archdiocese of San Salvador, the Titular Bishop of Tambeae, as Bishop of Santiago de María, and finally as the fourth Archbishop of San Salvador. As archbishop, Romero spoke out against social injustice and violence amid the escalating conflict between the military government and left-wing insurgents that led to the Salvadoran Civil War. In 1980, Romero was shot by an assassin while celebrating Mass. Though no one was ever convicted for the crime, investigations by the UN-created Truth Commission for El Salvador concluded that Major Roberto D'Aubuisson, a death squad leader and later founder of the right-wing Nationalist Republican Alliance (ARENA) political party, had ordered the killing.

Woodrow Wilson

Woodrow Wilson 9 Thomas Woodrow Wilson was an American politician and academic who served as the 28th president of the United States from 1913 to 1921. A member of the Democratic Party, Wilson served as the president of Princeton University and as the governor of New Jersey before winning the 1912 presidential election. As president, Wilson changed the nation's economic policies and led the United States into World War I in 1917. He was the leading architect of the League of Nations, and his progressive stance on foreign policy came to be known as Wilsonianism.

Henri Jonas

Henri Jonas 9 Henri Charles Jonas was een Nederlandse beeldend kunstenaar. Jonas was een representant van de zogenoemde Limburgse School.

Kees van Dongen

Kees van Dongen 9 Cornelis Theodorus Maria "Kees" van Dongen was a Dutch-French painter who was one of the leading Fauves. Van Dongen's early work was influenced by the Hague School and symbolism and it evolved gradually into a rough pointillist style. From 1905 onwards – when he took part at the controversial 1905 Salon d'Automne exhibition – his style became more and more radical in its use of form and colour. The paintings he made in the period of 1905–1910 are considered by some to be his most important works. The themes of his work from that period are predominantly centered on the nightlife. He painted dancers, singers, masquerades, and theatre. Van Dongen gained a reputation for his sensuous – at times garish – portraits, especially of women.

Carolus Clusius

Carolus Clusius 9 Charles de l'Écluse, L'Escluse, or Carolus Clusius, seigneur de Watènes, was an Artois doctor and pioneering botanist, perhaps the most influential of all 16th-century scientific horticulturists.

Dieric Bouts

Dieric Bouts 9 Dieric Bouts was an Early Netherlandish painter. Bouts may have studied under Rogier van der Weyden, and his work was influenced by van der Weyden and Jan van Eyck. He worked in Leuven from 1457 until his death in 1475.

Ambrose

Ambrose 9 Ambrose of Milan, venerated as Saint Ambrose, was a theologian and statesman who served as Bishop of Milan from 374 to 397. He expressed himself prominently as a public figure, fiercely promoting Roman Christianity against Arianism and paganism. He left a substantial collection of writings, of which the best known include the ethical commentary De officiis ministrorum (377–391), and the exegetical Exameron (386–390). His preachings, his actions and his literary works, in addition to his innovative musical hymnography, made him one of the most influential ecclesiastical figures of the 4th century.

Hildo Krop

Hildo Krop 8 Hildebrand Lucien (Hildo) Krop was a prolific Dutch sculptor and furniture designer, widely known as the city sculptor of Amsterdam, where his work is well represented.

Lizzy Ansingh

Lizzy Ansingh 8 Maria Elisabeth Georgina Ansingh was a Dutch painter.                                               

Gijsbrecht IV of Amstel

Gijsbrecht IV of Amstel 8 Gijsbrecht IV of Amstel or Gijsbrecht IV van Amstel was a powerful lord in the medieval County of Holland and a member of the Van Aemstel family. His territory was Amstelland, and his son was Jan I of Amstel.

Jan van Zutphen

Jan van Zutphen 8 Johannes Andries van Zutphen was een Nederlands vakbondsbestuurder van de diamantbewerkersbond en oprichter en voorzitter van sanatorium Zonnestraal in Hilversum. Hij is erkend als een inspirerend strijder voor de rechten van arbeiders en tegen tuberculose. Hij wordt geassocieerd met het zogeheten 'Koperen Stelen Fonds' - naar de steeltjes van versleten gereedschap die te gelde gemaakt werden om tuberculosezorg van de vakbond op te bouwen.

August Snieders

August Snieders 8 August Snieders was a Flemish journalist and writer. He started his career in 's-Hertogenbosch, but later moved to Antwerp. In 1845, he became editor of the newspaper Het Handelsblad, of which he was head editor from 1849 until 1899. Under his management Het Handelsblad became the most important Flemish newspaper and he himself the most authoritative Flemish journalist of the nineteenth century. He was a sound supporter of the catholic and Flemish ideals in Belgium. He was a brother of Jan Renier Snieders.

Marius Bauer

Marius Bauer 8 Marius Alexander Jacques Bauer was a Dutch painter, etcher and lithographer, best known for his Oriental scenes. His style was largely Impressionistic, although it also derived to some extent from the Hague School. Many of his works were based on photographs he bought during his travels, some of which were by famous photographers such as Félix Bonfils.

Clara Eggink

Clara Eggink 8 Clara Hendrika Catharina Clementine Helène Eggink, was een Nederlands dichteres, prozaschrijfster en vertaalster.

Pliny the Elder

Pliny the Elder 8 Gaius Plinius Secundus, called Pliny the Elder, was a Roman author, naturalist, natural philosopher, naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire, and a friend of the emperor Vespasian. He wrote the encyclopedic Naturalis Historia, which became an editorial model for encyclopedias. He spent most of his spare time studying, writing, and investigating natural and geographic phenomena in the field.

Jan Rudolph Slotemaker de Bruïne

Jan Rudolph Slotemaker de Bruïne 8 Jan Rudolph Slotemaker de Bruïne was a Dutch politician of the defunct Christian Historical Union (CHU) party now merged into the Christian Democratic Appeal (CDA) party and theologian.

Saint Ursula

Saint Ursula 8 Ursula was a Romano-British virgin and martyr possibly of royal origin. She is venerated as a saint in the Roman Catholic Church and the Anglican Communion. Her feast day in the pre-1970 General Roman Calendar and in some regional calendars of the ordinary form of the Roman Rite is 21 October.

Raoul Wallenberg

Raoul Wallenberg 8 Raoul Gustaf Wallenberg was a Swedish architect, businessman, diplomat, and humanitarian. He saved thousands of Jews in German-occupied Hungary during the Holocaust from German Nazis and Hungarian fascists during the later stages of World War II. While serving as Sweden's special envoy in Budapest between July and December 1944, Wallenberg issued protective passports and sheltered Jews in buildings which he declared as Swedish territory.

Clément van Maasdijk

Clément van Maasdijk 8 Clément Guillaume Jean van Maasdijk was een Nederlandse vliegenier en luchtvaartpionier. Hij was de eerste Nederlander die omkwam bij een vliegtuigongeluk.

Henry Purcell

Henry Purcell 8 Henry Purcell was an English composer of Baroque music.                                             

Herman Willem Daendels

Herman Willem Daendels 8 Herman Willem Daendels was a Dutch revolutionary, military leader, and statesman. He was 36th Governor General of the Dutch East Indies, a position he held from 1808 to 1811.

Cissy van Marxveldt

Cissy van Marxveldt 8 Sietske de Haan, better known by her pen name Cissy van Marxveldt, was a Dutch writer of children's books. She is best known for her series of Joop ter Heul novels.

Willem Frederik Hermans

Willem Frederik Hermans 8 Willem Frederik Hermans was a Dutch author of poetry, novels, short stories, plays, as well as book-length studies, essays, and literary criticism. His most famous works are The House of Refuge, The Darkroom of Damocles, and Beyond Sleep.

Van Aerssen

Van Aerssen 8 Het geslacht Van Aerssen was een van oorsprong uit de Zuidelijke Nederlanden komend geslacht waarvan leden in 1814 tot de adel van het Koninkrijk der Nederlanden ging behoren. Een tak behoort tot de Belgische adel.

Louis Paul Boon

Louis Paul Boon 8 Lodewijk Paul Aalbrecht Boon was a Belgian writer of novels, poetry, pornography, columns and art criticism. He was also a painter. He is best known for the novels My Little War (1947), the diptych Chapel Road (1953) / Summer in Termuren (1956), Menuet (1955) and Pieter Daens (1971).

Jan Wils

Jan Wils 8 Jan Wils was a Dutch architect. He was born in Alkmaar and died in Voorburg.                       

Hendrick de Keyser

Hendrick de Keyser 8 Hendrick de Keyser was a Dutch sculptor, merchant in Belgium bluestone, and architect who was instrumental in establishing a late Renaissance form of Mannerism changing into Baroque. Most of his works appeared in Amsterdam, some elsewhere in the Dutch Republic. He was the father of Pieter and Thomas de Keyser and Willem, and the uncle of Huybert de Keyser, who became his apprentices and all involved in building, decoration and architecture.

Saint Eustace

Saint Eustace 8 Saint Eustace is revered as a Christian martyr. According to legend, he was martyred in AD 118, at the command of emperor Hadrian. Eustace was a pagan Roman general, who converted to Christianity after he had a vision of the cross while hunting. He lost all his wealth, was separated from his wife and sons, and went into exile in Egypt. Called back to lead the Roman army by emperor Trajan, Eustace was happily reunited with his family and restored to high social standing, but after the death of Trajan, he and his family were martyred under Hadrian for refusing to sacrifice to pagan Roman gods.

Olof Palme

Olof Palme 8 Sven Olof Joachim Palme was a Swedish politician and statesman who served as Prime Minister of Sweden from 1969 to 1976 and 1982 to 1986. Palme led the Swedish Social Democratic Party from 1969 until his assassination in 1986.

Isaäc Dignus Fransen van de Putte

Isaäc Dignus Fransen van de Putte 8 Isaäc Dignus Fransen van de Putte was a Dutch politician who briefly served as Prime Minister of the Netherlands in 1866, and as Minister of Colonial Affairs from 1863 to 1866 and 1872 to 1874.

Sophie of Württemberg

Sophie of Württemberg 8 Sophie of Württemberg was Queen of the Netherlands as the first wife of King William III. Sophie separated from William in 1855 but continued to perform her duties as queen in public. She was known for her progressive and liberal views and corresponded with several famous intellectuals.

René Antoine Ferchault de Réaumur

René Antoine Ferchault de Réaumur 8 René Antoine Ferchault de Réaumur was a French entomologist and writer who contributed to many different fields, especially the study of insects. He introduced the Réaumur temperature scale.

Carry Pothuis-Smit

Carry Pothuis-Smit 8 Wilhelmina Carolina Benjamina "Carry" Pothuis-Smit was a politician and feminist in the Netherlands. She was the first woman elected to the Senate of the Netherlands on 23 March 1920.

Count Basie

Count Basie 8 William James "Count" Basie was an American jazz pianist, organist, bandleader, and composer. In 1935, he formed the Count Basie Orchestra, and in 1936 took them to Chicago for a long engagement and their first recording. He led the group for almost 50 years, creating innovations like the use of two "split" tenor saxophones, emphasizing the rhythm section, riffing with a big band, using arrangers to broaden their sound, and others. Many musicians came to prominence under his direction, including the tenor saxophonists Lester Young and Herschel Evans, the guitarist Freddie Green, trumpeters Buck Clayton and Harry "Sweets" Edison, plunger trombonist Al Grey, and singers Jimmy Rushing, Helen Humes, Thelma Carpenter, and Joe Williams.

Sibrand Gratama

Sibrand Gratama 8 Sibrand Gratama was een Nederlandse jurist en burgemeester.                                         

Jan Blanken

Jan Blanken 8 Jan Blanken was een Nederlands waterbouwkundig ingenieur.                                           

Leonard Springer

Leonard Springer 8 Leonard Antony Springer was een Nederlands tuin- en landschapsarchitect.                           

Jacques Schreurs

Jacques Schreurs 8 Jacobus Hubertus (Jacques) Schreurs was een Nederlands priester, dichter en schrijver. Hij dankte zijn bekendheid vooral aan zijn deels autobiografische, driedelige roman Kroniek eener parochie, waarop enkele decennia later de succesvolle KRO-televisieserie uit de jaren 1978-1980 Dagboek van een herdershond is gebaseerd. In mei 2022 ging in MECC Maastricht de gelijknamige musical in première.

James Cook

James Cook 8 Captain James Cook was a British explorer, cartographer and naval officer famous for his three voyages between 1768 and 1779 in the Pacific Ocean and to New Zealand and Australia in particular. He made detailed maps of Newfoundland prior to making three voyages to the Pacific, during which he achieved the first recorded European contact with the eastern coastline of Australia and the Hawaiian Islands and the first recorded circumnavigation of New Zealand.

Joris van Spilbergen

Joris van Spilbergen 8 Joris van Spilbergen was a Dutch naval officer. Joris van Spilbergen was born in Antwerp in 1568.   

Peter Canisius

Peter Canisius 8 Peter Canisius was a Dutch Jesuit priest. He became known for his strong support for the Catholic faith during the Protestant Reformation in Germany, Austria, Bohemia, Moravia, Switzerland and the British Isles. The restoration of the Catholic Church in Germany after the Protestant Reformation is largely attributed to the work there of the Society of Jesus, which he led. He is venerated in the Catholic Church as a saint and as a Doctor of the Church.

Louise van Panhuys

Louise van Panhuys 8 Louise van Panhuys née von Barckhaus of Wiesenhütten was a German botanical artist and landscape painter.

Max Havelaar

Max Havelaar 8 Max Havelaar; or, The Coffee Auctions of the Dutch Trading Company is an 1860 novel by Multatuli, which played a key role in shaping and modifying Dutch colonial policy in the Dutch East Indies in the nineteenth and early twentieth century. In the novel, the protagonist, Max Havelaar, tries to battle against a corrupt government system in Java, which was then a Dutch colony. The novel's opening line is famous: "Ik ben makelaar in koffie, en woon op de Lauriergracht, Nº 37.".

Jan Palach

Jan Palach 8 Jan Palach was a Czech student of history and political economics at Charles University in Prague. His self-immolation was a political protest against the end of the Prague Spring resulting from the 1968 invasion of Czechoslovakia by the Warsaw Pact armies.

Bertha von Suttner

Bertha von Suttner 8 Bertha Sophie Felicitas Freifrau von Suttner was an Austro-Bohemian noblewoman, pacifist and novelist. In 1905, she became the second female Nobel laureate, the first woman to be awarded the Nobel Peace Prize, and the first Austrian and Czech laureate.

Van Teylingen (I)

Van Teylingen (I) 8 Van Teylingen was de naam van een adellijk geslacht uit Holland, dat in de middeleeuwen een grote rol speelde in de omgeving van de graven van Holland.

Claudius

Claudius 8 Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus was a Roman emperor, ruling from AD 41 to 54. A member of the Julio-Claudian dynasty, Claudius was born to Drusus and Antonia Minor at Lugdunum in Roman Gaul, where his father was stationed as a military legate. He was the first Roman emperor to be born outside Italy.

Louis Davids

Louis Davids 8 Louis Davids was a Dutch actor, singer, comedian and revue artist. He is widely considered one of the biggest names in Dutch performing arts.

Abraham van der Hulst

Abraham van der Hulst 8 Abraham van der Hulst was a Dutch admiral in the 17th century.                                     

Billie Holiday

Billie Holiday 8 Billie Holiday was an American jazz and swing music singer. Nicknamed "Lady Day" by her friend and music partner, Lester Young, Holiday made a significant contribution to jazz music and pop singing. Her vocal style, strongly influenced by jazz instrumentalists, inspired a new way of manipulating phrasing and tempo. She was known for her vocal delivery and improvisational skills.

Simone de Beauvoir

Simone de Beauvoir 8 Simone Lucie Ernestine Marie Bertrand de Beauvoir was a French existentialist philosopher, writer, social theorist, and feminist activist. Though she did not consider herself a philosopher, nor was she considered one at the time of her death, she had a significant influence on both feminist existentialism and feminist theory.

Jan Smuts

Jan Smuts 8 Field Marshal Jan Christian Smuts, was a South African statesman, military leader and philosopher. In addition to holding various military and cabinet posts, he served as prime minister of the Union of South Africa from 1919 to 1924 and 1939 to 1948.

Joanna, Duchess of Brabant

Joanna, Duchess of Brabant 8 Joanna, Duchess of Brabant, also known as Jeanne, was a ruling Duchess (Duke) of Brabant from 1355 until her death. She was duchess of Brabant until the occupation of the duchy by her brother-in-law Louis II of Flanders. Following her death, the rights to the duchy of Brabant went to her great-nephew Anthony of Burgundy, son of Philip the Bold.

Robert Boyle

Robert Boyle 8 Robert Boyle was an Anglo-Irish natural philosopher, chemist, physicist, alchemist and inventor. Boyle is largely regarded today as the first modern chemist, and therefore one of the founders of modern chemistry, and one of the pioneers of modern experimental scientific method. He is best known for Boyle's law, which describes the inversely proportional relationship between the absolute pressure and volume of a gas, if the temperature is kept constant within a closed system. Among his works, The Sceptical Chymist is seen as a cornerstone book in the field of chemistry. He was a devout and pious Anglican and is noted for his writings in theology.

Ferdinand Huyck

Ferdinand Huyck 8 Ferdinand Huyck is een historische avonturenroman uit 1840 van Jacob van Lennep. Het speelt zich af vlak voor 1740. Het boek wordt beschouwd als het meesterwerk van de schrijver en kende in de negentiende eeuw een enorme populariteit.

Ferdinand von Zeppelin

Ferdinand von Zeppelin 8 Count Ferdinand von Zeppelin was a German general and later inventor of the Zeppelin rigid airships. His name became synonymous with airships and dominated long-distance flight until the 1930s. He founded the company Luftschiffbau Zeppelin.

Pablo Picasso

Pablo Picasso 8 Pablo Ruiz Picasso was a Spanish painter, sculptor, printmaker, ceramicist, and theatre designer who spent most of his adult life in France. One of the most influential artists of the 20th century, he is known for co-founding the Cubist movement, the invention of constructed sculpture, the co-invention of collage, and for the wide variety of styles that he helped develop and explore. Among his most famous works are the proto-Cubist Les Demoiselles d'Avignon (1907) and the anti-war painting Guernica (1937), a dramatic portrayal of the bombing of Guernica by German and Italian air forces during the Spanish Civil War.

Jan van Amstel

Jan van Amstel 8 Jan van Amstel, or Jan de Hollander, was a Dutch Northern Renaissance painter.                     

Werner von Siemens

Werner von Siemens 8 Ernst Werner Siemens was a German electrical engineer, inventor and industrialist. Siemens's name has been adopted as the SI unit of electrical conductance, the siemens. He founded the electrical and telecommunications conglomerate Siemens and invented the electric tram, trolley bus, electric locomotive and electric elevator.

Hendrik Conscience

Hendrik Conscience 8 Henri (Hendrik) Conscience was a Belgian author. He is considered the pioneer of Dutch-language literature in Flanders, writing at a time when Belgium was dominated by the French language among the upper classes, in literature and government. Conscience fought as a Belgian revolutionary in 1830 and was a notable writer in the Romanticist style popular in the early 19th century. He is best known for his romantic nationalist novel, The Lion of Flanders (1838), inspired by the victory of a Flemish peasant militia over French knights at the 1302 Battle of the Golden Spurs during the Franco-Flemish War.

Robert Fruin

Robert Fruin 8 Robert Jacobus Fruin was a Dutch historian. A follower of Leopold von Ranke, he introduced the scientific study of history in the Netherlands when he was professor of Dutch national history at Leiden University.

Joachim le Sage ten Broek

Joachim le Sage ten Broek 8 Joachim George le Sage ten Broek was een Nederlands notaris, schrijver, historicus en journalist. Hij was een belangrijke rooms-katholieke emancipator, polemist en apologeet. Voorts schreef hij gedichten, waarin hij zich een epigoon van Hendrik Tollens toont.

Bertus Aafjes

Bertus Aafjes 8 Lambertus Jacobus Johannes "Bertus" Aafjes was a Dutch poet noteworthy for his poems about resistance to German occupation during World War II.

Ko Suurhoff

Ko Suurhoff 8 Jacobus Gerardus "Ko" Suurhoff was a Dutch politician of the defunct Social Democratic Workers' Party (SDAP) and co-founder of the Labour Party (PvdA) and trade union leader.

Jelle Zijlstra

Jelle Zijlstra 8 Jelle Zijlstra was a Dutch politician of the defunct Anti-Revolutionary Party (ARP) now the Christian Democratic Appeal (CDA) party and economist who served as Prime Minister of the Netherlands from 22 November 1966 until 5 April 1967.

Maria Louise Baldwin

Maria Louise Baldwin 8 Maria Louise Baldwin was an American educator and civic leader born and raised in Cambridge, Massachusetts. She lived all her life in Cambridge and Boston. Writing in 1917, W. E. B. Du Bois claimed she had achieved the greatest distinction in education to that time of any African-American not working in segregated schools.

Simon Spoor

Simon Spoor 7 General Simon Hendrik Spoor was the Chief of Staff of the Royal Netherlands East Indies Army and the Royal Dutch Army in the Dutch East Indies, from 1946 to 1949, during the Indonesian National Revolution.

Jan Pieter Heije

Jan Pieter Heije 7 Jan Pieter Heije was een Nederlandse arts, die vooral bekend is geworden om zijn inzet voor dichtkunst en muziek. Liederen van zijn hand, zoals 'Daar zaten zeven kikkertjes' en het sinterklaaslied 'Zie de maan schijnt door de bomen', leven tot op de dag van vandaag voort.

Gregorius

Gregorius 7 Gregorius or The Good Sinner is a Middle High German narrative poem by Hartmann von Aue. Written around 1190 in rhyming couplets, it tells the story of a child born of the incestuous union of a brother and sister, who is brought up in a monastery, ignorant of his origins, marries his mother, repents of his sins and becomes pope.

Van Hardenbroek

Van Hardenbroek 7 Van Hardenbroek is een van de oudste adellijke geslachten van Nederland en leden ervan behoren sinds 1814 tot de Nederlandse adel van het koninkrijk.

Gerard Heymans

Gerard Heymans 7 Gerardus Heymans was a Dutch philosopher and psychologist. From 1890 to 1927, he worked as a professor of philosophy at the University of Groningen (UG). He also served as rector magnificus (president) of the UG in the academic year 1908–1909. Heymans is one of the most influential philosophers of the Netherlands and the pioneer of Dutch psychology. The establishment of his psychological laboratory marked the start of experimental psychology in the Netherlands.

Bavo of Ghent

Bavo of Ghent 7 Saint Bavo of Ghent is a Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox saint. He was the son of Pepin of Landen and the brother of saints Begga and Gertrude of Nivelles.

Abraham Rademaker

Abraham Rademaker 7 Abraham Rademaker was an 18th-century painter and printmaker from the Northern Netherlands.         

Saint Stephen

Saint Stephen 7 Stephen is traditionally venerated as the protomartyr or first martyr of Christianity. According to the Acts of the Apostles, he was a deacon in the early church at Jerusalem who angered members of various synagogues by his teachings. Accused of blasphemy at his trial, he made a speech denouncing the Jewish authorities who were sitting in judgment on him and was then stoned to death. Saul of Tarsus, later known as Paul the Apostle, a Pharisee and Roman citizen who would later become an apostle, participated in Stephen's martyrdom.

Paul Steenbergen

Paul Steenbergen 7 Paul Jozef Steenbergen was een Nederlands acteur en toneelregisseur.                               

Alexander Graham Bell

Alexander Graham Bell 7 Alexander Graham Bell was a Scottish-born Canadian-American inventor, scientist and engineer who is credited with patenting the first practical telephone. He also co-founded the American Telephone and Telegraph Company (AT&T) in 1885.

Nikola Tesla

Nikola Tesla 7 Nikola Tesla was a Serbian-American inventor, electrical engineer, mechanical engineer, and futurist. He is known for his contributions to the design of the modern alternating current (AC) electricity supply system.

Marcellus Emants

Marcellus Emants 7 Marcellus Emants was a Dutch novelist whose work is considered one of the few examples of Dutch Naturalism. His writing is seen as a first step towards the renewing force of the Tachtigers towards modern Dutch literature, a movement which started around the 1880s. His most well-known work is A Posthumous Confession, published in 1894, translated by J. M. Coetzee.

Johannes Stalpaert van der Wiele

Johannes Stalpaert van der Wiele 7 Johannes Stalpaert van der Wiele studeerde in Rome en Leuven en werd priester in Delft. Naast het priesterschap was hij schrijver. Hij schreef lofzangen op heiligen. Daarnaast was hij een belangrijke schrijver van de contrareformatie, hij schreef strijddichten tegen de gereformeerde leer. Hij werd begraven in de Oude Kerk in Delft.

Teding van Berkhout

Teding van Berkhout 7 Teding van Berkhout is een Nederlands geslacht, waarvan leden vanaf 1815 behoren tot de Nederlandse adel.

Cornelis van Tienhoven

Cornelis van Tienhoven 7 Cornelis van Tienhoven was an official of New Amsterdam from 1638 to 1656, and one of the more prominent people in New Netherland. He served in the administrations of three governors: Wouter van Twiller, Willem Kieft, and Peter Stuyvesant. As provincial secretary and schout-fiscal, he was deeply involved in the administrative, legal, and financial activities of New Amsterdam. He was widely disliked, and contemporary descriptions of his character and behavior are unflattering.

Marcus Aurelius

Marcus Aurelius 7 Marcus Aurelius Antoninus was Roman emperor from 161 to 180 and a Stoic philosopher. He was a member of the Nerva–Antonine dynasty, the last of the rulers later known as the Five Good Emperors and the last emperor of the Pax Romana, an age of relative peace, calm, and stability for the Roman Empire lasting from 27 BC to 180 AD. He served as Roman consul in 140, 145, and 161.

Julius Caesar

Julius Caesar 7 Gaius Julius Caesar was a Roman general and statesman. A member of the First Triumvirate, Caesar led the Roman armies in the Gallic Wars before defeating his political rival Pompey in a civil war, and subsequently became dictator from 49 BC until his assassination in 44 BC. He played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire.

Anna Reijnvaan

Anna Reijnvaan 7 Johanna Paulina (Anna) Reijnvaan, ook gespeld met een Y als Reynvaan, was een Nederlandse verpleegster en adjunct-directrice in het Buitengasthuis en in het Wilhelmina Gasthuis in Amsterdam, de voorlopers van het Academisch Medisch Centrum (AMC) in Amsterdam Zuid-Oost dat in 2018 fuseerde is met het Vrije Universiteits medisch centrum (VUmc) tot het Amsterdam Universitair Medisch Centrum.

Charlie Parker

Charlie Parker 7 Charles Parker Jr., nicknamed "Bird" or "Yardbird", was an American jazz saxophonist, band leader, and composer. Parker was a highly influential soloist and leading figure in the development of bebop, a form of jazz characterized by fast tempos, virtuosic technique, and advanced harmonies. He was a virtuoso and introduced revolutionary rhythmic and harmonic ideas into jazz, including rapid passing chords, new variants of altered chords, and chord substitutions. Primarily a player of the alto saxophone, Parker's tone ranged from clean and penetrating to sweet and somber.

Jan van Ravesteyn

Jan van Ravesteyn 7 Jan Anthonisz van Ravesteyn was a successful portrait painter to the Dutch court in The Hague.     

Ko van Dijk jr.

Ko van Dijk jr. 7 Ko van Dijk (junior) (Amsterdam, 25 juli 1916 – Den Haag, 6 mei 1978) was een Nederlands toneel-, televisie-, film- en hoorspelacteur en daarnaast toneelregisseur. Hij speelde in 46 jaar ruim 300 rollen, op toneel, in televisieseries, speelfilms en hoorspelen.

Gerard Reve

Gerard Reve 7 Gerard Kornelis van het Reve was a Dutch writer. He started writing as Simon Gerard van het Reve and adopted the shorter Gerard Reve in 1973. Together with Willem Frederik Hermans and Harry Mulisch, he is considered one of the "Great Three" of Dutch post-war literature. His 1981 novel De vierde man was the basis for Paul Verhoeven's 1983 film.

Syb Talma

Syb Talma 7 Aritius Sybrandus (Syb) Talma was a Dutch politician.                                             

Charles Dickens

Charles Dickens 7 Charles John Huffam Dickens was an English novelist and social critic who created some of the world's best-known fictional characters, and is regarded by many as the greatest novelist of the Victorian era. His works enjoyed unprecedented popularity during his lifetime and, by the 20th century, critics and scholars had recognised him as a literary genius. His novels and short stories are widely read today.

David Bles

David Bles 7 David Bles, was a 19th-century painter from the Northern Netherlands.                               

Jan Greshoff

Jan Greshoff 7 Jan Greshoff was a Dutch journalist, poet, and literary critic. He was the 1967 recipient of the Constantijn Huygens Prize.

Neil Armstrong

Neil Armstrong 7 Neil Alden Armstrong was an American astronaut and aeronautical engineer who in 1969 became the first person to walk on the Moon. He was also a naval aviator, test pilot, and university professor.

François de Casembroot

François de Casembroot 7 François de Casembroot was an officer of the Royal Netherlands Navy.                               

Albertus Jacobus Duymaer van Twist

Albertus Jacobus Duymaer van Twist 7 Albertus Jacobus Duymaer van Twist was the Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies from 1851 to 1856.

Mary of Burgundy

Mary of Burgundy 7 Mary of Burgundy, nicknamed the Rich, was a member of the House of Valois-Burgundy who ruled a collection of states that included the duchies of Limburg, Brabant, Luxembourg, the counties of Namur, Holland, Hainaut and other territories, from 1477 until her death in 1482.

Willem van Abcoude

Willem van Abcoude 7 Willem van Abcoude en Duurstede was een edelman uit het Sticht. Hij was heer van Abcoude, Wijk bij Duurstede, Gaasbeek, Putten en Strijen.

Gerard Bruning (beeldhouwer)

Gerard Bruning (beeldhouwer) 7 Gerard Marie (Gerard) Bruning was een Nederlandse beeldhouwer, schrijver, graficus, fotograaf en schilder.

George Martens

George Martens 7 George William Martens was an Australian politician. He was an Australian Labor Party member of the Australian House of Representatives from 1928 to 1946, representing the electorate of Herbert.

Elizabeth (biblical figure)

Elizabeth (biblical figure) 7 Elizabeth was the mother of John the Baptist, the wife of Zechariah, and maternal aunt of Mary, mother of Jesus, according to the Gospel of Luke and in Islamic tradition. She was past normal child-bearing age when she conceived and gave birth to John.

Gerard David

Gerard David 7 Gerard David was an Early Netherlandish painter and manuscript illuminator known for his brilliant use of color. Only a bare outline of his life survives, although some facts are known. He may have been the Meester gheraet van brugghe who became a master of the Antwerp guild in 1515. He was very successful in his lifetime and probably ran two workshops, in Antwerp and Bruges. Like many painters of his period, his reputation diminished in the 17th century until he was rediscovered in the 19th century.

Anne Vondeling

Anne Vondeling 7 Anne Vondeling was a Dutch politician of the Labour Party (PvdA) and agronomist.                   

Saint Cecilia

Saint Cecilia 7 Saint Cecilia, also spelled Cecelia, was a Roman virgin martyr and is venerated in Catholic, Orthodox, Anglican, and some Lutheran churches, such as the Church of Sweden. She became the patroness of music and musicians, it being written that, as the musicians played at her wedding, Cecilia "sang in her heart to the Lord". Musical compositions are dedicated to her, and her feast, on 22 November, is the occasion of concerts and musical festivals. She is also known as Cecilia of Rome.

Charles II, Duke of Guelders

Charles II, Duke of Guelders 7 Charles II was a member of the House of Egmond who ruled as Duke of Guelders and Count of Zutphen from 1492 until his death. He had a principal role in the Frisian peasant rebellion and the Guelders Wars.

Hector

Hector 7 In Greek mythology, Hector is a Trojan prince, and one of four sons to the King of Troy, he was a hero and the greatest warrior for Troy during the Trojan War. He is a major character in Homer's Iliad, where he leads the Trojans and their allies in the defense of Troy, killing countless Greek warriors and the occasional Hero. However he is ultimately killed in single combat by the Greek Hero Achilles, who later drags his dead body around the city of Troy behind his chariot.

Karel Appel

Karel Appel 7 Christiaan Karel Appel was a Dutch painter, sculptor, and poet. He started painting at the age of fourteen and studied at the Rijksakademie in Amsterdam in the 1940s. He was one of the founders of the avant-garde movement CoBrA in 1948. He was also an avid sculptor and has had works featured in MoMA and other museums worldwide.

Augusta de Wit

Augusta de Wit 7 Augusta de Wit was a Dutch writer, born in the Dutch East Indies and best known for writing about Java.

Tom Manders (Dutch artist)

Tom Manders (Dutch artist) 7 Antoon (Tom) Manders was a Dutch artist, comedian and cabaret performer. In later role, he became better known as Dorus.

John Amos Comenius

John Amos Comenius 7 John Amos Comenius was a Moravian philosopher, pedagogue and theologian who is considered the father of modern education. He served as the last bishop of the Unity of the Brethren before becoming a religious refugee and one of the earliest champions of universal education, a concept eventually set forth in his book Didactica Magna. As an educator and theologian, he led schools and advised governments across Protestant Europe through the middle of the seventeenth century.

Saint Vitus

Saint Vitus 7 Vitus, whose name is sometimes rendered Guy or Guido, was a Christian martyr from Sicily. His surviving hagiography is pure legend. The dates of his actual life are unknown. He has for long been tied to the Sicilian martyrs Modestus and Crescentia but in the earliest sources it is clear that these were originally different traditions that later became combined. The figures of Modestus and Crescentia are probably fictitious.

Andries Pretorius

Andries Pretorius 6 Andries Wilhelmus Jacobus Pretorius was a leader of the Boers who was instrumental in the creation of the South African Republic, as well as the earlier but short-lived Natalia Republic, in present-day South Africa. The large city of Pretoria, executive capital of South Africa, is named after him.

Albert Hahn

Albert Hahn 6 Albert Pieter Hahn was a Dutch political cartoonist, caricaturist, poster artist and book cover designer; well known for his socialist and antimilitaristic viewpoints. Some of his drawings, especially those of the railroad strikes of 1903, have been regularly used in history textbooks. His adopted son, Albert Hahn jr., was also an artist, so he is sometimes referred to as "Sr.".

Maarten van Rossum

Maarten van Rossum 6 Maarten van Rossum was a military tactician of the duchy of Guelders who became field marshal in the service of Charles, Duke of Guelders. He was greatly feared outside his home country for the ruthless manner in which he waged war. In a long career, he often put his motto ""Blaken en branden is het sieraad van de oorlog" into practice. His way of waging war was quite similar to that of his Italian colleagues, the condottieri, and was characterized by guerrilla-like tactics, in which the civilian population was spared even less than was usual in his time.

John Lennon

John Lennon 6 John Winston Ono Lennon was an English singer, songwriter and musician. He gained worldwide fame as the founder, co-songwriter, co-lead vocalist and rhythm guitarist of the Beatles. His work included music, writing, drawings and film. His songwriting partnership with Paul McCartney remains the most successful in history.

Augustus

Augustus 6 Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus, also known as Octavian, was the founder of the Roman Empire. He reigned as the first Roman emperor from 27 BC until his death in AD 14. The reign of Augustus initiated an imperial cult, as well as an era of imperial peace in which the Roman world was largely free of armed conflict. The Principate system of government was established during his reign and lasted until the Crisis of the Third Century.

Van Boetzelaer

Van Boetzelaer 6 Van Boetzelaer is an old aristocratic family that stems from the region of Kalkar, Germany.         

Michiel Jansz. van Mierevelt

Michiel Jansz. van Mierevelt 6 Michiel Janszoon van Mierevelt was a Dutch painter and draftsman of the Dutch Golden Age.           

Joannes van der Brugghen

Joannes van der Brugghen 6 Joannes van der Brugghen, known in France as Jean vander Bruggen, was a Flemish painter, engraver, art dealer and publisher who was active in Antwerp and Paris.

Willem Bloys van Treslong

Willem Bloys van Treslong 6 Willem Bloys van Treslong was a nobleman from the Southern Netherlands and military leader during the Dutch war of Independence. He was best known as one of the leaders of the Sea Beggars who captured Den Briel on 1 April 1572.

Cornelis de Witt

Cornelis de Witt 6 Cornelis de Witt was a Dutch politician and naval commander of the Golden Age. During the First Stadtholderless Period De Witt was an influential member of the Dutch States Party, and was in opposition to the House of Orange. In the Rampjaar of 1672 he was lynched together with his brother Johan de Witt by a crowd incited by Orange partisans.

Cornelis Tromp

Cornelis Tromp 6 Cornelis Maartenszoon Tromp, Count of Sølvesborg was a Dutch naval officer who served as lieutenant-admiral general in the Dutch Navy, and briefly as a general admiral in the Royal Danish-Norwegian Navy. Tromp is one of the most celebrated and controversial figures in Dutch naval history due to his actions in the Anglo-Dutch Wars and the Scanian War. His father was the renowned Lieutenant Admiral Maarten Tromp.

Hadrian

Hadrian 6 Hadrian was Roman emperor from 117 to 138. Hadrian was born in Italica, close to modern Seville in Spain, an Italic settlement in Hispania Baetica; his branch of the Aelia gens, the Aeli Hadriani, came from the town of Hadria in eastern Italy. He was a member of the Nerva-Antonine dynasty.

Mother Teresa

Mother Teresa 6 Mary Teresa Bojaxhiu MC, better known as Mother Teresa, was an Albanian-Indian Catholic nun and the founder of the Missionaries of Charity. Born in Skopje, then part of the Ottoman Empire, at the age of 18 she moved to Ireland and later to India, where she lived most of her life. On 4 September 2016, she was canonised by the Catholic Church as Saint Teresa of Calcutta. The anniversary of her death, 5 September, is her feast day.

J. L. C. Pompe van Meerdervoort

J. L. C. Pompe van Meerdervoort 6 Johannes Lijdius Catharinus Pompe van Meerdervoort was a Dutch physician based at Nagasaki, in Bakumatsu period Japan. While in Japan, he briefly taught medicine, chemistry and photography at the Nagasaki Naval Training Center, and established a medical school and hospital. Some of his noted students included Nagayo Sensai and Matsumoto Jun.

Rogier van der Weyden

Rogier van der Weyden 6 Rogier van der Weyden or Roger de la Pasture was an early Netherlandish painter whose surviving works consist mainly of religious triptychs, altarpieces, and commissioned single and diptych portraits. He was highly successful in his lifetime; his paintings were exported to Italy and Spain, and he received commissions from, amongst others, Philip the Good, Netherlandish nobility, and foreign princes. By the latter half of the 15th century, he had eclipsed Jan van Eyck in popularity. However his fame lasted only until the 17th century, and largely due to changing taste, he was almost totally forgotten by the mid-18th century. His reputation was slowly rebuilt during the 200 years that followed; today he is known, with Robert Campin and van Eyck, as the third of the three great Early Flemish artists, and widely as the most influential Northern painter of the 15th century.

Jan Arnoldus Schouten

Jan Arnoldus Schouten 6 Jan Arnoldus Schouten was a Dutch mathematician and Professor at the Delft University of Technology. He was an important contributor to the development of tensor calculus and Ricci calculus, and was one of the founders of the Mathematisch Centrum in Amsterdam.

Jan III van Montfoort

Jan III van Montfoort 6 Jan III van Montfoort, was Viscount of Montfoort, Free Lord of Zuid-Polsbroek, Free Lord of Purmerend-Purmerland, and a leader of the Hook Party in the Bishopric of Utrecht.

Johann Wolfgang von Goethe

Johann Wolfgang von Goethe 6 Johann Wolfgang von Goethe was a German polymath and writer, who is widely regarded as the greatest and most influential writer in the German language. His work has had a profound and wide-ranging influence on Western literary, political, and philosophical thought from the late 18th century to the present day. Goethe was a German poet, playwright, novelist, scientist, statesman, theatre director, and critic. His works include plays, poetry and aesthetic criticism, as well as treatises on botany, anatomy, and color.

Albert van Dalsum

Albert van Dalsum 6 Albertus Wilhelmus van Dalsum was een Nederlands toneelspeler, toneelleider, decorontwerper en kunstschilder.

Iseult

Iseult 6 Iseult, alternatively Isolde and other spellings, is the name of several characters in the legend of Tristan and Iseult. The most prominent is Iseult of Ireland, the wife of Mark of Cornwall and the lover of Tristan. Her mother, the queen of Ireland, is also named Iseult. The third is Iseult of the White Hands, the daughter of Hoel of Brittany and the sister of Kahedin.

Orpheus and Eurydice

Orpheus and Eurydice 6 The ancient legend of Orpheus and Eurydice concerns the fateful love of Orpheus of Thrace for the beautiful Eurydice. Orpheus was the son of Oeagrus and the muse Calliope. It may be a late addition to the Orpheus myths, as the latter cult-title suggests those attached to Persephone. The subject is among the most frequently retold of all Greek myths, being featured in numerous works of literature, operas, ballets, paintings, plays, musicals, and more recently, films and video games.

Leendert van der Vlugt

Leendert van der Vlugt 6 Leendert Cornelis van der Vlugt was a Dutch architect in Rotterdam. In the architects office Brinkman & Van der Vlugt he was responsible for the architecture of the Van Nelle Factory, a listed monument of the UNESCO World Heritage Site since 2014.

Othello

Othello 6 Othello is a tragedy written by William Shakespeare, around 1603. The story revolves around two characters, Othello and Iago.

Franz Lehár

Franz Lehár 6 Franz Lehár was an Austro-Hungarian composer. He is mainly known for his operettas, of which the most successful and best known is The Merry Widow.

Mien Ruys

Mien Ruys 6 Wilhelmina Jacoba Moussault-Ruys, was a Dutch landscape and garden architect. Her gardening legacy is maintained in the Dutch town of Dedemsvaart, which is home to the Tuinen Mien Ruys. With people such as Piet Oudolf, she is considered a leader in the "New Perennial Movement."

Ernest Rutherford

Ernest Rutherford 6 Ernest Rutherford, 1st Baron Rutherford of Nelson, was a New Zealand physicist who was a pioneering researcher in both atomic and nuclear physics. Rutherford has been described as "the father of nuclear physics", and "the greatest experimentalist since Michael Faraday". In 1908, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry "for his investigations into the disintegration of the elements, and the chemistry of radioactive substances." He was the first Oceanian Nobel laureate, and the first to perform the awarded work in Canada.

Henri Winkelman

Henri Winkelman 6 Henri Gerard Winkelman was a Dutch military officer who served as Commander-in-chief of the Armed forces of the Netherlands during the German invasion of the Netherlands.

Piet Paaltjens

Piet Paaltjens 6 François Haverschmidt, also written as HaverSchmidt, was a Dutch minister and writer, who wrote prose under his own name but remains best known for the poetry published under the pen name of Piet Paaltjens.

Thérèse Schwartze

Thérèse Schwartze 6 Thérèse Schwartze was a Dutch portrait painter.                                                     

Hugo Verriest

Hugo Verriest 6 Hugo Nestor Verriest was een Vlaams priester, dichter, schrijver en redenaar. Hij was een van de belangrijkste exponenten van het cultuurflamingantisme alsook bevorderaar van de politieke Vlaamse Beweging.

Cornelia Catharina de Lange

Cornelia Catharina de Lange 6 Cornelia Catharina de Lange was a Dutch pediatrician and neuropathologist who along with Winfried Brachmann first described the genetic disorder named after her, the Cornelia de Lange syndrome.

Ralph Bunche

Ralph Bunche 6 Ralph Johnson Bunche was an American political scientist, diplomat, and leading actor in the mid-20th-century decolonization process and US civil rights movement, who received the 1950 Nobel Peace Prize for his late 1940s mediation in Israel. He is the first black Nobel laureate and the first person of African descent to be awarded a Nobel Prize. He was involved in the formation and early administration of the United Nations (UN), and played a major role in both the decolonization process and numerous UN peacekeeping operations.

Selma Lagerlöf

Selma Lagerlöf 6 Selma Ottilia Lovisa Lagerlöf was a Swedish writer. She published her first novel, Gösta Berling's Saga, at the age of 33. She was the first woman to win the Nobel Prize in Literature, which she was awarded in 1909. Additionally, she was the first woman to be granted a membership in the Swedish Academy in 1914.

House of La Marck

House of La Marck 6 The House of La Marck was a noble family, which from about 1200 appeared as the counts of Mark.     

Adriaan Roland Holst

Adriaan Roland Holst 6 Adriaan Roland Holst was a Dutch writer, nicknamed the "Prince of Dutch Poets". He was the second winner, in 1948, of the Constantijn Huygens Prize. He was nominated for the Nobel Prize in Literature.

Alexander Gogel

Alexander Gogel 6 Isaac Jan Alexander Gogel was a Dutch politician, who was the first minister of finance of the Batavian Republic and the Kingdom of Holland. He married Catharina van Hasselt in 1800, and had three children.

Abe Lenstra

Abe Lenstra 6 Abe Minderts Lenstra was a Dutch footballer and national football icon in the 1950s who played as a forward. He is regarded as one of the greatest players ever to hail from the Netherlands. He was also a Frisian legend, most notably with the club where he made his name as a football player, Heerenveen.

Melchior (magus)

Melchior (magus) 6 Melchior, or Melichior, was purportedly one of the Biblical Magi who visited the infant Jesus after he was born. Melchior was often referred to as the oldest member of the Magi. He was traditionally called the King of Persia and brought the gift of gold to Jesus. In the Western Christian church, he is regarded as a saint.

Benny Goodman

Benny Goodman 6 Benjamin David Goodman was an American clarinetist and bandleader known as the "King of Swing".     

Rosa Luxemburg

Rosa Luxemburg 6 Rosa Luxemburg was a Polish and naturalised-German revolutionary socialist, orthodox Marxist, and anti-War activist during the First World War. She became a key figure of the revolutionary socialist movements of Poland and Germany during the late 19th and early 20th century, particularly the Spartacist uprising.

Philips Vingboons

Philips Vingboons 6 Philips Vingboons was a Dutch architect. He was part of the school of Jacob van Campen, that is, Dutch Classicism. Vingboons was especially highly regarded in his native city of Amsterdam.

Cornelis Outshoorn

Cornelis Outshoorn 6 Cornelis Outshoorn was een Nederlandse ingenieur en architect.                                     

Hendrik Andriessen

Hendrik Andriessen 6 Hendrik Franciscus Andriessen was a Dutch composer and organist. He is remembered most of all for his improvisation at the organ and for the renewal of Catholic liturgical music in the Netherlands. Andriessen composed in a musical idiom that revealed strong French influences. He was the brother of pianist and composer Willem Andriessen and the father of the composers Jurriaan Andriessen and Louis Andriessen and of the flautist Heleen Andriessen.

Aert de Gelder

Aert de Gelder 6 Aert de Gelder was a Dutch painter. He was the only Dutch artist to paint in the tradition of Rembrandt's late style into the 18th century.

Jan de Quay

Jan de Quay 6 Jan Eduard de Quay was a Dutch politician of the defunct Catholic People's Party (KVP) now the Christian Democratic Appeal (CDA) party and psychologist who served as Prime Minister of the Netherlands from 19 May 1959 until 24 July 1963.

Adriaan Poirters

Adriaan Poirters 6 Adriaan Poirters was a Brabantian Jesuit poet and prose writer who was active in the Counter Reformation.

Nellie van Kol

Nellie van Kol 6 Nellie van Kol was a Dutch feminist, educator, and children's author also active in Belgium. She contributed to the cause of women and had a great influence on the development of children's literature in the 20th century.

Ed. Hoornik

Ed. Hoornik 6 Eduard (Ed) Jozef Antonie Marie Hoornik was een Nederlandse dichter, behorend tot de Amsterdamse school. Aanvankelijk was zijn werk sociaal-kritisch. Zijn latere werk is sterk getekend door zijn ervaring als overlevende van concentratiekamp Dachau en heeft daarom vooral de confrontatie met de dood als thema. Naast gedichten schreef hij ook toneelstukken, romans en essays.

Jan Voerman

Jan Voerman 6 Jan Voerman, also known as Jan Voerman Sr., was a Dutch painter.                                   

Ernest Claes

Ernest Claes 6 Andreas Ernestus Josephus Claes was a Belgian author. He is best known for his regional novels, including De Witte ("Whitey"), which was the source material for the first Flemish movie: De Witte (1920). In 1980 it was remade as De Witte van Sichem by Robbe De Hert.

Paul van Ostaijen

Paul van Ostaijen 6 Paul van Ostaijen was a Belgian Dutch-language poet and writer.                                     

Johan Evertsen

Johan Evertsen 6 Johan Evertsen was a Dutch admiral who was born in the 17th century.                               

Arnold, Duke of Guelders

Arnold, Duke of Guelders 6 Arnold of Egmond was Duke of Guelders, Count of Zutphen.                                           

Ludger

Ludger 6 Ludger was a missionary among the Frisians and Saxons, founder of Werden Abbey and the first Bishop of Münster in Westphalia. He has been called the "Apostle of Saxony".

Toon Hermans

Toon Hermans 6 Antoine Gerard Theodore "Toon" Hermans was a noted Dutch comedian, singer and writer.               

Steven Jacobsz Vennekool

Steven Jacobsz Vennekool 6 Steven Jacobsz Vennekool (1656/57–1719) was an 18th-century architect from the Northern Netherlands. He was born and died in Amsterdam.

Hans Vredeman de Vries

Hans Vredeman de Vries 6 Hans Vredeman de Vries was a Dutch Renaissance architect, painter, and engineer. Vredeman de Vries is known for his publication in 1583 on garden design and his books with many examples on ornaments (1565) and perspective (1604).

René Daniëls

René Daniëls 6 René Daniëls is a Dutch artist.                                                                     

Karl Marx

Karl Marx 6 Karl Marx was a German-born philosopher, economist, political theorist, historian, sociologist, journalist, and revolutionary socialist. His best-known works are the 1848 pamphlet The Communist Manifesto and the three-volume Das Kapital (1867–1894); the latter employs his critical approach of historical materialism in an analysis of capitalism and is the culmination of his intellectual efforts. Marx's ideas and theories and their subsequent development, collectively known as Marxism, have exerted enormous influence on modern intellectual, economic and political history.

Pancras of Rome

Pancras of Rome 6 Pancras was a Roman citizen who converted to Christianity and was beheaded for his faith at the age of fourteen, around the year 304. His name is Greek (Πανκράτιος) and means "the one that holds everything".

Buzz Aldrin

Buzz Aldrin 6 Buzz Aldrin is an American former astronaut, engineer and fighter pilot. He made three spacewalks as pilot of the 1966 Gemini 12 mission, and was the Lunar Module Eagle pilot on the 1969 Apollo 11 mission. He was the second person to walk on the Moon after mission commander Neil Armstrong.

Yuri Gagarin

Yuri Gagarin 6 Yuri Alekseyevich Gagarin was a Soviet pilot and cosmonaut who, aboard the first successful crewed spaceflight, became the first human to journey into outer space. Travelling on Vostok 1, Gagarin completed one orbit of Earth on 12 April 1961, with his flight taking 108 minutes. By achieving this major milestone for the Soviet Union amidst the Space Race, he became an international celebrity and was awarded many medals and titles, including the nation's highest distinction: Hero of the Soviet Union.

William Damasus Lindanus

William Damasus Lindanus 6 William Damasus Lindanus or Van der Lindt was a 16th-century Bishop of Roermond and Bishop of Ghent.

Henri Polak

Henri Polak 5 Henri Polak was a Dutch trade unionist and politician. Polak is best remembered as a longtime president of the General Diamond Workers' Union of the Netherlands (ANDB) and as a founder of the Dutch Social Democratic Workers' Party in 1894. Targeted as a Jew, a socialist, and a trade unionist, Polak was arrested by the Nazis in 1940 but died early in 1943 before he could be deported.

Jane Addams

Jane Addams 5 Laura Jane Addams was an American settlement activist, reformer, social worker, sociologist, public administrator, philosopher, and author. She was a very important leader in the history of social work and women's suffrage in the United States. Addams co-founded Chicago, Illinois' Hull House, one of America's most famous settlement houses, providing extensive social services to poor, largely immigrant families. In 1910, Addams was awarded an honorary Master of Arts degree from Yale University, becoming the first woman to receive an honorary degree from the school. In 1920, she was a co-founder of the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU).

Ank van der Moer

Ank van der Moer 5 Anna Maria (Ank) van der Moer was een Nederlands actrice.                                           

Tristan

Tristan 5 Tristan, also known as Tristram, Tristyn or Tristain and similar names, is the hero of the legend of Tristan and Iseult. In the legend, he is tasked with escorting the Irish princess Iseult to wed Tristan's uncle, King Mark of Cornwall. Tristan and Iseult accidentally drink a love potion during the journey and fall in love, beginning an adulterous relationship that eventually leads to Tristan's banishment and death. The character's first recorded appearance is in retellings of British mythology from the 12th century by Thomas of Britain and Gottfried von Strassburg, and later in the Prose Tristan. He is featured in Arthurian legends, including the seminal text Le Morte d'Arthur, as a skilled knight and a friend of Lancelot.

Jan Mankes

Jan Mankes 5 Jan Mankes was a Dutch painter. He produced around 200 paintings, 100 drawings and 50 prints before dying of tuberculosis at the age of 30. His restrained, detailed work ranged from self-portraits to landscapes and studies of birds and animals. His work is now exhibited in his native Netherlands in the Museum Arnhem, Museum Belvédère and Museum MORE.

Johanna van Buren

Johanna van Buren 5 Johanna Frederika van Buren was een dichteres die schreef in het Hellendoorns, een overgangsdialect tussen het Sallands en Twents.

Jacob Gilles

Jacob Gilles 5 Jacob Gilles was Grand Pensionary of Holland from 23 September 1746 to 18 June 1749.               

Marnix Gijsen

Marnix Gijsen 5 Marnix Gijsen was a Belgian writer. His real name was Joannes Alphonsius Albertus Goris; his pseudonym relates to Marnix van Sint Aldegonde and the surname of his mother (Gijsen).

David Ben-Gurion

David Ben-Gurion 5 David Ben-Gurion was the primary national founder of the State of Israel as well as its first prime minister. As head of the Jewish Agency from 1935, and later president of the Jewish Agency Executive, he was the de facto leader of the Jewish community in Palestine, and largely led the movement for an independent Jewish state in Mandatory Palestine.

Cole Porter

Cole Porter 5 Cole Albert Porter was an American composer and songwriter. Many of his songs became standards noted for their witty, urbane lyrics, and many of his scores found success on Broadway and in Hollywood films.

Thomas More

Thomas More 5 Sir Thomas More, venerated in the Catholic Church as Saint Thomas More, was an English lawyer, judge, social philosopher, author, statesman, amateur theologian, and noted Renaissance humanist. He also served Henry VIII as Lord High Chancellor of England from October 1529 to May 1532. He wrote Utopia, published in 1516, which describes the political system of an imaginary island state.

Epicurus

Epicurus 5 Epicurus was an ancient Greek philosopher and sage who founded Epicureanism, a highly influential school of philosophy. He was born on the Greek island of Samos to Athenian parents. Influenced by Democritus, Aristippus, Pyrrho, and possibly the Cynics, he turned against the Platonism of his day and established his own school, known as "the Garden", in Athens. Epicurus and his followers were known for eating simple meals and discussing a wide range of philosophical subjects. He openly allowed women and slaves to join the school as a matter of policy. Of the over 300 works said to have been written by Epicurus about various subjects, the vast majority have been destroyed. Only three letters written by him—the letters to Menoeceus, Pythocles, and Herodotus—and two collections of quotes—the Principal Doctrines and the Vatican Sayings—have survived intact, along with a few fragments of his other writings. As a result of his work's destruction, most knowledge about his philosophy is due to later authors, particularly the biographer Diogenes Laërtius, the Epicurean Roman poet Lucretius and the Epicurean philosopher Philodemus, as well as the hostile but largely accurate accounts by the Pyrrhonist philosopher Sextus Empiricus, and the Academic Skeptic and statesman Cicero.

William II of Holland

William II of Holland 5 William II was the Count of Holland and Zeeland from 1234 until his death. He was elected anti-king of Germany in 1248 and ruled as sole king from 1254 onwards.

Pope Leo XIII

Pope Leo XIII 5 Pope Leo XIII was head of the Catholic Church from 20 February 1878 until his death in July 1903. Living until the age of 93, he was the oldest pope, whose age can be validated, holding office, and had the fourth-longest reign of any pope, behind those of St. Peter, Pius IX and John Paul II.

Quarles van Ufford

Quarles van Ufford 5 Quarles van Ufford is the name of a Dutch family of English descent whose members have belonged to Dutch nobility since 1815.

Paul Rodenko

Paul Rodenko 5 Paul Thomas Basilius Rodenko was een Nederlands dichter, criticus, essayist en vertaler. Hij was de zoon van een Russische vader en een Engelse moeder, en een broer van schrijfster Olga Rodenko. Rodenko was internationaal georiënteerd en in Nederland invloedrijk als pleitbezorger van de moderne poëzie.

Marie Jungius

Marie Jungius 5 Hendrika Maria Aleida (Marie) Jungius was medeorganisator van de Nationale Tentoonstelling van Vrouwenarbeid en grondlegster en eerste directrice van het Nationaal Bureau voor Vrouwenarbeid. Zij was de dochter van Elias Cornelis Jungius, Nederlands Hervormd predikant, en Augustina Sophia Carolina Henrijette Hooykaas.

Boy Edgar

Boy Edgar 5 Boy Edgar, pseudonyms of George Willem Fred Edgar, was a Dutch jazz conductor, pianist and trumpeter. He was also a member of the resistance who saved Jewish children during WW2 and was promoted as a doctor after the war on an investigation into multiple sclerosis.

Wessel Ilcken

Wessel Ilcken 5 Wessel Ilcken was a Dutch jazz drummer.                                                             

Jaap Bakema

Jaap Bakema 5 Jacob Berend "Jaap" Bakema was a Dutch modernist architect, notable for design of public housing and involvement in the reconstruction of Rotterdam after the Second World War.

Truus Schröder-Schräder

Truus Schröder-Schräder 5 Truus Schröder-Schräder (1889–1985) was a Dutch socialite and trained pharmacist who was closely involved with avant-garde artists and architects of the De Stijl movement. Together with Gerrit Rietveld, she built a house for herself and her three children — the Rietveld Schröder House — which is today a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Initially credited as a joint designer, this was often forgotten later once Rietveld became a well-known architect. Immediately following their collaboration on the house, she went on to work with Rietveld on multiple other architectural projects as well.

Willem Kes

Willem Kes 5 Willem Kes (Dordrecht, 16 February 1856 – München, 22 February 1934, was a Dutch conductor, composer, violist, and violinist. He was the first principal conductor of the Concertgebouw Orchestra of Amsterdam, holding that position from 1888 to 1895.

Jean-Jacques Rousseau

Jean-Jacques Rousseau 5 Jean-Jacques Rousseau was a Genevan philosopher (philosophe), writer, and composer. His political philosophy influenced the progress of the Age of Enlightenment throughout Europe, as well as aspects of the French Revolution and the development of modern political, economic, and educational thought.

Philip de Montmorency, Count of Horn

Philip de Montmorency, Count of Horn 5 Philip de Montmorency, also known as Count of Horn, Horne, Hoorne or Hoorn, was a victim of the Inquisition in the Spanish Netherlands.

Wilhelmine of Prussia, Queen of the Netherlands

Wilhelmine of Prussia, Queen of the Netherlands 5 Wilhelmine of Prussia was the first Queen consort of the Netherlands as the first wife of King William I of the Netherlands. She had a modest public role but acted as a patron of the arts.

Jan Ritzema Bos

Jan Ritzema Bos 5 Jan Ritzema Bos was a Dutch plant pathologist and zoologist. He served as the first director of the Willie Commelin Scholten Foundation and founder of the Plant Protection Service in 1899 in Amsterdam. Bos described several species of plant nematode.

Elise van Calcar

Elise van Calcar 5 Elise van Calcar-Schiotling, geboren als Eliza Carolina Ferdinanda Fleischacker, was een Nederlandse schrijfster, publiciste, pedagoge en feministe. Ze kreeg bij haar geboorte de familienaam van haar moeder, de Poolse Anna Carolina Fleisch Haker. In 1828, toen Elise vijf was, werd die naam gewijzigd in de naam van haar vermoedelijke vader, de Noor Johannes Schiotling, die zijn brood verdiende met vertaalwerk.

Theo Mann-Bouwmeester

Theo Mann-Bouwmeester 5 Theodora Antonia Louisa Cornelia Bouwmeester was een Nederlandse actrice in de periode 1880-1926. Zij was driemaal getrouwd en trad daardoor onder verschillende namen op. Dat was chronologisch als Doortje Bouwmeester, Doortje Frenkel-Bouwmeester, Théo Brondgeest-Bouwmeester en Théo Bouwmeester, maar ze leeft voort onder de naam uit haar laatste huwelijk met de musicus en componist Gottfried Mann.

Christiaan Snouck Hurgronje

Christiaan Snouck Hurgronje 5 Christiaan Snouck Hurgronje was a Dutch scholar of Oriental cultures and languages and advisor on native affairs to the colonial government of the Dutch East Indies.

Johannes Hendricus van der Palm

Johannes Hendricus van der Palm 5 Johannes Hendricus van der Palm was a Dutch Assyriologist, linguist, professor of (i) oriental languages and Hebrew antiquities and (ii) sacred poetry and rhetoric at Leiden University, educationist, theologian, Dutch Reformed Church minister, Bible translator, politician and orator. He made major contributions in all these areas.

Bernardus Johannes Alfrink

Bernardus Johannes Alfrink 5 Bernardus Johannes Alfrink was a Dutch Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church. He served as Archbishop of Utrecht from 1955 to 1975, and was elevated to the cardinalate in 1960.

Johan Brouwer

Johan Brouwer 5 Johan Brouwer was een Nederlandse hispanoloog en auteur, actief als verzetsstrijder tijdens de Tweede Wereldoorlog.

Victor de Stuers

Victor de Stuers 5 Victor Eugène Louis de Stuers was a Dutch art historian, lawyer, civil servant and politician. Widely regarded as the father of historic preservation in the Netherlands, he played a notable part in keeping Girl with a Pearl Earring, by Vermeer, from being sold abroad.

Pierre Corneille

Pierre Corneille 5 Pierre Corneille was a French tragedian. He is generally considered one of the three great seventeenth-century French dramatists, along with Molière and Racine.

Jean de La Fontaine

Jean de La Fontaine 5 Jean de La Fontaine was a French fabulist and one of the most widely read French poets of the 17th century. He is known above all for his Fables, which provided a model for subsequent fabulists across Europe and numerous alternative versions in France, as well as in French regional languages.

Kea Bouman

Kea Bouman 5 Cornelia "Kea" Tiedemann-Bouman was a female tennis player from the Netherlands. She won the singles title at the 1927 French Championships, beating Irene Bowder Peacock of South Africa in the final. Bouman was the first and, to this date, the only Dutch woman who has won a Grand Slam singles title.

Etta Palm d'Aelders

Etta Palm d'Aelders 5 Etta Lubina Johanna Palm d'Aelders, also known as the Baroness of Aelders, was a Dutch spy and feminist, outspoken during the French Revolution. She gave the address Discourse on the Injustice of the Laws in Favour of Men, at the Expense of Women to the French National Convention on 30 December 1790 and was a founding member of the first female-only organisation in the history of France, Société patriotique et de bienfaisance des Amies de la Vérité. D'Aelders used these political platforms to instruct French citizens on the struggles of women in the public and private spheres, and to show men the harm that was being caused to the lives of women through their relative social inferiority. D'Aelders joined women like Olympe de Gouges and Théroigne de Méricourt in her resolute determination to improve the rights of women and mobilise tangible action to drive female equality forward.

Jules Verne

Jules Verne 5 Jules Gabriel Verne was a French novelist, poet, and playwright. His collaboration with the publisher Pierre-Jules Hetzel led to the creation of the Voyages extraordinaires, a series of bestselling adventure novels including Journey to the Center of the Earth (1864), Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Seas (1870), and Around the World in Eighty Days (1872). His novels, always well documented, are generally set in the second half of the 19th century, taking into account the technological advances of the time.

Elvis Presley

Elvis Presley 5 Elvis Aaron Presley, also known mononymously as Elvis, was an American singer and actor. Known as the "King of Rock and Roll", he is regarded as one of the most significant cultural figures of the 20th century. Presley's energized interpretations of songs and sexually provocative performance style, combined with a singularly potent mix of influences across color lines during a transformative era in race relations, brought both great success and initial controversy.

Renate Rubinstein

Renate Rubinstein 5 Renate Ida Rubinstein was a German-Dutch writer, journalist and columnist.                         

Hans Lodeizen

Hans Lodeizen 5 Hans Lodeizen, born Johannes August Frederik Lodeizen, was a Dutch poet. He was the author of one book of poems and a quantity of miscellaneous work. Despite his short life and modest output, his minimalist lyrics, which are generally constituted of short, unrhymed lines without capitals or punctuation, strongly influenced a post-war generation of Dutch poets, including Gerard Reve.

Jacques Urlus

Jacques Urlus 5 Jacques Urlus, was a Dutch dramatic tenor. He sang to great critical acclaim at major opera houses on both sides of the Atlantic, and his recordings of the music of Richard Wagner are considered to be among the finest ever made.

Anton Geesink

Anton Geesink 5 Antonius Johannes Geesink was a Dutch 10th dan judoka. He was the first non-Japanese judoka to win gold at the World Judo Championships, a feat he accomplished in 1961 and 1965. He was also an Olympic Champion, having won gold at the 1964 Summer Olympics in Japan, and won a record 21 European Judo Championships during his career.

Pieter Vreede

Pieter Vreede 5 Pieter Vreede was a Dutch politician of the Batavian Republic in the 18th century. Vreede was born in Leiden and died in Heusden. He was a prominent critic of stadholderian misrule and of the urban patriciate.

Father Damien

Father Damien 5 Father Damien or Saint Damien of Molokai or Saint Damien De Veuster, born Jozef De Veuster, was a Roman Catholic priest from Belgium and member of the Congregation of the Sacred Hearts of Jesus and Mary, a missionary religious institute. He was recognized for his ministry, which he led from 1873 until his death in 1889, in the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi to people with leprosy, who lived in government-mandated medical quarantine in a settlement on the Kalaupapa Peninsula of Molokaʻi.

Irene Vorrink

Irene Vorrink 5 Irene Vorrink was a Dutch politician of the Labour Party (PvdA).                                   

Rie Cramer

Rie Cramer 5 Marie "Rie" Cramer was a Dutch writer and prolific illustrator of children's literature whose style is considered iconic for the interwar period. For many years, she was one of the two main illustrators for a leading Dutch youth magazine, Zonneschijn (Sunshine). She also wrote plays under the pseudonym Marc Holman. Some of her work was banned during World War II because it attacked National Socialism, and she wrote for a leading underground newspaper during the war.

Marten Toonder

Marten Toonder 5 Marten Toonder was a Dutch comic strip creator, born in Rotterdam. He was probably the most successful comic artist in the Netherlands and had a great influence on the Dutch language by introducing new words and expressions. He is most famous for his series Tom Puss and Panda.

Stanisław Maczek

Stanisław Maczek 5 Lieutenant General Stanisław Maczek was a Polish tank commander of World War II, whose division was instrumental in the Allied liberation of France, closing the Falaise pocket, resulting in the destruction of 14 German Wehrmacht and SS divisions. A veteran of World War I, the Polish–Ukrainian and Polish–Soviet Wars, Maczek was the commander of Poland's only major armoured formation during the September 1939 campaign, and later commanded a Polish armoured formation in France in 1940. He was the commander of the famous 1st Polish Armoured Division, and later of the I Polish Army Corps under Allied Command in 1942–45.

Louis of Nassau

Louis of Nassau 5 Louis of Nassau was the third son of William I, Count of Nassau-Siegen and Juliana of Stolberg, and the younger brother of Prince William of Orange Nassau.

Jan de Rooij

Jan de Rooij 5 Jan de Rooij of Jan de Rooy kan verwijzen naar:Jan de Rooy (verzetsstrijder) (1923-1945), Nederlands verzetsstrijder tijdens de Tweede Wereldoorlog Jan de Rooij (bokser) (1932-2008), Nederlands bokser en olympisch deelnemer Jan de Rooy (rallycoureur) (1943-2024), Nederlands rallycoureur Jan de Rooy (auteur) (1949), een Nederlands musicus en schrijver

Willem Passtoors (1856-1916)

Willem Passtoors (1856-1916) 5 Willem Caspar Joseph Passtoors was een Nederlands vakbondsbestuurder en politicus van de Algemeene Bond van RK-kiesverenigingen.

Anke Servaes

Anke Servaes 5 Anke Servaes was een Nederlandse schrijfster.                                                       

Jo Vincent

Jo Vincent 5 Johanna Maria Vincent was a Dutch soprano who appeared mostly in oratorio and concert, and is internationally known. She appeared regularly with Willem Mengelberg and the Royal Concertgebouw Orchestra from 1924 to 1942, including annual concerts and a recording of Bach's St Matthew Passion. She participated in the world premiere of Benjamin Britten's Spring Symphony, with Kathleen Ferrier and Peter Pears. After retiring, she taught at the Haarlem Conservatory.

Clare Lennart

Clare Lennart 5 Clare Lennart, pseudoniem van Clara Helena Klaver, was een Nederlands romanschrijfster en vertaler. 

Willem Andriessen

Willem Andriessen 5 Willem Andriessen was a Dutch pianist and composer. His compositional output was small due to the demands of performance and teaching, but he was nonetheless awarded a number of compositional prizes in Belgium and the Netherlands.

Haakon VII

Haakon VII 5 Haakon VII was King of Norway from November 1905 until his death in September 1957.                 

John Coltrane

John Coltrane 5 John William Coltrane was an African-American jazz saxophonist, bandleader and composer. He is among the most influential and acclaimed figures in the history of jazz and 20th-century music.

Menso Alting

Menso Alting 5 Menso Alting was a Dutch Reformed preacher and reformer.                                           

Lidwina

Lidwina 5 Lidwina (1380–1433) was a Dutch mystic who is honored as a saint by the Catholic Church. She is the patroness saint of the town of Schiedam, of chronic pain, and of ice skating.

Michelangelo

Michelangelo 5 Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni, known mononymously as Michelangelo, was an Italian sculptor, painter, architect, and poet of the High Renaissance. Born in the Republic of Florence, his work was inspired by models from classical antiquity and had a lasting influence on Western art. Michelangelo's creative abilities and mastery in a range of artistic arenas define him as an archetypal Renaissance man, along with his rival and elder contemporary, Leonardo da Vinci. Given the sheer volume of surviving correspondence, sketches, and reminiscences, Michelangelo is one of the best-documented artists of the 16th century. He was lauded by contemporary biographers as the most accomplished artist of his era.

Bertha van Heukelom

Bertha van Heukelom 5 Bertha van Heukelom, was a Dutch noble, the legendary heroine of the Siege of IJsselstein Castle in 1296. She was the daughter of Otto I van Arkel lord of Heukelom and married around 1280 to Gijsbrecht van IJsselstein.

John I, Duke of Brabant

John I, Duke of Brabant 5 John I, also called John the Victorious was Duke of Brabant (1267–1294), Lothier and Limburg (1288–1294). During the 13th century, John I was venerated as a folk hero. He has been painted as the perfect model of a brave, adventurous and chivalrous feudal prince.

Merijntje Gijzen

Merijntje Gijzen 5 Merijntje Gijzen is de hoofdfiguur uit een serie streekromans van de Brabantse schrijver A.M. de Jong. De Jong verwerkte veel eigen jeugdherinneringen in het verhaal rond Merijntje Gijzen. In totaal bestaat de serie uit acht delen, waarvan de eerste vier Merijntje Gijzens jeugd vormen, en de laatste vier Merijntje Gijzens jonge jaren. Als verzamelband werd het geheel later uitgegeven onder de titel Merijntje Gijzens jeugd en jonge jaren. De Jong schreef veel van de dialogen in Brabants dialect.

Pope Pius X

Pope Pius X 5 Pope Pius X was head of the Catholic Church from 4 August 1903 to his death in August 1914. Pius X is known for vigorously opposing modernist interpretations of Catholic doctrine, and for promoting liturgical reforms and scholastic theology. He initiated the preparation of the 1917 Code of Canon Law, the first comprehensive and systemic work of its kind. He is venerated as a saint in the Catholic Church. The Society of Saint Pius X, a traditionalist Catholic fraternity formed decades after his death, is named after him.

Felix Rutten

Felix Rutten 5 Felix Jean Joseph Hubert (Felix) Rutten was een Limburgse schrijver en dichter. Hij publiceerde zowel in het Nederlands als in het Sittards dialect. Hij stierf op dezelfde dag als zijn grote vriend, de schrijver Godfried Bomans.

Rogier van Otterloo

Rogier van Otterloo 5 Willem Rogier van Otterloo was a Dutch composer and conductor.                                     

Hella Haasse

Hella Haasse 5 Hélène "Hella" Serafia Haasse was a Dutch writer, often referred to as the "Grande Dame" of Dutch literature, and whose novel Oeroeg (1948) was a staple for generations of Dutch schoolchildren. Her internationally acclaimed magnum opus is Heren van de Thee, translated to The Tea Lords. In 1988 Haasse was chosen to interview the Dutch Queen for her 50th birthday after which celebrated Dutch author Adriaan van Dis called Haasse "the Queen among authors".

Menno Simons

Menno Simons 5 Menno Simons was a Roman Catholic priest from the Friesland region of the Low Countries who was excommunicated from the Catholic Church and became an influential Anabaptist religious leader. Simons was a contemporary of the Protestant Reformers and it is from his name that his followers became known as Mennonites.

Jo Smeets

Jo Smeets 4 Jozef Gerard (Jo) Smeets was een Nederlands burgemeester en politicus van de KVP en later het CDA. 

Trix Terwindt

Trix Terwindt 4 Beatrice Wilhelmina Marie Albertina (Trix) Terwindt was een Nederlands verzetsstrijdster en geheim agente voor de Britse inlichtingendienst tijdens de Tweede Wereldoorlog. Zij was een van de agenten die slachtoffer werden van het Englandspiel en kort na hun aankomst in bezet Nederland in Duitse handen vielen. Zij was ook bekend als een van de eerste stewardessen bij de KLM. Na de oorlog heeft zij zich ingezet voor betere opvang en zorg voor mensen met een concentratiekampsyndroom.

Alidius Tjarda van Starkenborgh Stachouwer

Alidius Tjarda van Starkenborgh Stachouwer 4 Jonkheer Alidius Warmoldus Lambertus Tjarda van Starkenborgh Stachouwer was a Dutch nobleman and statesman, primarily noted for being the last colonial Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies, now Indonesia. He was taken captive after accepting Japan's demands for an unconditional surrender of the islands on 9 March 1942.

Ubbo Emmius

Ubbo Emmius 4 Ubbo Emmius was a German historian and geographer.                                                 

Regnier de Graaf

Regnier de Graaf 4 Regnier de Graaf, original Dutch spelling Reinier de Graaf, or Latinized Reijnerus de Graeff, was a Dutch physician, physiologist and anatomist who made key discoveries in reproductive biology. He specialized in iatrochemistry and iatrogenesis, and was the first to develop a syringe to inject dye into human reproductive organs so that he could understand their structure and function.

Gerard I, Count of Guelders

Gerard I, Count of Guelders 4 Gerard I, Count of Guelders was Count of Guelders. He was the son of Theodoric of Wassenberg.       

Willem van Otterloo

Willem van Otterloo 4 Jan Willem van Otterloo was a Dutch conductor, cellist and composer.                               

Gerard Brandt

Gerard Brandt 4 Gerard Brandt was a Dutch preacher, playwright, poet, church historian, biographer and naval historian. A well-known writer in his own time, his works include a Life of Michiel de Ruyter and a Historie der vermaerde zee- en koopstadt Enkhuisen.

Wessel Gansfort

Wessel Gansfort 4 Wessel Harmensz Gansfort was a theologian and early humanist of the northern Low Countries. Many variations of his last name are seen and he is sometimes incorrectly called Johan Wessel.

Cornelis Jol

Cornelis Jol 4 Cornelis Corneliszoon Jol, nicknamed Houtebeen ("pegleg"), was a 17th-century Dutch corsair and admiral in the Dutch West India Company during the Eighty Years' War between Spain and the Dutch Republic. He was one of several early buccaneers to attack Campeche, looting the settlement in 1633, and was active against the Spanish in the Spanish Main and throughout the Caribbean during the 1630s and 40s.

Jan Stuyt

Jan Stuyt 4 Jan Stuyt was a Dutch architect.                                                                   

Maria van Oosterwijck

Maria van Oosterwijck 4 Maria van Oosterwijck, also spelled Oosterwyck, (1630–1693) was a Dutch Golden Age painter, specializing in richly detailed flower paintings and other still lifes.

Van Kinschot

Van Kinschot 4 Van Kinschot is een uit Turnhout afkomstig geslacht waarvan leden sinds 1848 tot de Nederlandse adel behoren.

Gerda Brautigam

Gerda Brautigam 4 Gerarda (Gerda) Brautigam was een Nederlands journaliste en politica. Van 1963 tot 1971 was ze namens de Partij van de Arbeid lid van de Tweede Kamer. Tevens was ze werkzaam als redacteur bij het dagblad Het Vrije Volk. Haar vader Johan Brautigam was in de periode 1919-1935 eveneens lid van de Tweede Kamer.

Boris Pasternak

Boris Pasternak 4 Boris Leonidovich Pasternak was a Russian poet, novelist, composer, and literary translator.       

Willem van Duvenvoorde

Willem van Duvenvoorde 4 Willem van Duvenvoorde or van Duvoorde (1290–1353), also known as Willem Snikkerieme, was a 14th-century nobleman and financier who served as a financial and political adviser to four successive counts and countesses of Hainaut and Holland.

Chris Lebeau

Chris Lebeau 4 Joris Johannes Christiaan (Chris) Lebeau was een Nederlands veelzijdig ontwerper, kunstschilder, verzetsstrijder en anarchist.

Harm Tiesing

Harm Tiesing 4 Harm Tiesing was een Drents volksschrijver. In Borger staat sinds 1976 een standbeeld van Harm Tiesing van de hand van Geert Santing.

Maartje Offers

Maartje Offers 4 Maartje Offers was a Dutch contralto classical singer.                                             

Reina Prinsen Geerligs

Reina Prinsen Geerligs 4 Reina Prinsen Geerligs was a member of the Dutch Resistance during World War II. After the war the literary Reina Prinsen Geerligs Award was created in her memory.

Tuyll

Tuyll 4 Tuyll is the name of a noble Dutch family, with familial and historical links to England, whose full name is Van Tuyll van Serooskerken. Several knights, members of various courts, literary figures, generals, ambassadors, statesmen and explorers carried the family name.

Heintje Davids

Heintje Davids 4 Hendrika David was een Nederlandse variétéartieste die vanaf 1907 tot aan haar dood onder de naam Henriëtte Davids carrière maakte als zangeres en bijdehante grappenmaakster. Ze was het bekendst onder de naam Heintje Davids.

Anna de Waal

Anna de Waal 4 Anna de Waal, was a Dutch politician. She was state secretary of education in 1953–1957. De Waal was the first female government secretary or minister in the Netherlands.

Mulier (geslacht)

Mulier (geslacht) 4 Mulier is een geslacht van Franse oorsprong waarvan leden zich in de eerste helft van de 18e eeuw in Nederland vestigden en tot het patriciaat gingen behoren. De familie werd in 1917 opgenomen in het Nederland's Patriciaat, en daarna opnieuw in 1960 en 1993.

Prince Pieter-Christiaan of Orange-Nassau, van Vollenhoven

Prince Pieter-Christiaan of Orange-Nassau, van Vollenhoven 4 Prince Pieter-Christiaan Michiel of Orange-Nassau, van Vollenhoven, is the third son of Princess Margriet of the Netherlands and Pieter van Vollenhoven.

Anthon van der Horst

Anthon van der Horst 4 Anthon van der Horst was een Nederlands organist, dirigent en componist. Hij werd vooral bekend door zijn werk voor de Nederlandse Bachvereniging en de uitvoering van de Matthäus-Passion in Naarden. Hij was ook een groot Bachkenner en -liefhebber.

Lancelot

Lancelot 4 Lancelot du Lac, also written as Launcelot and other variants, is a character in some versions of Arthurian legend where he is typically depicted as King Arthur's close companion and one of the greatest Knights of the Round Table. In the French-inspired Arthurian chivalric romance tradition, Lancelot is an orphaned son of King Ban of the lost kingdom of Benoic, raised in a fairy realm by the Lady of the Lake. A hero of many battles, quests and tournaments, and famed as a nearly unrivalled swordsman and jouster, Lancelot becomes the lord of the castle Joyous Gard and personal champion of Arthur's wife, Queen Guinevere, despite suffering from frequent and sometimes prolonged fits of madness. But when his adulterous affair with Guinevere is discovered, it causes a civil war that, once exploited by Mordred, brings an end to Arthur's kingdom.

Albertus Magnus

Albertus Magnus 4 Albertus Magnus, also known as Saint Albert the Great, Albert of Swabia or Albert of Cologne, was a German Dominican friar, philosopher, scientist, and bishop, considered one of the greatest medieval philosophers and thinkers.

John Calvin

John Calvin 4 John Calvin was a French theologian, pastor and reformer in Geneva during the Protestant Reformation. He was a principal figure in the development of the system of Christian theology later called Calvinism, including its doctrines of predestination and of God's absolute sovereignty in the salvation of the human soul from death and eternal damnation. Calvinist doctrines were influenced by and elaborated upon the Augustinian and other Christian traditions. Various Congregational, Reformed and Presbyterian churches, which look to Calvin as the chief expositor of their beliefs, have spread throughout the world.

Vitruvius

Vitruvius 4 Vitruvius was a Roman architect and engineer during the 1st century BC, known for his multi-volume work titled De architectura. As the only treatise on architecture to survive from antiquity, it has been regarded since the Renaissance as the first book on architectural theory, as well as a major source on the canon of classical architecture. It is not clear to what extent his contemporaries regarded his book as original or important.

Confucius

Confucius 4 Confucius, born Kong Qiu (孔丘), was a Chinese philosopher of the Spring and Autumn period who is traditionally considered the paragon of Chinese sages, as well as the first teacher in China to advocate for mass education. Much of the shared cultural heritage of the Sinosphere originates in the philosophy and teachings of Confucius. His philosophical teachings, called Confucianism, emphasized personal and governmental morality, correctness of social relationships, justice, kindness, sincerity, and a ruler's responsibilities to lead by virtue.

Andrea Palladio

Andrea Palladio 4 Andrea Palladio was an Italian Renaissance architect active in the Venetian Republic. Palladio, influenced by Roman and Greek architecture, primarily Vitruvius, is widely considered to be one of the most influential individuals in the history of architecture. While he designed churches and palaces, he was best known for country houses and villas. His teachings, summarized in the architectural treatise, The Four Books of Architecture, gained him wide recognition.

Kees van Baaren

Kees van Baaren 4 Kees van Baaren was a Dutch composer and teacher.                                                   

Philippus Rovenius

Philippus Rovenius 4 Philippus Rovenius was apostolic vicar of the Dutch Mission from 1614 to 1651.                     

Duchy of Guelders

Duchy of Guelders 4 The Duchy of Guelders is a historical duchy, previously county, of the Holy Roman Empire, located in the Low Countries.

Thomas Aquinas

Thomas Aquinas 4 Thomas Aquinas was an Italian Dominican friar and priest, an influential philosopher and theologian, and a jurist in the tradition of scholasticism from the county of Aquino in the Kingdom of Sicily.

Voltaire

Voltaire 4 François-Marie Arouet, known by his nom de plume M. de Voltaire, was a French Enlightenment writer, philosopher (philosophe), satirist, and historian. Famous for his wit and his criticism of Christianity and of slavery, Voltaire was an advocate of freedom of speech, freedom of religion, and separation of church and state.

Pedro Álvares Cabral

Pedro Álvares Cabral 4 Pedro Álvares Cabral was a Portuguese nobleman, military commander, navigator and explorer regarded as the European discoverer of Brazil. He was the first recorded human in history to ever be on four continents, uniting all of them in his famous voyage of 1500, where he also conducted the first substantial exploration of the northeast coast of South America and claimed it for Portugal. While details of Cabral's early life remain unclear, it is known that he came from a minor noble family and received a good education. He was appointed to head an expedition to India in 1500, following Vasco da Gama's newly opened route around Africa. The undertaking had the aim of returning with valuable spices and of establishing trade relations in India—bypassing the monopoly on the spice trade then in the hands of Arab, Turkish and Italian merchants. Although the previous expedition of Vasco da Gama to India, on its sea route, had recorded signs of land west of the southern Atlantic Ocean, Cabral led the first known expedition to have touched four continents: Europe, Africa, America, and Asia.

Bernardus IJzerdraat

Bernardus IJzerdraat 4 Bernardus IJzerdraat was a Dutch resistance fighter in the Second World War.                       

Willem Royaards

Willem Royaards 4 Dr. Willem Cornelis Royaards was een Nederlands acteur, regisseur en toneelleider.                 

Lien Gisolf

Lien Gisolf 4 Carolina Anna "Lien" Gisolf was a Dutch high jumper. She won a silver medal at the 1928 Summer Olympics and finished fourth in 1932.

J. C. Bloem

J. C. Bloem 4 Jakobus Cornelis (Jacques) Bloem was a Dutch poet and essayist. Between 1921 and 1958 he published fourteen volumes of poetry. In 1949 he won the Constantijn Huygensprijs, one of the country's highest literary awards, and in 1952 the P. C. Hooft Award for his literary oeuvre. In 1965, in rapidly declining health, he was awarded the highest Dutch-language literary award, the Prijs der Nederlandse Letteren. He was nominated for the Nobel Prize in Literature.

Reinier Cornelis Bakhuizen van den Brink

Reinier Cornelis Bakhuizen van den Brink 4 Reinier Cornelis Bakhuizen van den Brink was in zijn tijd een van de invloedrijkste intellectuelen in Nederland. Als literatuurcriticus, filosoof en historicus wierp hij zich op voor de moderne, liberale samenleving die gekenmerkt wordt door democratie, individuele vrijheid en debat.

Jacobus van Looy

Jacobus van Looy 4 Jacobus (Jac) van Looy was a Dutch painter and writer.                                             

Justus van Maurik

Justus van Maurik 4 Justus van Maurik, was a Dutch author and cigar maker. He was the grandson of Justus van Maurik Sr. 

Theo Bunjes

Theo Bunjes 4 Pieter Theodorus (Theo) Bunjes was een Nederlands politicus van de CHU en later het CDA.           

Hans Kolfschoten

Hans Kolfschoten 4 Henri Anthony Melchior Tieleman "Hans" Kolfschoten was a Dutch politician of the defunct Catholic People's Party (KVP) now merged into the Christian Democratic Appeal (CDA).

Catharine van Tussenbroek

Catharine van Tussenbroek 4 Catharine van Tussenbroek was a Dutch physician and feminist. She was the second woman to qualify as a physician in the Netherlands and the first physician to confirm evidence of the ovarian type of ectopic pregnancy. A foundation that administers research grants was set up in her name to continue her legacy of empowering women.

Emilie Knappert

Emilie Knappert 4 Emilie Knappert (1860–1952) was a Dutch social worker who founded several important social work organizations in the Netherlands, including the Leiden Volkshuis, and was the director of the Amsterdam School of Social Work from 1915 to 1926.

Gnaeus Domitius Corbulo

Gnaeus Domitius Corbulo 4 Gnaeus Domitius Corbulo was a popular Roman general, brother-in-law of the emperor Caligula and father-in-law of Domitian. The emperor Nero, highly fearful of Corbulo's reputation, ordered him to commit suicide, which the general carried out faithfully, exclaiming "Axios", meaning "I am worthy", and fell on his own sword.

Herman Coster

Herman Coster 4 Hermanus 'Herman' Jacobus Coster was a Dutch lawyer and State Attorney of the Zuid-Afrikaansche Republiek.

Anton Koolhaas

Anton Koolhaas 4 Anthonie "Anton" Koolhaas was a Dutch journalist, novelist, and scenario writer.                   

Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky

Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky 4 Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky was a Russian composer of the Romantic period. He was the first Russian composer whose music would make a lasting impression internationally. Tchaikovsky wrote some of the most popular concert and theatrical music in the current classical repertoire, including the ballets Swan Lake and The Nutcracker, the 1812 Overture, his First Piano Concerto, Violin Concerto, the Romeo and Juliet Overture-Fantasy, several symphonies, and the opera Eugene Onegin.

Marianne Philips

Marianne Philips 4 Marianne Philips was a Dutch writer and politician. In 1919, she became one of the first female municipal council members of the Netherlands. Philips wrote psychological novels. Philips survived World War II by going into hiding. In 1950, De zaak Beukenoot was selected as the gift for Boekenweek, a week dedicated to Dutch literature.

Molière

Molière 4 Jean-Baptiste Poquelin, known by his stage name Molière, was a French playwright, actor, and poet, widely regarded as one of the great writers in the French language and world literature. His extant works include comedies, farces, tragicomedies, comédie-ballets, and more. His plays have been translated into every major living language and are performed at the Comédie-Française more often than those of any other playwright today. His influence is such that the French language is often referred to as the "language of Molière".

Henriëtte Ronner-Knip

Henriëtte Ronner-Knip 4 Henriëtte Ronner-Knip was a Dutch-Belgian artist chiefly in the Romantic style who is best known for her animal paintings; especially cats.

Herman Brood

Herman Brood 4 Hermanus "Herman" Brood was a Dutch musician, painter, actor and poet. As a musician he achieved artistic and commercial success in the 1970s and 1980s, and was called "the greatest and only Dutch rock 'n' roll star". Later in life he started a successful career as a painter.

Adriaan Kluit

Adriaan Kluit 4 Adriaan Kluit was a Dutch scholar, important in Dutch linguistics. He was born in Dordrecht. He was rector of the Latin school in Alkmaar and Middelburg. In 1779 he became the professor of history at the University of Leiden, remaining there until his death.

Ella Fitzgerald

Ella Fitzgerald 4 Ella Jane Fitzgerald was an American jazz singer, sometimes referred to as the "First Lady of Song", "Queen of Jazz", and "Lady Ella". She was noted for her purity of tone, impeccable diction, phrasing, timing, intonation, and a "horn-like" improvisational ability, particularly in her scat singing.

Friedrich Engels

Friedrich Engels 4 Friedrich Engels was a German philosopher, political theorist, historian, journalist, and revolutionary socialist. He was also a businessman and Karl Marx's closest friend and collaborator.

Aaltje Noordewier–Reddingius

Aaltje Noordewier–Reddingius 4 Aaltje Noordewier–Reddingius was a Dutch classical soprano who had an active performance career in the concert repertoire from 1888 through the 1930s. She was also a celebrated voice teacher.

Stan Kenton

Stan Kenton 4 Stanley Newcomb Kenton was an American popular music and jazz artist. As a pianist, composer, arranger and band leader, he led an innovative and influential jazz orchestra for almost four decades. Though Kenton had several pop hits from the early 1940s into the 1960s, his music was always forward-looking. Kenton was also a pioneer in the field of jazz education, creating the Stan Kenton Jazz Camp in 1959 at Indiana University.

Nico Engelschman

Nico Engelschman 4 Nico (Niek) Engelschman was een Nederlandse acteur, homo-activist en Nederlandse verzetsstrijder tijdens de Tweede Wereldoorlog.

Dirk Hartog

Dirk Hartog 4 Dirk Hartog was a 17th-century Dutch sailor and explorer. Dirk Hartog's expedition was the second European group to land in Australia and the first to leave behind an artefact to record his visit, the Hartog Plate. His name is sometimes alternatively spelled Dirck Hartog or Dierick Hartochszch. Ernest Giles referred to him as Theodoric Hartog. The Western Australian island Dirk Hartog Island is named after Hartog.

Jacob van Oudenhoven

Jacob van Oudenhoven 4 Jacob van Oudenhoven was een Nederlands gereformeerd predikant en historicus. Hij behoorde tot de stroming van de Nadere Reformatie.

Pieter de Swart

Pieter de Swart 4 Pieter de Swart was een Nederlands architect uit de 18e eeuw.                                       

Dirk I, Count of Holland

Dirk I, Count of Holland 4 Dirk I was count of West Frisia, later known as the County of Holland. He is thought to have been in office from c. 896 to c. 928 or 939.

Philip IV of France

Philip IV of France 4 Philip IV, called Philip the Fair, was King of France from 1285 to 1314. By virtue of his marriage with Joan I of Navarre, he was also King of Navarre as Philip I from 1284 to 1305, as well as Count of Champagne. Although Philip was known to be handsome, hence the epithet le Bel, his rigid, autocratic, imposing, and inflexible personality gained him other nicknames, such as the Iron King. His fierce opponent Bernard Saisset, bishop of Pamiers, said of him: "He is neither man nor beast. He is a statue."

Ignatius of Loyola

Ignatius of Loyola 4 Ignatius of Loyola, venerated as Saint Ignatius of Loyola, was a Spanish Catholic priest and theologian, who, with six companions, founded the religious order of the Society of Jesus (Jesuits), and became its first Superior General, in Paris in 1541.

Taets van Amerongen

Taets van Amerongen 4 Taets van Amerongen is een oud adellijk, Stichts geslacht waarvan leden sinds 1814 tot de Nederlandse adel behoren.

Geert van Wou

Geert van Wou 4 Geert van Wou was a well-known Dutch bellfounder. He is best known today for the Maria Gloriosa (1497) of Erfurt Cathedral. The son of a bellfounder, he is considered one of the most important bellfounders of the Middle Ages, though records suggest he participated in other casting.

Pieter Bor

Pieter Bor 4 Pieter Bor, or Pieter Christiaensz Bor (1559-1635) was a Dutch Golden Age writer and historian. His portrait was painted by Frans Hals in 1634, and it was engraved for his book in 1637.

Wil Huygen

Wil Huygen 4 Willibrord Joseph Huygen was a Dutch book author. He is best known for the picture books on gnomes, illustrated by Rien Poortvliet.

Anna Dresden-Polak

Anna Dresden-Polak 4 Anna "Ans" Dresden-Polak was a Jewish Dutch gymnast.                                               

Otto Eerelman

Otto Eerelman 4 Otto Eerelman was a Dutch painter; best known for his depictions of dogs and horses. He was also a court painter and did several portraits of Wilhelmina, as Princess and Queen.

Petronella Moens

Petronella Moens 4 Petronella Moens was a blind Dutch writer, editor, and feminist. She managed a paper in 1788–1797, in which she spoke for political issues such as slavery and women suffrage.

Agatha Christie

Agatha Christie 4 Dame Agatha Mary Clarissa Christie, Lady Mallowan, was an English writer known for her 66 detective novels and 14 short story collections, particularly those revolving around fictional detectives Hercule Poirot and Miss Marple. She also wrote the world's longest-running play, the murder mystery The Mousetrap, which has been performed in the West End of London since 1952. A writer during the "Golden Age of Detective Fiction", Christie has been called the "Queen of Crime"—a moniker which is now trademarked by her estate—or the "Queen of Mystery". She also wrote six novels under the pseudonym Mary Westmacott. In 1971, she was made a Dame (DBE) by Queen Elizabeth II for her contributions to literature. Guinness World Records lists Christie as the best-selling fiction writer of all time, her novels having sold more than two billion copies.

Pieter Pauw

Pieter Pauw 4 Pieter Pauw, was a Dutch botanist and anatomist. He was a student of Hieronymus Fabricius. He was the first Anatomy Professor at University of Leiden.

Pope Pius XII

Pope Pius XII 4 Pope Pius XII was head of the Catholic Church and sovereign of the Vatican City State from 2 March 1939 until his death in October 1958. Before his election to the papacy, he served as secretary of the Department of Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, papal nuncio to Germany, and Cardinal Secretary of State, in which capacity he worked to conclude treaties with various European and Latin American nations, including the Reichskonkordat treaty with the German Reich.

Hippocrates

Hippocrates 4 Hippocrates of Kos, also known as Hippocrates II, was a Greek physician of the classical period who is considered one of the most outstanding figures in the history of medicine. He is traditionally referred to as the "Father of Medicine" in recognition of his lasting contributions to the field, such as the use of prognosis and clinical observation, the systematic categorization of diseases, and the formulation of humoral theory. The Hippocratic school of medicine revolutionized ancient Greek medicine, establishing it as a discipline distinct from other fields with which it had traditionally been associated, thus establishing medicine as a profession.

Willy Sluiter

Willy Sluiter 4 Jan Willem "Willy" Sluiter was a Dutch painter. He was best known for his paintings of Dutch villages and its dwellers, and also did portraits of members of Dutch high society. His work was part of the art competitions at four Olympic Games.

Waling Dykstra

Waling Dykstra 4 Waling Gerrits Dykstra of Dijkstra was een Fries schrijver, dichter en voordrachtskunstenaar.       

Anton Pieck

Anton Pieck 4 Anton Franciscus Pieck was a Dutch painter, artist and graphic artist. His works are noted for their nostalgic or fairy tale-like character and are widely popular, appearing regularly on cards and calendars. He is also known for being the first designer of the famous Dutch theme park Efteling.

Prince Floris of Orange-Nassau, van Vollenhoven

Prince Floris of Orange-Nassau, van Vollenhoven 4 Prince Floris Frederik Martijn of Orange-Nassau, van Vollenhoven is the fourth and youngest son of Princess Margriet of the Netherlands and Pieter van Vollenhoven.

Indira Gandhi

Indira Gandhi 4 Indira Gandhi was an Indian politician who served as the third Prime Minister of India from 1966 to 1977 and again from 1980 until her assassination in 1984. She was India's first and, to date, only female prime minister, and a central figure in Indian politics as the leader of the Indian National Congress. Gandhi was the daughter of Jawaharlal Nehru, the first prime minister of India, and the mother of Rajiv Gandhi, who succeeded her in office as the country's sixth prime minister. Furthermore, Gandhi's cumulative tenure of 15 years and 350 days makes her the second-longest-serving Indian prime minister after her father. Henry Kissinger described her as an "Iron Lady", a nickname that became associated with her tough personality since her lifetime.

Mimi Boesnach

Mimi Boesnach 4 Mimi Boesnach, pseudoniem van Maria Alida Pieters, was een Nederlandse actrice en zangeres. Haar carrière overspande meer dan zestig jaar. Ze won verschillende toneelprijzen.

Annie van Ees

Annie van Ees 4 Johanna Martina (Annie) van Ees was een Nederlandse filmactrice. Door haar huwelijk met toneelleider Cor van der Lugt Melsert stond ze ook bekend als Annie van der Lugt Melsert-Van Ees.

Mark the Evangelist

Mark the Evangelist 4 Mark the Evangelist also known as John Mark or Saint Mark, is the person who is traditionally ascribed to be the author of the Gospel of Mark. Modern Bible scholars have concluded that the Gospel of Mark was written by an anonymous author rather than an identifiable historical figure. According to Church tradition, Mark founded the episcopal see of Alexandria, which was one of the five most important sees of early Christianity. His feast day is celebrated on April 25, and his symbol is the winged lion.

Anton Philips

Anton Philips 4 Anton Frederik Philips co-founded Royal Philips Electronics N.V. in 1912 with his older brother Gerard Philips in Eindhoven, the Netherlands. His father and Gerard had founded the Philips Company in 1891 as a family business. Anton Philips served as CEO of the company from 1922 to 1939.

Van Sasse van Ysselt

Van Sasse van Ysselt 4 Van Sasse van Ysselt is een geslacht waarvan leden sinds 1814 tot de Nederlandse adel behoren.     

Kees Boeke

Kees Boeke 4 Cornelis "Kees" Boeke was a Dutch reformist educator, Quaker missionary and pacifist. He is best known for his popular essay/book Cosmic View (1957) which presents a seminal view of the universe, from the galactic to the microscopic scale, and which inspired several films.

Gemma Frisius

Gemma Frisius 4 Gemma Frisius was a Dutch physician, mathematician, cartographer, philosopher, and instrument maker. He created important globes, improved the mathematical instruments of his day and applied mathematics in new ways to surveying and navigation. Gemma's rings, an astronomical instrument, are named after him. Along with Gerardus Mercator and Abraham Ortelius, Frisius is often considered one of the founders of the Netherlandish school of cartography, and significantly helped lay the foundations for the school's golden age.

Adrie de Graaf

Adrie de Graaf 4 Adriaan Cornelis (Adrie) de Graaf was een Nederlandse verzetsstrijder in West-Friesland. De Graaf overleed op 42-jarige leeftijd. De A.C. de Graafweg (N241) is vanwege zijn verdiensten in het verzet naar hem vernoemd.

Catharina Elderink

Catharina Elderink 4 Catharina (Cato) Elderink was een Nederlandse schrijfster en dichteres in de Twentse streektaal.   

Peter Donders

Peter Donders 4 Petrus Norbertus Donders was a Dutch Roman Catholic priest and member of the Redemptorist Congregation. He served in various missions in the Dutch colony of Surinam. He started working in the capital Paramaribo, but is predominantly known for his work in and around the leper colony Batavia, where he died in 1887. Peter Donders was beatified as 'Apostle of the Indians and Lepers' in 1982. The miracle needed was found in the cure of a Dutch child from bone cancer back in 1929.

Demeter

Demeter 4 In ancient Greek religion and mythology, Demeter is the Olympian goddess of the harvest and agriculture, presiding over crops, grains, food, and the fertility of the earth. Although Demeter is mostly known as a grain goddess, she also appeared as a goddess of health, birth, and marriage, and had connections to the Underworld. She is also called Deo. In Greek tradition, Demeter is the second child of the Titans Rhea and Cronus, and sister to Hestia, Hera, Hades, Poseidon, and Zeus. Like her other siblings except Zeus, she was swallowed by her father as an infant and rescued by Zeus.

Pieter Nuyts

Pieter Nuyts 4 Pieter Nuyts or Nuijts was a Dutch explorer, diplomat and politician.                               

Romulus and Remus

Romulus and Remus 4 In Roman mythology, Romulus and Remus are twin brothers whose story tells of the events that led to the founding of the city of Rome and the Roman Kingdom by Romulus, following his fratricide of Remus. The image of a she-wolf suckling the twins in their infancy has been a symbol of the city of Rome and the ancient Romans since at least the 3rd century BC. Although the tale takes place before the founding of Rome around 750 BC, the earliest known written account of the myth is from the late 3rd century BC. Possible historical bases for the story, and interpretations of its local variants, are subjects of ongoing debate.

Romulus

Romulus 4 Romulus was the legendary founder and first king of Rome. Various traditions attribute the establishment of many of Rome's oldest legal, political, religious, and social institutions to Romulus and his contemporaries. Although many of these traditions incorporate elements of folklore, and it is not clear to what extent a historical figure underlies the mythical Romulus, the events and institutions ascribed to him were central to the myths surrounding Rome's origins and cultural traditions.

John IV of Glymes

John IV of Glymes 4 John IV of Glymes, 2nd Marquess of Berghes (1528–1567), Grand Huntsman of Brabant, was a noble from the Low Countries.

Nannie van Wehl

Nannie van Wehl 4 Susanna Jacoba Adriana Lugten-Reys, pseudoniem Nannie van Wehl, was Nederlandse onderwijzeres, jeugdboekenschrijfster en publiciste.

William I, Duke of Bavaria

William I, Duke of Bavaria 4 William I, Duke of Bavaria-Straubing, was the second son of Emperor Louis IV and Margaret II of Hainaut. He was also known as William V, Count of Holland, as William III, Count of Hainaut and as William IV, Count of Zeeland.

Karel van de Woestijne

Karel van de Woestijne 4 Carolus Petrus Eduardus Maria "Karel" van de Woestijne was a Flemish writer and brother of the painter Gustave van de Woestijne. He went to highschool at the Koninklijk Athenaeum at the Ottogracht in Ghent. He also studied Germanic philology at the University of Ghent, where he came into contact with French symbolism. He lived at Sint-Martens-Latem from April 1900 up to January 1904, and from April 1905 up to November 1906. Here he wrote Laetemsche brieven over de lente, for his friend Adolf Herckenrath (1901). In 1907 he moved to Brussels, and in 1915 he moved to Pamel, where he wrote De leemen torens together with Herman Teirlinck.

Karel Lotsy

Karel Lotsy 4 Karel Johannes Julianus Lotsij, bekend onder de naam Lotsy was een Nederlandse sportbestuurder.     

Søren Kierkegaard

Søren Kierkegaard 4 Søren Aabye Kierkegaard was a Danish theologian, philosopher, poet, social critic, and religious author who is widely considered to be the first existentialist philosopher. He wrote critical texts on organized religion, Christianity, morality, ethics, psychology, and the philosophy of religion, displaying a fondness for metaphor, irony, and parables. Much of his philosophical work deals with the issues of how one lives as a "single individual", giving priority to concrete human reality over abstract thinking and highlighting the importance of personal choice and commitment. He was against literary critics who defined idealist intellectuals and philosophers of his time, and thought that Swedenborg, Hegel, Fichte, Schelling, Schlegel, and Hans Christian Andersen were all "understood" far too quickly by "scholars."

Reginald III, Duke of Guelders

Reginald III, Duke of Guelders 4 Reginald III was Duke of Guelders and Count of Zutphen from 1343 to 1361, and again in 1371. He was the son of Reginald II of Guelders and of Eleanor of Woodstock, daughter of Edward II of England.

Saint Remigius

Saint Remigius 4 Remigius was the Bishop of Reims and "Apostle of the Franks". On 25 December 496, he baptised Clovis I, King of the Franks. The baptism, leading to about 3000 additional converts, was an important event in the Christianization of the Franks. Because of Clovis's efforts, a large number of churches were established in the formerly pagan lands of the Frankish empire, establishing a distinctly Orthodox variety of Christianity for the first time in Germanic lands, most of whom had been converted to Arian Christianity.

Harmen Sytstra

Harmen Sytstra 4 Harmen Sytses Sytstra wie in Fryske skriuwer en skoalmaster.                                       

Gysbert Japiks

Gysbert Japiks 4 Gysbert Japiks Holckema, better known as simply Gysbert Japiks (1603–1666), was a West Frisian writer, poet, schoolmaster, and cantor.

Van Citters

Van Citters 4 Van Citters is een regentenfamilie waarvan telgen gedurende eeuwen bestuurlijke functies vervulden in met name de stad Middelburg en de provincie Zeeland. Enkele leden van de familie hadden een functie op nationaal en internationaal niveau. Vanaf 1814 werden telgen opgenomen in de Nederlandse adel.

Amandus

Amandus 4 Amandus, commonly called Saint Amand, was a bishop of Tongeren-Maastricht and one of the catholic missionaries of Flanders. He is venerated as a saint, particularly in France and Belgium.

Marie Baron

Marie Baron 4 Mietje "Marie" Baron was a Dutch swimmer and diver who competed at the 1924 and 1928 Olympics. In 1924 she was sixth in the 4 × 100 m freestyle relay. She was disqualified in the first round of the 200 m breaststroke event, as the judges believed she touched the wall with one hand instead of two hands at one of the turns. Meanwhile, her time of 3:22.6 was several seconds ahead of the gold medalist. Four years later she swam 3:15.2, but this was only enough for a silver medal, as her main rival Hilde Schrader clocked 3:12.6. At the 1928 Games Baron also competed in the 10 m platform diving event and finished fourth.

Agnes of Rome

Agnes of Rome 4 Agnes of Rome is a virgin martyr, venerated as a saint in the Catholic Church, Oriental Orthodox Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church, as well as the Anglican Communion and Lutheran Churches. She is one of several virgin martyrs commemorated by name in the Canon of the Mass, and one of many Christians martyred during the reign of the Roman emperor Diocletian.

Henri Van der Noot

Henri Van der Noot 4 Henri van der Noot, in Dutch Hendrik van der Noot, and popularly called Heintje van der Noot or Vader Heintje, was a jurist, lawyer and politician from Brabant. He was one of the main figures of the Brabant Revolution (1789–1790) against the Imperial rule of Joseph II. This revolution led to the short-lived existence of the United States of Belgium with himself as Prime Minister.

James Prescott Joule

James Prescott Joule 4 James Prescott Joule was an English physicist, mathematician and brewer, born in Salford, Lancashire. Joule studied the nature of heat, and discovered its relationship to mechanical work. This led to the law of conservation of energy, which in turn led to the development of the first law of thermodynamics. The SI derived unit of energy, the joule, is named after him.

Pierre-Lambert Goossens

Pierre-Lambert Goossens 4 Pierre-Lambert Goossens was a Belgian Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church. He served as Archbishop of Mechelen from 1884 until his death, and was elevated to the cardinalate in 1889.

Herman Kruyder

Herman Kruyder 4 Herman Kruyder (1881–1935) was a Dutch painter.                                                     

Vincent of Lérins

Vincent of Lérins 4 Vincent of Lérins was a Gallic monk and author of early Christian writings. One example was the Commonitorium, c. 434, which offers guidance in the orthodox teaching of Christianity. Suspected of semi-Pelagianism, he opposed the Augustinian model of grace and was probably the recipient of Prosper of Aquitaine's Responsiones ad Capitula Objectionum Vincentianarum. His feast day is celebrated on 24 May.

René of Chalon

René of Chalon 4 René of Chalon, also known as Renatus of Chalon, was a Prince of Orange and stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht and Gelre.

Jan Willem Berix

Jan Willem Berix 4 Jan Willem Berix, in het verzet Giel genoemd was een Nederlandse verzetsstrijder tijdens de Tweede Wereldoorlog.

Boudewijn Büch

Boudewijn Büch 4 Boudewijn Maria Ignatius Büch was a Dutch writer, poet and television presenter.                   

Lambert van der Burch

Lambert van der Burch 3 Lambert van der Burch (1542–1617) was a clergyman and historian from the Habsburg Netherlands.     

Théophile de Bock

Théophile de Bock 3 Théophile Emile Achille de Bock was a Dutch painter belonging to the Hague School. Although many denigrate De Bock's work as too gray and too sketchy, Hague School champions love his work. Even Van Gogh was convinced of De Bocks "artistic temperament", although he eventually found his choice of subject too limited and tried to get De Bock to paint figure studies. But De Bock stuck to the subject he was good at, the Dutch landscapes.

Alexine Tinne

Alexine Tinne 3 Alexandrine "Alexine" Pieternella Françoise Tinne was a Dutch explorer in Africa who was the first European woman to attempt to cross the Sahara. She was an early photographer.

Anton de Kom

Anton de Kom 3 Cornelis Gerhard Anton de Kom was a Surinamese resistance fighter and anti-colonialist author. He was arrested in Surinam and the protest against his arrest resulted in two deaths. De Kom was subsequently exiled to the Netherlands where he wrote Wij slaven van Suriname, an anti-colonial book. During World War II, he joined the resistance, was arrested, and sent to concentration camps where he died. In 2020, de Kom was added as a subject on the Canon of the Netherlands, a chronological list of fifty key events and people in Dutch history to be taught in schools.

Cornelis Schuyt

Cornelis Schuyt 3 Cornelis Floriszoon Schuyt was a Dutch organist and Renaissance composer.                           

George Washington

George Washington 3 George Washington was an American Founding Father, military officer, and politician who served as the first president of the United States from 1789 to 1797. Appointed by the Second Continental Congress as commander of the Continental Army in 1775, Washington led Patriot forces to victory in the American Revolutionary War and then served as president of the Constitutional Convention in 1787, which drafted and ratified the Constitution of the United States and established the U.S. federal government. Washington has thus become commonly known as the "Father of his Country".

Johan Thorn Prikker

Johan Thorn Prikker 3 Johan Thorn Prikker was a Dutch artist who worked in Germany after 1904. His activities were very eclectic, including architecture, lithography, furniture, stained-glass windows, mosaics, tapestries and book covers as well as painting. He also worked in a variety of styles; such as Symbolism, Impressionism and Art Nouveau.

Peter the Great

Peter the Great 3 Peter I, commonly known as Peter the Great, was Tsar of all Russia from 1682, and the first Emperor of all Russia from 1721 until his death in 1725. He reigned jointly with his half-brother Ivan V until 1696. From this year, Peter was an absolute monarch, an autocrat who remained the ultimate authority and organized a well-ordered police state.

Anthony the Great

Anthony the Great 3 Anthony the Great was a Christian monk from Egypt, revered since his death as a saint. He is distinguished from other saints named Anthony, such as Anthony of Padua, by various epithets: Anthony of Egypt, Anthony the Abbot, Anthony of the Desert, Anthony the Anchorite, Anthony the Hermit, and Anthony of Thebes. For his importance among the Desert Fathers and to all later Christian monasticism, he is also known as the Father of All Monks. His feast day is celebrated on 17 January among the Eastern Orthodox and Catholic churches and on Tobi 22 in the Coptic calendar.

Samuel Esmeijer

Samuel Esmeijer 3 Samuel Esmeijer, was een Nederlandse verzetsstrijder tijdens de Tweede Wereldoorlog.               

Amerigo Vespucci

Amerigo Vespucci 3 Amerigo Vespucci was an Italian explorer and navigator from the Republic of Florence, from whose name the term "America" is derived.

Catullus

Catullus 3 Gaius Valerius Catullus, known as Catullus, was a Latin neoteric poet of the late Roman Republic. His surviving works remain widely read due to their popularity as teaching tools and because of their personal or sexually explicit themes.

Emile Seipgens

Emile Seipgens 3 Emile Anton Hubert Seipgens was een Nederlandse schrijver van korte verhalen en toneelstukken. Doorgaans schreef hij over Limburg, de provincie waar hij opgroeide.

Zeno of Elea

Zeno of Elea 3 Zeno of Elea was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher. He was a student of Parmenides and one of the Eleatics. Born in Elea, Zeno defended his instructor's belief in monism, the idea that only one single entity exists that makes up all of reality. He rejected the existence of space, time, and motion. To disprove these concepts, he developed a series of paradoxes to demonstrate why these are impossible. Though his original writings are lost, subsequent descriptions by Plato, Aristotle, Diogenes Laertius, and Simplicius of Cilicia have allowed study of his ideas.

Odulf

Odulf 3 Odwulf of Evesham was a ninth century saint, monk and Frisian missionary.                           

Arthur Schopenhauer

Arthur Schopenhauer 3 Arthur Schopenhauer was a German philosopher. He is known for his 1818 work The World as Will and Representation, which characterizes the phenomenal world as the manifestation of a blind and irrational noumenal will. Building on the transcendental idealism of Immanuel Kant (1724–1804), Schopenhauer developed an atheistic metaphysical and ethical system that rejected the contemporaneous ideas of German idealism.

Gustave Van de Woestijne

Gustave Van de Woestijne 3 Gustave Van de Woestijne was a Belgian expressionist painter.                                       

Gerhard Noodt

Gerhard Noodt 3 Gerhard Noodt was a Dutch jurist, born in Nijmegen. Educated at Leiden, Utrecht, and Franeker, he became a professor of law at the Nijmegen and the Franeker. As a writer on jurisprudence he acquired a wide reputation. His Latin style was modelled after the best writers, and his numerous works soon rose to the rank of standard authorities. Two of his political treatises were translated into French by Jean Barbeyrac, and appeared at Amsterdam in 1707 and 1714, under the respective titles of Pouvoir des souverains and Liberté de conscience.

Hendrik Mande

Hendrik Mande 3 Hendrik Mande was a Dutch mystical writer, an early member of the Brethren of the Common Life, and an Augustinian Canon.

Henri Vullinghs

Henri Vullinghs 3 Henri Vullinghs was pastoor in Grashoek en Grubbenvorst in Limburg en Nederlands verzetsstrijder tijdens de Tweede Wereldoorlog. Hij was een van de grootste organisatoren van pilotenhulp en onderduik in de gehele provincie Limburg.

Thomas de Keyser

Thomas de Keyser 3 Thomas de Keyser was a Dutch portrait painter and a dealer in Belgium bluestone and stone mason. He was the most in-demand portrait painter in the Netherlands until the 1630s, when Rembrandt eclipsed him in popularity. Rembrandt was influenced by his work, and many of de Keyser's paintings were later falsely attributed to Rembrandt.

Lambertus Hortensius

Lambertus Hortensius 3 Lambertus Hortensius was een Nederlandse geschiedschrijver en humanist. Hij studeerde in Utrecht en aan de universiteit van Leuven. In 1527 kreeg hij de taak geschiedenisles te geven aan de Hiëronymusschool van de Broeders des Gemenen Levens in Utrecht. In die tijd werd hij tot priester gewijd. Hoewel hij zich nooit openlijk van de katholieke kerk heeft afgewend, werd hij door zijn tijdgenoten beschouwd als een sympathisant van de hervormers en kreeg zelfs de bijnaam de luthersche paap.

Dante Alighieri

Dante Alighieri 3 Dante Alighieri, most likely baptized Durante di Alighiero degli Alighieri and often referred to as Dante, was an Italian poet, writer, and philosopher. His Divine Comedy, originally called Comedìa and later christened Divina by Giovanni Boccaccio, is widely considered one of the most important poems of the Middle Ages and the greatest literary work in the Italian language.

Countess Louise Henriette of Nassau

Countess Louise Henriette of Nassau 3 Louise Henriette of Nassau was a Countess of Nassau, granddaughter of William I, Prince of Orange, "William the Silent", and an Electress of Brandenburg.

Alexandre Dumas

Alexandre Dumas 3 Alexandre Dumas, also known as Alexandre Dumas père, was a French novelist and playwright.         

Jan Nieuwenhuyzen

Jan Nieuwenhuyzen 3 Jan Nieuwenhuijzen was a Dutch Mennonite teacher and minister.                                     

Herman Collenius

Herman Collenius 3 Herman Collenius was een Groninger portret- en historieschilder. Hij maakte portretten en doeken van historische gebeurtenissen en was daarnaast ook actief als interieurschilder. Zijn bekendste werk op dit gebied is de versiering van het beroemde en tot de zeventiende eeuw grootste landhuis van de provincie Groningen, Nienoord in Midwolde in 1675.

Theo Koomen

Theo Koomen 3 Theodorus Wilhelmus (Theo) Koomen was een Nederlands sportverslaggever.                             

Joris Ivens

Joris Ivens 3 Georg Henri Anton "Joris" Ivens was a Dutch documentary filmmaker. Among the notable films he directed or co-directed are A Tale of the Wind, The Spanish Earth, Rain, ...A Valparaiso, Misère au Borinage (Borinage), 17th Parallel: Vietnam in War, The Seine Meets Paris, Far from Vietnam, Pour le Mistral and How Yukong Moved the Mountains.

David of Burgundy

David of Burgundy 3 David of Burgundy was the bishop of Utrecht from 1456. The illegitimate son of Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, David was made bishop by his father in an attempt to enforce more centralised Burgundian control over the Netherlands. He also served as bishop of Thérouanne from 1451 to 1456. He is the third longest-reigning bishop of Utrecht after Balderic and Willibrord, holding the see until his death in 1494.

Vos de Wael

Vos de Wael 3 De Wael is een geslacht van Vlaamse oorsprong waarvan leden sinds 1822 tot de Belgische adel behoren en waarvan een niet geadelde tak in 1933 en in 1984 werd opgenomen in het Nederland's Patriciaat.

Plechelm

Plechelm 3 Plechelm, O.S.B., is honoured in both the Catholic Church and the Old Catholic Church as a patron saint of the Netherlands. He is also venerated as a saint in the Eastern Orthodox Church.

Gerrit Kastein

Gerrit Kastein 3 Dr. Gerrit Willem Kastein was a Dutch communist, neurologist and resistance fighter and leader during World War II.

Willem Wilmink

Willem Wilmink 3 Willem Wilmink was a Dutch poet and writer. He was best known for the large number of songs he wrote for popular children programs and his accessible, straightforward poetry.

Han Stijkel

Han Stijkel 3 Johan Aaldrik (Han) Stijkel was an academic and a Dutch Resistance activist.                       

Jan van Hout (stadssecretaris)

Jan van Hout (stadssecretaris) 3 Jan van Hout was stadssecretaris van Leiden, secretaris van de universiteit, Nederlandstalig dichter en vernieuwer.

Anthonie van der Heim

Anthonie van der Heim 3 Anthonie van der Heim was Grand Pensionary of Holland from 4 April 1737 to 17 July 1746.           

Charles de Gaulle

Charles de Gaulle 3 Charles André Joseph Marie de Gaulle was a French army officer and statesman who led the Free French Forces against Nazi Germany in World War II and chaired the Provisional Government of the French Republic from 1944 to 1946 to restore democracy in France. In 1958, amid the Algerian War, he came out of retirement when appointed Prime Minister by President René Coty. He rewrote the Constitution of France and founded the Fifth Republic after approval by referendum. He was elected President of France later that year, a position he held until his resignation in 1969.

Kurt Weill

Kurt Weill 3 Kurt Julian Weill was a German-born American composer active from the 1920s in his native country, and in his later years in the United States. He was a leading composer for the stage who was best known for his fruitful collaborations with Bertolt Brecht. With Brecht, he developed productions such as his best-known work, The Threepenny Opera, which included the ballad "Mack the Knife". Weill held the ideal of writing music that served a socially useful purpose, Gebrauchsmusik. He also wrote several works for the concert hall and a number of works on Jewish themes. He became a United States citizen in 1943.

Arturo Toscanini

Arturo Toscanini 3 Arturo Toscanini was an Italian conductor. He was one of the most acclaimed and influential musicians of the late 19th and early 20th century, renowned for his intensity, his perfectionism, his ear for orchestral detail and sonority, and his eidetic memory. He was at various times the music director of La Scala in Milan and the New York Philharmonic. Later in his career, he was appointed the first music director of the NBC Symphony Orchestra (1937–1954), and this led to his becoming a household name, especially in the United States, through his radio and television broadcasts and many recordings of the operatic and symphonic repertoire.

Ada, Countess of Holland

Ada, Countess of Holland 3 Ada was Countess regnant of Holland between 1203 and 1207, ruling jointly with her husband, Louis II of Loon. She was deposed and exiled by her paternal uncle, William I.

Maria van Reigersberch

Maria van Reigersberch 3 Maria van Reigersberch was the wife of Hugo Grotius, who helped him escape in 1621 from Loevestein Castle during his incarceration there after his 1619 trial.

Pierre de Coubertin

Pierre de Coubertin 3 Charles Pierre de Frédy, Baron de Coubertin, also known as Pierre de Coubertin and Baron de Coubertin, was a French educator and historian, co-founder of the International Olympic Committee, and its second president. He is known as the father of the modern Olympic Games. He was particularly active in promoting the introduction of sport in French schools.

Helena, mother of Constantine I

Helena, mother of Constantine I 3 Flavia Julia Helena, also known as Helena of Constantinople and in Christianity as Saint Helena, was an Augusta of the Roman Empire and mother of Emperor Constantine the Great. She was born in the lower classes traditionally in the Greek city of Drepanon, Bithynia, in Asia Minor, which was renamed Helenopolis in her honor, although several locations have been proposed for her birthplace and origin.

Pál Maléter

Pál Maléter 3 Pál Maléter was the military leader of the 1956 Hungarian Revolution.                               

Schimmelpenninck family

Schimmelpenninck family 3 Schimmelpenninck is the name of the family belonging to the Dutch and German nobility, whose members played important political and military roles in the history of the Netherlands, Prussia and later in the German Empire.

Adam Frans van der Meulen

Adam Frans van der Meulen 3 Adam Frans van der Meulen or Adam-François van der Meulen was a Flemish painter and draughtsman who was particularly known for his scenes of military campaigns and conquests. Van der Meulen also painted portraits, hunting scenes, paintings of chateaux and landscapes. He created designs for prints and cartoons for tapestries.

Gezina van der Molen

Gezina van der Molen 3 Gezina Hermina Johanna van der Molen was a Dutch legal scholar and resistance fighter during the Second World War. From 1924 to 1929, she studied law at the Free University of Amsterdam — the first female student to do so — and was also the first woman to obtain a doctoral degree from there. She dealt with numerous issues: the rights of women, apartheid in South Africa, the United Nations, the South Moluccas and New Guinea.

Margaretha Roosenboom

Margaretha Roosenboom 3 Margaretha Roosenboom, was a 19th-century Dutch flower painter.                                     

Van Haersolte

Van Haersolte 3 Van Haersolte is een oud adellijk geslacht uit Overijssel waarvan leden sinds 1814 behoren tot de Nederlandse adel van het koninkrijk.

Jan III van Diest

Jan III van Diest 3 John or Jan van Diest served as Bishop of Utrecht from 1322 until his death in 1340.               

Laurens Janszoon Coster

Laurens Janszoon Coster 3 Laurens Janszoon Coster, or Laurens Jansz Koster, is the purported inventor of a printing press from Haarlem. He allegedly invented printing simultaneously with Johannes Gutenberg and was regarded by some in the Netherlands well into the 20th century as having invented printing first.

Rudolf Steiner

Rudolf Steiner 3 Rudolf Joseph Lorenz Steiner was an Austrian occultist, social reformer, architect, esotericist, and claimed clairvoyant. Steiner gained initial recognition at the end of the nineteenth century as a literary critic and published works including The Philosophy of Freedom. At the beginning of the twentieth century he founded an esoteric spiritual movement, anthroposophy, with roots in German idealist philosophy and theosophy. His teachings are influenced by Christian Gnosticism. Many of his ideas are pseudoscientific. He was also prone to pseudohistory.

Van Raesfelt

Van Raesfelt 3 Van Raesfelt is een oud-adellijk geslacht uit Gemen waarvan een lid sinds 1814 tot de Nederlandse adel behoort en dat met hem in 1828 uitstierf.

Eduard Verkade

Eduard Verkade 3 Eduard Rutger (Eduard) Verkade was een Nederlands toneelleider, acteur en regisseur.               

Terence

Terence 3 Publius Terentius Afer, better known in English as Terence, was a playwright during the Roman Republic. He was the author of six comedies based on Greek originals by Menander or Apollodorus of Carystus. Terence's plays were originally staged around 166–160 BC.

Herodotus

Herodotus 3 Herodotus was a Greek historian and geographer from the Greek city of Halicarnassus, part of the Persian Empire and a later citizen of Thurii in modern Calabria, Italy. He is known for having written the Histories – a detailed account of the Greco-Persian Wars. Herodotus was the first writer to perform systematic investigation of historical events. He has been described as "The Father of History", a title conferred on him by the ancient Roman orator Cicero.

John the Baptist

John the Baptist 3 John the Baptist was a Jewish preacher active in the area of the Jordan River in the early 1st century AD. He is also known as Saint John the Forerunner in Eastern Orthodoxy, John the Immerser in some Baptist Christian traditions, Saint John by certain Catholic churches, and Prophet Yahya in Islam. He is sometimes alternatively referred to as John the Baptiser.

Heer Halewijn

Heer Halewijn 3 Heer Halewijn is a Dutch folk tale which survives in folk ballad. Although the first printed version of the song only appears in an anthology published in 1848, the ballad itself is first written down in the 13th century but dates back to pre-Christian times and is one of the oldest Dutch folk songs with ancient subject matter to be recorded. The story of lord Halewijn itself is even older and contains elements going back to Carolingian times. Many of its mythemes range back to Germanic pre-Christian legends.

Gian Lorenzo Bernini

Gian Lorenzo Bernini 3 Gian Lorenzo Bernini was an Italian sculptor and architect. While a major figure in the world of architecture, he was more prominently the leading sculptor of his age, credited with creating the Baroque style of sculpture. As one scholar has commented, "What Shakespeare is to drama, Bernini may be to sculpture: the first pan-European sculptor whose name is instantaneously identifiable with a particular manner and vision, and whose influence was inordinately powerful ..." In addition, he was a painter and a man of the theatre: he wrote, directed and acted in plays, for which he designed stage sets and theatrical machinery. He produced designs as well for a wide variety of decorative art objects including lamps, tables, mirrors, and even coaches.

Diogenes

Diogenes 3 Diogenes, also known as Diogenes the Cynic or Diogenes of Sinope, was a Greek philosopher and one of the founders of Cynicism. He was born in Sinope, an Ionian colony on the Black Sea coast of Anatolia, in 412 or 404 BC and died at Corinth in 323 BC.

J. J. P. Oud

J. J. P. Oud 3 Jacobus Johannes Pieter Oud was a Dutch architect. His fame began as a follower of the De Stijl movement.

Johannes Bernardus van Loghem

Johannes Bernardus van Loghem 3 Johannes Bernardus (Han) van Loghem (1881–1940) was a Dutch architect, furniture designer and town planner.

Hendrik Verhees

Hendrik Verhees 3 Hendrik Verhees was een Nederlands politicus, architect, tekenaar, aquarellist, cartograaf en aannemer.

M. C. Escher

M. C. Escher 3 Maurits Cornelis Escher was a Dutch graphic artist who made woodcuts, lithographs, and mezzotints, many of which were inspired by mathematics. Despite wide popular interest, for most of his life Escher was neglected in the art world, even in his native Netherlands. He was 70 before a retrospective exhibition was held. In the late twentieth century, he became more widely appreciated, and in the twenty-first century he has been celebrated in exhibitions around the world.

Paul Schuitema

Paul Schuitema 3 Geert Paul Hendrikus Schuitema was a Dutch graphic artist. He also designed furniture and expositions and worked as photographer, film director, and painter, and as a teacher of 'publicity design' at the Royal Academy of Art in The Hague.

Toon Dupuis

Toon Dupuis 3 Antonius Stanislaus Nicolaas Ludovicus Dupuis was a Dutch sculptor and medallist of Belgian origin. He's the son of the sculptor Louis Dupuis (1842-1921).

Fré Cohen

Fré Cohen 3 Frederika Sophia "Fré" Cohen was a Dutch artist and graphic designer.                               

Van Asch van Wijck

Van Asch van Wijck 3 Van Asch van Wijck is een Nederlands geslacht waarvan leden sinds 1833 tot de Nederlandse adel behoren.

Calypso (mythology)

Calypso (mythology) 3 In Greek mythology, Calypso was a nymph who lived on the island of Ogygia, where, according to Homer's Odyssey, she detained Odysseus for seven years. She promised Odysseus immortality if he would stay with her, but Odysseus preferred to return home.

Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel

Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel 3 Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel was a German philosopher and one of the most influential figures of German idealism and 19th-century philosophy. His influence extends across the entire range of contemporary philosophical topics, from metaphysical issues in epistemology and ontology, to political philosophy, the philosophy of history, philosophy of art, philosophy of religion, and the history of philosophy.

Ptolemy

Ptolemy 3 Claudius Ptolemy was an Alexandrian mathematician, astronomer, astrologer, geographer, and music theorist who wrote about a dozen scientific treatises, three of which were important to later Byzantine, Islamic, and Western European science. The first was his astronomical treatise now known as the Almagest, originally entitled Mathematical Treatise. The second is the Geography, which is a thorough discussion on maps and the geographic knowledge of the Greco-Roman world. The third is the astrological treatise in which he attempted to adapt horoscopic astrology to the Aristotelian natural philosophy of his day. This is sometimes known as the Apotelesmatika but more commonly known as the Tetrábiblos, from the Koine Greek meaning "Four Books", or by its Latin equivalent Quadripartite.

Joan Maetsuycker

Joan Maetsuycker 3 Joan Maetsuycker was the Governor of Zeylan during the Dutch period in Ceylon, and Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies from 1653 to 1678.

Isaac van Goudoever

Isaac van Goudoever 3 Isaac van Goudoever was a colonel of the Amsterdam schutterij who in April 1787 played a leading role in the conversion of the Amsterdam vroedschap to the cause of the Patriot faction in the Patriottentijd.

Josine Reuling

Josine Reuling 3 Josine Reuling was the pen name of the Dutch writer, Gerardina Anna Reuling. Known for her psychological novels, her characters called into question conservative societal behaviors. Her novel Terug naar het eiland was one of the first lesbian literary works published in The Netherlands. It was unique in that it did not evaluate lesbianism on a binary trajectory or in relationship to masculinity or masculine traits. There are several streets named in her honor throughout The Netherlands.

Ietje Kooistra

Ietje Kooistra 3 Ietje (Ytsje) Kooistra was directrice en pedagoge aan de Rijkskweekschool voor Onderwijzeressen. Ze was de dochter van Folkert Kooistra en Ymkjen Pieters Keuning.

William of Nassau (1601–1627)

William of Nassau (1601–1627) 3 Willem van Nassau, Lord of De Lek was a Dutch soldier from 1620 until 1627. He was the illegitimate son of stadholder Maurice of Nassau, Prince of Orange and his mistress Margaretha van Mechelen. Like their other illegitimate children, he was recognized with the surname Nassau-LaLecq. He went by the title Rijksgraaf van Nassau-LaLecq" and was also popularly known in French as the "Chevalier de Nassau". After 1625, he was granted lands and the title Lord of De Lek. He received his heerlijkheid of De Lek as a bequest from his father to him and his descendants. His brother Lodewijk van Nassau had the title "Lord of Beverweerd and Odijk".

Anne, Princess Royal and Princess of Orange

Anne, Princess Royal and Princess of Orange 3 Anne, Princess Royal and Princess of Orange was the second child and eldest daughter of King George II of Great Britain and his consort Caroline of Ansbach. She was the wife of William IV, Prince of Orange, the first hereditary stadtholder of all seven provinces of the Northern Netherlands. She was Regent of the Netherlands from 1751 until her death in 1759, exercising extensive powers on behalf of her son William V. She was known as an Anglophile, due to her English upbringing and family connections, but was unable to convince the Dutch Republic to enter the Seven Years' War on the side of the British. Princess Anne was the second daughter of a British sovereign to hold the title Princess Royal. In the Netherlands she was styled Anna van Hannover.

Zacharias Janssen

Zacharias Janssen 3 Zacharias Janssen; also Zacharias Jansen or Sacharias Jansen; 1585 – pre-1632) was a Dutch spectacle-maker who lived most of his life in Middelburg. He is associated with the invention of the first optical telescope and/or the first truly compound microscope, but these claims may be fabrications put forward by his son.

Johannes de Beke

Johannes de Beke 3 Johannes de Beke was a 14th-century Dutch priest and historian. He was probably a monk of Egmond Abbey. In 1346, he wrote a Latin Chronographia of the County of Holland and Diocese of Utrecht from the time of the Roman Empire down to his time. He dedicated it to Bishop Jan van Arkel and Count William I. His stated aim was to preserve the peace between counts and bishops by demonstrating the common origin and shared history of their territories.

Samuel Pieter Bentinck

Samuel Pieter Bentinck 3 Samuel Pieter (Sam) baron Bentinck was een Nederlands burgemeester.                                 

Peter Paludanus

Peter Paludanus 3 Peter Paludanus was a French theologian and archbishop.                                             

Josephus Jacobus van Geen

Josephus Jacobus van Geen 3 Josephus Jacobus baron van Geen was een Nederlands generaal, ridder en officier in het Legioen van Eer en ridder en commandeur in de Militaire Willems-Orde.

Jan Houtman

Jan Houtman 3 Jan Houtman was een Nederlands verzetsstrijder, die tijdens de Tweede Wereldoorlog werd vermoord.   

Ferdinand Hart Nibbrig

Ferdinand Hart Nibbrig 3 Ferdinand Hart Nibbrig was a Dutch painter and Theosophist. He was one of the first artists who introduced luminism to the Netherlands. Hart was his mother's maiden name. He adopted it in 1884 when all of her brothers had died without issue. During his student years he was a renowned amateur racing cyclist.

Cornelis Pijnacker Hordijk

Cornelis Pijnacker Hordijk 3 Cornelis Pijnacker Hordijk was a Dutch jurist and politician. He was Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies from 1888 until 1893.

Wim van Est

Wim van Est 3 Willem "Wim" van Est was a Dutch racing cyclist. He is best known for being the first Dutch cyclist to wear the yellow jersey as leader of the general classification in the Tour de France of 1951, and for falling into a ravine while wearing it.

Mari Andriessen

Mari Andriessen 3 Mari Silvester Andriessen was a Dutch sculptor, best known for his work memorializing victims of the Holocaust. Born and died in Haarlem, Andriessen is buried at the RK Begraafplaats Sint Adelberts in Bloemendaal, the Netherlands.

Anna van Gogh-Kaulbach

Anna van Gogh-Kaulbach 3 Anna Maria van Gogh-Kaulbach was a Dutch writer and translator. She published a number of works under the pen names Wilhelmina Reynbach, Erna, Mac Peter and Wata.

Jacob Geel

Jacob Geel 3 Jacob Geel was a Dutch scholar, critic and librarian.                                               

Frederik Ruysch

Frederik Ruysch 3 Frederik Ruysch was a Dutch botanist and anatomist. He is known for developing techniques for preserving anatomical specimens, which he used to create dioramas or scenes incorporating human parts. His anatomical preparations included over 2,000 anatomical, pathological, zoological, and botanical specimens, which were preserved by either drying or embalming. Ruysch is also known for his proof of valves in the lymphatic system, the vomeronasal organ in snakes, and arteria centralis oculi. He was the first to describe the disease that is today known as Hirschsprung's disease, as well as several pathological conditions, including intracranial teratoma, enchondromatosis, and Majewski syndrome.

Johann Weyer

Johann Weyer 3 Johannes Wier was a Dutch physician who was among the first to publish a thorough treatise against the trials and persecution of people accused of witchcraft. His most influential work is De Praestigiis Daemonum et Incantationibus ac Venificiis.

Heinrich Böll

Heinrich Böll 3 Heinrich Theodor Böll was a German writer. Considered one of Germany's foremost post-World War II writers, Böll is a recipient of the Georg Büchner Prize (1967) and the Nobel Prize for Literature (1972).

Alex Verrijn Stuart

Alex Verrijn Stuart 3 Adolf Alexander Verrijn Stuart was a Dutch computer scientist, and the first Professor in computer science at the Leiden University from 1969 tot 1991.

Gerardus Johannes Berenschot

Gerardus Johannes Berenschot 3 Lieutenant General Gerardus Johannes Berenschot was Commander-in-Chief of the Koninklijk Nederlands Indisch Leger. An Indo – as Eurasians of Indonesian and Dutch descent – Berenschot was the son of a Dutch officer in the KNIL.

Lucie van Dam van Isselt

Lucie van Dam van Isselt 3 Lucie van Dam van Isselt or Lucie Dam van Isselt later Lucie Ekker was a Dutch artist known for her floral paintings.

Herman Robbers

Herman Robbers 3 Herman Johan Robbers was een Nederlands romanschrijver, dichter en tijdschriftredacteur. Op 18 juli 1893 huwde hij te Amsterdam met Wilhelmina Henriëtte Liernur

Johan Braakensiek

Johan Braakensiek 3 Johan Coenraad Braakensiek was a Dutch painter, illustrator, caricaturist and political cartoonist. He is the grandfather of Jan van Oort.

Johannes Graadt van Roggen

Johannes Graadt van Roggen 3 Johannes Mattheus Graadt van Roggen was een Nederlands tekenaar, schilder en grafisch kunstenaar. Hij wordt beschouwd als een voorloper van de Bergense School. Hij wordt ook wel Job Graadt van Roggen genoemd en was de tweede zoon van Jacob Frans Graadt van Roggen en Catharina Petronella Margaretha Zembsch.

Harry Mulisch

Harry Mulisch 3 Harry Kurt Victor Mulisch was a Dutch writer. He wrote more than 80 novels, plays, essays, poems, and philosophical reflections. Mulisch's works have been translated into 38 languages so far.

Hugo Claus

Hugo Claus 3 Hugo Maurice Julien Claus was a leading Belgian author who published under his own name as well as various pseudonyms. Claus' literary contributions spanned the genres of drama, novels, and poetry; he also left a legacy as a painter and film director. He wrote primarily in Dutch, although he also wrote some poetry in English. He won the 2000 International Nonino Prize in Italy.

Jan Goeverneur

Jan Goeverneur 3 Jan Jacob Antonie Goeverneur, in de Groninger Volksalmanak van 1890 Jan Jacob Anthony genoemd was een Nederlandse letterkundige, dichter, (kinderboeken)schrijver en vertaler.

Nico van Suchtelen

Nico van Suchtelen 3 Nicolaas Johannes (Nico) van Suchtelen was een Nederlands schrijver, dichter, vertaler en uitgever. 

Jan van Hoof

Jan van Hoof 3 Jan Jozef Lambert van Hoof was a member of the Dutch resistance in World War II, who cooperated with Allied Forces during Operation Market Garden. He is credited with disabling explosives placed by the Germans to destroy a vital bridge to delay allied liberation, and was later executed in action. Before and during the war, Van Hoof was a Rover Scout, and the Scouting medal the Nationale Padvindersraad was named in his honour.

Girolamo Frescobaldi

Girolamo Frescobaldi 3 Girolamo Alessandro Frescobaldi was an Italian composer and virtuoso keyboard player. Born in the Duchy of Ferrara, he was one of the most important composers of keyboard music in the late Renaissance and early Baroque periods. A child prodigy, Frescobaldi studied under Luzzasco Luzzaschi in Ferrara, but was influenced by many composers, including Ascanio Mayone, Giovanni Maria Trabaci, and Claudio Merulo. Girolamo Frescobaldi was appointed organist of St. Peter's Basilica, a focal point of power for the Cappella Giulia, from 21 July 1608 until 1628 and again from 1634 until his death.

Evert Cornelis

Evert Cornelis 3 Evert Cornelis was een Nederlandse dirigent en organist.                                           

Hendrika van Tussenbroek

Hendrika van Tussenbroek 3 Hendrika Cornelia van Tussenbroek was a Dutch composer and teacher who is best remembered today for her music for children.

Victor Hugo

Victor Hugo 3 Victor-Marie Hugo, vicomte Hugo, sometimes nicknamed the Ocean Man, was a French Romantic writer and politician. During a literary career that spanned more than sixty years, he wrote in a variety of genres and forms.

William, Duke of Jülich-Cleves-Berg

William, Duke of Jülich-Cleves-Berg 3 William of Jülich-Cleves-Berge was a Duke of Jülich-Cleves-Berg (1539–1592). William was born in and died in Düsseldorf. He was the only son of John III, Duke of Jülich-Cleves-Berg, and Maria, Duchess of Jülich-Berg. William took over rule of his father's estates upon his death in 1539. Despite his mother having lived until 1543, William also became the Duke of Berg and Jülich and the Count of Ravensberg.

Willy den Ouden

Willy den Ouden 3 Willemijntje den Ouden was a competitive swimmer from the Netherlands, who held the 100-meter freestyle world record for nearly 23 years, from 1933 to 1956.

Cornelis Anthony Fannius Scholten

Cornelis Anthony Fannius Scholten 3 Cornelis Anthony Fannius Scholten was een advocaat en politicus in Den Haag.                       

George Orwell

George Orwell 3 Eric Arthur Blair was an English novelist, poet, essayist, journalist, and critic who wrote under the pen name of George Orwell. His work is characterised by lucid prose, social criticism, opposition to totalitarianism, and support of democratic socialism.

Jan Mens

Jan Mens 3 Jan Mens was een Nederlandse schrijver.                                                             

Roald Dahl

Roald Dahl 3 Roald Dahl was a British author of popular children's literature and short stories, a poet, screenwriter and a wartime fighter ace. His books have sold more than 300 million copies worldwide. Dahl has been called "one of the greatest storytellers for children of the 20th century".

Wessel Couzijn

Wessel Couzijn 3 Wessel Couzijn was een Nederlandse expressionistisch beeldhouwer. Hij heeft zich tijdens zijn carrière met vele vormen van kunst beziggehouden; van schilderen en tekenen tot beeldhouwen.

Bob Marley

Bob Marley 3 Robert Nesta Marley was a Jamaican reggae singer, guitarist, and songwriter. Considered one of the pioneers of the genre, Marley fused elements of reggae, ska, and rocksteady in his music and was renowned for his distinctive vocal and songwriting style. Marley's contribution to music increased the visibility of Jamaican music worldwide and made him a global figure in popular culture. Over the course of his career, Marley became known as a Rastafarian icon, and he infused his music with a sense of spirituality. He is also considered a global symbol of Jamaican music and culture and identity, and was controversial in his outspoken support for democratic social reforms. He also supported legalisation of cannabis, and advocated for Pan-Africanism. In 1976, Marley survived an assassination attempt in his home, which was believed to be politically motivated.

Jane Austen

Jane Austen 3 Jane Austen was an English novelist known primarily for her six novels, which implicitly interpret, critique, and comment upon the British landed gentry at the end of the 18th century. Austen's plots often explore the dependence of women on marriage for the pursuit of favourable social standing and economic security. Her works are an implicit critique of the novels of sensibility of the second half of the 18th century and are part of the transition to 19th-century literary realism. Her deft use of social commentary, realism and biting irony have earned her acclaim among critics and scholars.

Jan Hilgers

Jan Hilgers 3 Johan Willem Emile Louis Hilgers, more commonly known as Jan Hilgers or John Hilgers, was an Indo (Eurasian) aviator and one of the leading pioneers of Dutch aviation. He was the first Dutch pilot to complete a flight in Dutch airspace 29 July 1910. For the official memorial of this in 1955 a monument was erected in the town of Ede, also a road, the "Jan Hilgersweg" was named after him.

Orlando di Lasso

Orlando di Lasso 3 Orlando di Lasso was a composer of the late Renaissance. The chief representative of the mature polyphonic style in the Franco-Flemish school, Lassus stands with William Byrd, Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina, and Tomás Luis de Victoria as one of the leading composers of the later Renaissance. Immensely prolific, his music varies considerably in style and genres, which gave him unprecedented popularity throughout Europe.

Nicolaes Tulp

Nicolaes Tulp 3 Nicolaes Tulp was a Dutch surgeon and mayor of Amsterdam. Tulp was well known for his upstanding moral character and as the subject of Rembrandt's famous painting The Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Nicolaes Tulp.

Michael Ophovius

Michael Ophovius 3 Michael van Ophoven O.P., ook Michael Ophovius genaamd, was een Nederlands geestelijke en een bisschop van de Rooms-Katholieke Kerk.

Arnulf I, Count of Flanders

Arnulf I, Count of Flanders 3 Arnulf I, called "the Great", was the first Count of Flanders.                                     

The Four Sons of Aymon

The Four Sons of Aymon 3 The Four Sons of Aymon, sometimes also referred to as Renaud de Montauban is a medieval tale spun around the four sons of Duke Aymon: the knight Renaud de Montauban, his brothers Guichard, Allard and Richardet, their magical horse Bayard, their adventures and revolt against the emperor Charlemagne. The story had a European success and echoes of the story are still found today in certain folklore traditions.

Pieter Paulus

Pieter Paulus 3 Pieter Paulus was a Dutch jurist, fiscal (prosecutor) of the Admiralty of the Maze and politician. He was one of the ideologues of the Dutch Patriot movement and is considered by many Dutch as the founder of their democracy and political unity.

Joachimus Pieter Fockema Andreae

Joachimus Pieter Fockema Andreae 3 Joachimus Pieter Fockema Andreae was burgemeester van Utrecht en commissaris van de Koningin in Groningen.

Nicholas Pieck

Nicholas Pieck 3 Nicholas Pieck, O.F.M., "Nicolaas" or "Claes Pieck" in Dutch, was a Franciscan friar who was one of a group of Catholic clergy and lay brothers, the Martyrs of Gorkum, who were executed for refusal to renounce their faith in 1572.

Gerard van Spaendonck

Gerard van Spaendonck 3 Gerard van Spaendonck was a Dutch painter.                                                         

Lucas Gassel

Lucas Gassel 3 Lucas Gassel or Lucas van Gassel was a Flemish Renaissance painter and draughtsman known for his landscapes. He helped further develop and modernize the landscape tradition in Flanders. He also designed prints which were published by the Antwerp publisher Hieronymus Cock.

Saint Apollonia

Saint Apollonia 3 Saint Apollonia was one of a group of virgin martyrs who suffered in Alexandria during a local uprising against the Christians prior to the persecution of Decius. According to church tradition, her torture included having all of her teeth violently pulled out or shattered. For this reason, she is popularly regarded as the patroness of dentistry and those suffering from toothache or other dental problems. French court painter Jehan Fouquet painted the scene of St. Apollonia's torture in The Martyrdom of St. Apollonia.

Helena Mercier

Helena Mercier 3 Helena Mercier (1839–1910) was a Dutch social-liberal feminist, a social reformer, a writer, and one of the founders of the idea of social work in the Netherlands.

Earl Van Dorn

Earl Van Dorn 3 Earl Van Dorn was an American major-general who started his military career as a United States Army officer and became famous for successfully leading a defense of a Native American settlement from the Comanche. He joined Confederate forces in 1861 after the Civil War broke out and was a major general when he was killed in a private conflict. He is considered one of the greatest cavalry commanders to have ever lived.

Rudyard Kipling

Rudyard Kipling 3 Joseph Rudyard Kipling was an English novelist, short-story writer, poet, and journalist. He was born in British India, which inspired much of his work.

Arminius

Arminius 3 Arminius was a chieftain of the Germanic Cherusci tribe who is best known for commanding an alliance of Germanic tribes at the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest in AD 9, in which three Roman legions under the command of general and governor Publius Quinctilius Varus were destroyed. His victory at Teutoburg Forest precipitated the Roman Empire's permanent strategic withdrawal from Germania Magna, and modern historians regard it as one of Rome's greatest defeats. As it prevented the Romanization of Germanic peoples east of the Rhine, it has also been considered one of the most decisive battles in history and a turning point in human history.

Anna van Ewsum

Anna van Ewsum 3 Anna van Ewsum was a rich Dutch noblewoman.                                                         

Bessie Smith

Bessie Smith 3 Bessie Smith was an African-American blues singer widely renowned during the Jazz Age. Nicknamed the "Empress of the Blues", she was the most popular female blues singer of the 1930s. Inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1989, she is often regarded as one of the greatest singers of her era and was a major influence on fellow blues singers, as well as jazz vocalists.

Miles Davis

Miles Davis 3 Miles Dewey Davis III was an American jazz trumpeter, bandleader, and composer. He is among the most influential and acclaimed figures in the history of jazz and 20th-century music. Davis adopted a variety of musical directions in a roughly five-decade career that kept him at the forefront of many major stylistic developments in jazz.

Henric Piccardt

Henric Piccardt 3 Henric Piccardt was an ambitious Dutch lawyer who made good at the court of young king Louis XIV of France in Paris where he became a published poet in French. Returning to the Netherlands, he rose to become syndic of the Ommelanden of Groningen and the untitled lord of the majestic manor at Slochteren, the Fraeylemaborg.

Galen

Galen 3 Aelius Galenus or Claudius Galenus, often anglicized as Galen or Galen of Pergamon, was a Roman and Greek physician, surgeon, and philosopher. Considered to be one of the most accomplished of all medical researchers of antiquity, Galen influenced the development of various scientific disciplines, including anatomy, physiology, pathology, pharmacology, and neurology, as well as philosophy and logic.

Carel Gerretson

Carel Gerretson 3 Doctor Frederik Carel Gerretson was a Dutch writer, essayist, historian, and politician.           

Martin Van Buren

Martin Van Buren 3 Martin Van Buren was an American lawyer, diplomat, and statesman who served as the eighth president of the United States from 1837 to 1841. A primary founder of the Democratic Party, he served as New York's attorney general and U.S. senator, then briefly as the ninth governor of New York before joining Andrew Jackson's administration as the tenth United States secretary of state, minister to Great Britain, and ultimately the eighth vice president when named Jackson's running mate for the 1832 election. Van Buren won the presidency in 1836 against divided Whig opponents. Van Buren lost re-election in 1840, and failed to win the Democratic nomination in 1844. Later in his life, Van Buren emerged as an elder statesman and an important anti-slavery leader who led the Free Soil Party ticket in the 1848 presidential election.

Simon Hoogenboom

Simon Hoogenboom 3 Simon Hoogenboom was een Nederlands politicus van de ARP.                                           

Nicolaas III van Putten

Nicolaas III van Putten 3 Nicolaas III van Putten was heer van Putten, veldheer van Holland (1299-1304) en het Sticht (1311). Hij komt ook wel voor als: Nikolaes, Nicolaus, Nicolaes, Clais, Claes, Clais, Niclays of Niclayse, Heer van Putten of Put, Pitten of Patten.

Jacob van Gaasbeek

Jacob van Gaasbeek 3 Jacob van Gaesbeek ook genaamd Jacob van Gaesbeke/Gaesbeeck en Jacob van Abcoude was heer (baron) van Gaasbeek, Abcoude, Putten, Strijen en Coelhorst. Tevens was hij stadhouder van Holland, erfmaarschalk van Henegouwen, raadsheer van het Hof van Holland, Zeeland en West-Friesland, en een van de rijkste edelen van de vroege 15e eeuw in Holland en Brabant.

Erik the Red

Erik the Red 3 Erik Thorvaldsson, known as Erik the Red, was a Norse explorer, described in medieval and Icelandic saga sources as having founded the first European settlement in Greenland. Erik most likely earned the epithet "the Red" due to the color of his hair and beard. According to Icelandic sagas, Erik was born in the Jæren district of Rogaland, Norway, as the son of Thorvald Asvaldsson; to which Thorvald would later be banished from Norway, and would sail west to Iceland with Erik and his family. During Erik's life in Iceland, he married Þjódhild Jorundsdottir and would have four children, with one of Erik's sons being the well-known Icelandic explorer Leif Erikson. Around the year of 982, Erik was exiled from Iceland for three years, during which time he explored Greenland, eventually culminating in his founding of the first successful European settlement on the island. Erik would later die there around 1003 CE during a winter epidemic.

Francisco Pizarro

Francisco Pizarro 3 Francisco Pizarro, Marquess of the Atabillos was a Spanish conquistador, best known for his expeditions that led to the Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire.

Bartolomeu Dias

Bartolomeu Dias 3 Bartolomeu Dias was a Portuguese mariner and explorer. In 1488, he became the first European navigator to round the southern tip of Africa and to demonstrate that the most effective southward route for ships lies in the open ocean, well to the west of the African coast. His discoveries effectively established the sea route between Europe and Asia.

Godfried Schalcken

Godfried Schalcken 3 Godfried Schalcken was a Dutch artist who specialized in genre paintings and portraits. Schalcken was noted for his night scenes and mastery in reproducing the effect of candlelight. He painted in the highly polished style of the Leiden fijnschilders.

Lawrence Alma-Tadema

Lawrence Alma-Tadema 3 Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema was a Dutch painter who later settled in the United Kingdom, becoming the last officially recognised denizen in 1873. Born in Dronryp, the Netherlands, and trained at the Royal Academy of Antwerp, Belgium, he settled in London, England in 1870 and spent the rest of his life there.

Coba Pulskens

Coba Pulskens 3 Jacoba Maria (Coba) Pulskens,, was een Tilburgse verzetsstrijder. Ze bood in de Tweede Wereldoorlog onderdak aan onderduikers: aan Joden, verzetslieden en piloten. Pulskens werd op 9 juli 1944 door de Sicherheitspolizei gearresteerd en naar Ravensbrück afgevoerd, waar ze begin 1945 is vergast.

Emanuel de Witte

Emanuel de Witte 3 Emanuel de Witte (1617–1692) was a Dutch perspective painter. In contrast to Pieter Jansz Saenredam, who emphasized architectural accuracy, De Witte was more concerned with the atmosphere of his interiors. Though few in number, de Witte also produced genre paintings.

Pierre-Auguste Renoir

Pierre-Auguste Renoir 3 Pierre-Auguste Renoir was a French artist who was a leading painter in the development of the Impressionist style. As a celebrator of beauty and especially feminine sensuality, it has been said that "Renoir is the final representative of a tradition which runs directly from Rubens to Watteau."

Salvador Dalí

Salvador Dalí 3 Salvador Domingo Felipe Jacinto Dalí i Domènech, Marquess of Dalí of Púbol, known as Salvador Dalí, was a Spanish surrealist artist renowned for his technical skill, precise draftsmanship, and the striking and bizarre images in his work.

Pieter Aertsen

Pieter Aertsen 3 Pieter Aertsen, called Lange Piet because of his height, was a Dutch painter in the style of Northern Mannerism. He is credited with the invention of the monumental genre scene, which combines still life and genre painting and often also includes a biblical scene in the background. He was active in his native city Amsterdam but also worked for a long period in Antwerp, then the centre of artistic life in the Netherlands.

Joos van Cleve

Joos van Cleve 3 Joos van Cleve was a leading painter active in Antwerp from his arrival there around 1511 until his death in 1540 or 1541. Within Dutch and Flemish Renaissance painting, he combines the traditional techniques of Early Netherlandish painting with influences of more contemporary Renaissance painting styles.

Willem van Enckevoirt

Willem van Enckevoirt 3 William of Enckevoirt, also spelled as Enckenvoirt was a Dutch Cardinal, bishop of Tortosa from 1524 to 1524, and bishop of Utrecht from 1529 to 1534.

Van Coeverden

Van Coeverden 3 Van Coevorden is one of the oldest aristocratic families in the Netherlands.                       

Piet Wolters

Piet Wolters 3 Pieter Abel Wolters was een Nederlands burgemeester.                                               

Willem Sluyter

Willem Sluyter 3 Willem Sluyter was een Nederlandse predikant en dichter.                                           

Gerard III van Heemskerk

Gerard III van Heemskerk 3 Gerard (III) van Heemskerk, Lord of Heemskerk was a leader of the Cod Alliance during the opening phases of the Hook and Cod wars

Simon van der Stel

Simon van der Stel 3 Simon van der Stel was the first Governor of the Dutch Cape Colony (1691), the settlement at the Cape of Good Hope. He was interested in botany, establishing vineyards Groot and Klein Constantia, and producing a famous dessert wine. He is considered one of the founders of South African viticulture.

Jan Gossaert

Jan Gossaert 3 Jan Gossaert was a French-speaking painter from the Low Countries also known as Jan Mabuse or Jennyn van Hennegouwe (Hainaut), as he called himself when he matriculated in the Guild of Saint Luke, at Antwerp, in 1503. He was one of the first painters of Dutch and Flemish Renaissance painting to visit Italy and Rome, which he did in 1508–09, and a leader of the style known as Romanism, which brought elements of Italian Renaissance painting to the north, sometimes with a rather awkward effect. He achieved fame across at least northern Europe, and painted religious subjects, including large altarpieces, but also portraits and mythological subjects, including some nudity.

Cornelis Kruseman

Cornelis Kruseman 3 Cornelis Kruseman was a Dutch painter, draughtsman, etcher, lithographer, silhouettist, paper-cut artist, and art collector. His works included portraits, biblical scenes, and depictions of Italian peasant life.

Henry de Nassau, Lord Overkirk

Henry de Nassau, Lord Overkirk 3 Henry, Count of Nassau, Lord of Overkirk was a Dutch military general and second cousin of King William III of England. He would come to play a prominent role in the wars against Louis XIV of France, and led the Dutch States Army during the battles of Ramillies and Oudenarde. While Lord of Ouwerkerk and Woudenberg in the Netherlands, the English called him "Lord Overkirk" or "Count Overkirk".

Lotte Stam-Beese

Lotte Stam-Beese 3 Charlotte Ida Anna "Lotte" Stam-Beese was a German-Dutch architect, photographer and urban planner who helped with the reconstruction of Rotterdam after World War II.

Lucretia Wilhelmina van Merken

Lucretia Wilhelmina van Merken 3 Lucretia Wilhelmina van Merken was a Dutch poet and playwright. Born in Amsterdam, she began writing occasional poetry and in her early twenties had published her first tragedy. Influenced by the Enlightenment, her tragedies were classicist in style and proved to be popular, being performed all over the country. She wrote an ode in French for George Washington, and sent it to him, and for the revised Dutch version of the Book of Psalms she provided seventeen of the psalms.

Maria Dermoût

Maria Dermoût 3 Maria Dermoût was an Indo-European novelist, considered one of the greats of Dutch literature and as such an important proponent of Dutch Ind