Famous people on Poland's street names


Tadeusz Kościuszko

Tadeusz Kościuszko 1102 Andrzej Tadeusz Bonawentura Kościuszko was a Polish military engineer, statesman, and military leader who then became a national hero in Poland, the United States, and Belarus. He fought in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth's struggles against Russia and Prussia, and on the U.S. side in the American Revolutionary War. As Supreme Commander of the Polish National Armed Forces, he led the 1794 Kościuszko Uprising.

Adam Mickiewicz

Adam Mickiewicz 1086 Adam Bernard Mickiewicz was a Polish poet, dramatist, essayist, publicist, translator and political activist. He is regarded as national poet in Poland, Lithuania and Belarus. He also largely influenced Ukrainian literature. A principal figure in Polish Romanticism, he is one of Poland's "Three Bards" and is widely regarded as Poland's greatest poet. He is also considered one of the greatest Slavic and European poets and has been dubbed a "Slavic bard". A leading Romantic dramatist, he has been compared in Poland and Europe to Byron and Goethe.

Henryk Sienkiewicz

Henryk Sienkiewicz 833 Henryk Adam Aleksander Pius Sienkiewicz, also known by the pseudonym Litwos, was an epic Polish writer. He is remembered for his historical novels, such as the Trilogy series and especially for his internationally known best-seller Quo Vadis (1896).

Juliusz Słowacki

Juliusz Słowacki 789 Juliusz Słowacki was a Polish Romantic poet. He is considered one of the "Three Bards" of Polish literature — a major figure in the Polish Romantic period, and the father of modern Polish drama. His works often feature elements of Slavic pagan traditions, Polish history, mysticism and orientalism. His style includes the employment of neologisms and irony. His primary genre was the drama, but he also wrote lyric poetry. His most popular works include the dramas Kordian and Balladyna and the poems Beniowski, Testament mój and Anhelli.

Maria Konopnicka

Maria Konopnicka 747 Maria Konopnicka was a Polish poet, novelist, children's writer, translator, journalist, critic, and activist for women's rights and for Polish independence. She used pseudonyms, including Jan Sawa. She was one of the most important poets of Poland's Positivist period.

Pope John Paul II

Pope John Paul II 695 Pope John Paul II was head of the Catholic Church and sovereign of the Vatican City State from 1978 until his death in 2005.

Nicolaus Copernicus

Nicolaus Copernicus 652 Nicolaus Copernicus was a Renaissance polymath, active as a mathematician, astronomer, and Catholic canon, who formulated a model of the universe that placed the Sun rather than Earth at its center. In all likelihood, Copernicus developed his model independently of Aristarchus of Samos, an ancient Greek astronomer who had formulated such a model some eighteen centuries earlier.

Stefan Żeromski

Stefan Żeromski 580 Stefan Żeromski was a Polish novelist and dramatist belonging to the Young Poland movement at the turn of the 20th century. He was called the "conscience of Polish literature".

Frédéric Chopin

Frédéric Chopin 538 Frédéric François Chopin was a Polish composer and virtuoso pianist of the Romantic period, who wrote primarily for solo piano. He has maintained worldwide renown as a leading musician of his era, one whose "poetic genius was based on a professional technique that was without equal in his generation".

Bolesław Prus

Bolesław Prus 531 Aleksander Głowacki, better known by his pen name Bolesław Prus, was a Polish novelist, a leading figure in the history of Polish literature and philosophy, as well as a distinctive voice in world literature.

Władysław Sikorski

Władysław Sikorski 486 Władysław Eugeniusz Sikorski was a Polish military and political leader.                           

Władysław Reymont

Władysław Reymont 484 Władysław Stanisław Reymont was a Polish novelist and the laureate of the 1924 Nobel Prize in Literature. His best-known work is the award-winning four-volume novel Chłopi.

Józef Piłsudski

Józef Piłsudski 472 Józef Klemens Piłsudski[a] was a Polish statesman who served as the Chief of State (1918–1922) and first Marshal of Poland. In the aftermath of World War I, he became an increasingly dominant figure in Polish politics and exerted significant influence on shaping the country's foreign policy. Piłsudski is viewed as a father of the Second Polish Republic, which was re-established in 1918, 123 years after the final partition of Poland in 1795, and was considered de facto leader (1926–1935) of the Second Republic as the Minister of Military Affairs.

Jan Kochanowski

Jan Kochanowski 472 Jan Kochanowski was a Polish Renaissance poet who wrote in Latin and Polish and established poetic patterns that would become integral to Polish literary language. He has been called the greatest Polish poet before Adam Mickiewicz and one of the most influential Slavic poets prior to the 19th century.

Mikołaj Rej

Mikołaj Rej 444 Mikołaj Rej or Mikołaj Rey of Nagłowice was a Polish poet and prose writer of the emerging Renaissance in Poland as it succeeded the Middle Ages, as well as a politician and musician. He was the first Polish author to write exclusively in the Polish language, and is considered, to be one of the founders of Polish literary language and literature.

Wincenty Witos

Wincenty Witos 443 Wincenty Witos was a Polish statesman, prominent member and leader of the Polish People's Party (PSL), who served three times as the Prime Minister of Poland in the 1920s.

Jan Kiliński

Jan Kiliński 415 Jan Kiliński was a Polish soldier and one of the commanders of the Kościuszko Uprising. A shoemaker by trade, he commanded the Warsaw Uprising of 1794 against the Russian garrison stationed in Warsaw. He also became a member of Polish provisional government.

Eliza Orzeszkowa

Eliza Orzeszkowa 403 Eliza Orzeszkowa was a Polish novelist and a leading writer of the Positivism movement during foreign Partitions of Poland. In 1905, together with Henryk Sienkiewicz, she was nominated for the Nobel Prize in Literature.

Stanisław Moniuszko

Stanisław Moniuszko 395 Stanisław Moniuszko was a Polish composer, conductor and teacher. He wrote many popular art songs and operas, and his music is filled with patriotic folk themes of the peoples of the former Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. He is generally referred to as "the father of Polish national opera". Since the 1990s Stanisław Moniuszko is being recognized in Belarus as an important figure to Belarusian culture as well.

Bolesław I the Brave

Bolesław I the Brave 395 Bolesław I the Brave, less often known as Bolesław the Great, was Duke of Poland from 992 to 1025, and the first King of Poland in 1025. He was also Duke of Bohemia between 1003 and 1004 as Boleslaus IV. A member of the ancient Piast dynasty, Bolesław was a capable monarch and a strong mediator in Central European affairs. He continued to proselytise Western Christianity among his subjects and raised Poland to the rank of a kingdom, thus becoming the first Polish ruler to hold the title of rex, Latin for king.

John III Sobieski

John III Sobieski 368 John III Sobieski was King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1674 until his death in 1696. 

Stanisław Staszic

Stanisław Staszic 366 Stanisław Wawrzyniec Staszic was a leading figure in the Polish Enlightenment: a Catholic priest, philosopher, geologist, writer, poet, translator and statesman. A physiocrat, monist, pan-Slavist and laissez-fairist, he supported many reforms in Poland. He is particularly remembered for his political writings during the "Great (Four-Year) Sejm" (1788–92) and for his large support towards the Constitution of 3 May 1791, adopted by that Sejm.

Jan Matejko

Jan Matejko 349 Jan Alojzy Matejko was a Polish painter, a leading 19th-century exponent of history painting, known for depicting nodal events from Polish history. His works include large scale oil paintings such as Stańczyk (1862), Rejtan (1866), Union of Lublin (1869), Astronomer Copernicus, or Conversations with God (1873), or Battle of Grunwald (1878). He was the author of numerous portraits, a gallery of Polish monarchs in book form, and murals in St. Mary's Basilica, Kraków. He is considered by many as the most celebrated Polish painter, and sometimes as the "national painter" of Poland.

Stefan Wyszyński

Stefan Wyszyński 346 Stefan Wyszyński was a Polish prelate of the Catholic Church. He served as Bishop of Lublin from 1946 to 1948, Archbishop of Warsaw and Archbishop of Gniezno from 1948 to 1981. He was created a cardinal on 12 January 1953 by Pope Pius XII. He assumed the title of Primate of Poland.

Cyprian Norwid

Cyprian Norwid 330 Cyprian Kamil Norwid was a Polish poet, dramatist, painter, sculptor, and philosopher. He is now considered one of the four most important Polish Romantic poets, though scholars still debate whether he is more aptly described as a late romantic or an early modernist.

Julian Tuwim

Julian Tuwim 317 Julian Tuwim, known also under the pseudonym Oldlen as a lyricist, was a Polish poet, born in Łódź, then part of the Russian Partition. He was educated in Łódź and in Warsaw where he studied law and philosophy at Warsaw University. After Poland's return to independence in 1918, Tuwim co-founded the Skamander group of experimental poets with Antoni Słonimski and Jarosław Iwaszkiewicz. He was a major figure in Polish literature, admired also for his contribution to children's literature. He was a recipient of the prestigious Golden Laurel of the Polish Academy of Literature in 1935.

Ignacy Jan Paderewski

Ignacy Jan Paderewski 316 Ignacy Jan Paderewski was a Polish pianist, composer and statesman who was a spokesman for Polish independence. In 1919, he was the nation's prime minister and foreign minister during which he signed the Treaty of Versailles, which ended World War I.

Adam Asnyk

Adam Asnyk 316 Adam Asnyk, was a Polish poet and dramatist of the Positivist era.                                 

Stanisław Wyspiański

Stanisław Wyspiański 306 Stanisław Mateusz Ignacy Wyspiański was a Polish playwright, painter and poet, as well as interior and furniture designer. A patriotic writer, he created a series of symbolic, national dramas within the artistic philosophy of the Young Poland Movement.

Jadwiga of Poland

Jadwiga of Poland 299 Jadwiga, also known as Hedwig, was the first woman to be crowned as monarch of the Kingdom of Poland. She reigned from 16 October 1384 until her death. She was the youngest daughter of Louis the Great, King of Hungary and Poland, and his wife, Elizabeth of Bosnia. Jadwiga was a member of the Capetian House of Anjou, but she had more close forebears among the Polish Piasts than among the Angevins.

Józef Bem

Józef Bem 293 Józef Zachariasz Bem was a Polish engineer and general, an Ottoman pasha and a national hero of Poland and Hungary, and a figure intertwined with other European patriotic movements. Like Tadeusz Kościuszko and Jan Henryk Dąbrowski, Bem fought outside Poland's borders anywhere his leadership and military skills were needed.

Władysław Broniewski

Władysław Broniewski 291 Władysław Kazimierz Broniewski was a Polish poet, writer, translator and soldier. Known for his revolutionary and patriotic writings.

Romuald Traugutt

Romuald Traugutt 279 Romuald Traugutt was a Polish military officer and politician who served as the last dictator of the January Uprising.

Marie Curie

Marie Curie 279 Maria Salomea Skłodowska-Curie, known simply as Marie Curie, was a Polish and naturalised-French physicist and chemist who conducted pioneering research on radioactivity. She was the first woman to win a Nobel Prize, the first person to win a Nobel Prize twice, and the only person to win a Nobel Prize in two scientific fields. Her husband, Pierre Curie, was a co-winner of her first Nobel Prize, making them the first-ever married couple to win the Nobel Prize and launching the Curie family legacy of five Nobel Prizes. She was, in 1906, the first woman to become a professor at the University of Paris.

Mieszko I

Mieszko I 263 Mieszko I was the first ruler of Poland and the founder of the first independent Polish state, Civitas Schinesghe also known as the Duchy of Poland. His reign stretched from 960 to his death and he was a member of the Piast dynasty, a son of Siemomysł and a grandson of Lestek. He was the father of Bolesław I the Brave and of Gunhild of Wenden. Most sources identify Mieszko I as the father of Sigrid the Haughty, a Scandinavian queen, the grandfather of Canute the Great and the great-grandfather of Gunhilda of Denmark, Canute the Great's daughter and wife of Henry III, Holy Roman Emperor.

Władysław II Jagiełło

Władysław II Jagiełło 263 Jogaila, later Władysław II Jagiełło, was Grand Duke of Lithuania, later giving the position to his cousin Vytautas in exchange for the title of Supreme Duke of Lithuania (1401–1434) and then King of Poland (1386–1434), first alongside his wife Jadwiga until 1399, and then sole ruler of Poland. Born a pagan, he converted to Catholicism in 1386 and was baptized as Ladislaus in Kraków, married the young Queen Jadwiga, and was crowned King of Poland as Władysław II Jagiełło. In 1387, he converted Lithuania to Catholicism. His own reign in Poland started in 1399, upon the death of Queen Jadwiga, lasted a further thirty-five years, and laid the foundation for the centuries-long Polish–Lithuanian union. He was a member of the Jagiellonian dynasty in Poland that bears his name and was previously also known as the Gediminid dynasty in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. The dynasty ruled both states until 1572, and became one of the most influential dynasties in late medieval and early modern Europe.

Casimir III the Great

Casimir III the Great 261 Casimir III the Great reigned as the King of Poland from 1333 to 1370. He also later became King of Ruthenia in 1340, and fought to retain the title in the Galicia-Volhynia Wars. He was the last Polish king from the Piast dynasty.

Stephen Báthory

Stephen Báthory 258 Stephen Báthory was Voivode of Transylvania (1571–1576), Prince of Transylvania (1576–1586), King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania (1576–1586).

Stanisław Wigura

Stanisław Wigura 248 Stanisław Wigura was a Polish aircraft designer and aviator, co-founder of the RWD aircraft construction team and lecturer at the Warsaw University of Technology. Along with Franciszek Żwirko, he won the international air contest Challenge 1932.

Ignacy Krasicki

Ignacy Krasicki 229 Ignacy Błażej Franciszek Krasicki, from 1766 Prince-Bishop of Warmia and from 1795 Archbishop of Gniezno, was Poland's leading Enlightenment poet, a critic of the clergy, Poland's La Fontaine, author of the first Polish novel, playwright, journalist, encyclopedist, and translator from French and Greek.

Władysław I Łokietek

Władysław I Łokietek 227 Władysław I Łokietek, in English known as the "Elbow-high" or Ladislaus the Short, was King of Poland from 1320 to 1333, and duke of several of the provinces and principalities in the preceding years. He was a member of the royal Piast dynasty, the son of Duke Casimir I of Kuyavia, and great-grandson of High-Duke Casimir II the Just.

Hugo Kołłątaj

Hugo Kołłątaj 215 Hugo Stumberg Kołłątaj, also spelled Kołłątay, was a prominent Polish constitutional reformer and educationalist, and one of the most prominent figures of the Polish Enlightenment. He served as Deputy Chancellor of the Crown between 1791–92. He was a Roman Catholic priest, social and political activist, political thinker, historian, philosopher, and polymath.

Casimir Pulaski

Casimir Pulaski 214 Kazimierz Michał Władysław Wiktor Pułaski was a Polish nobleman, soldier, and military commander who has been called "The Father of American cavalry" or "The Soldier of Liberty".

Janusz Korczak

Janusz Korczak 214 Janusz Korczak, the pen name of Henryk Goldszmit, was a Polish Jewish pediatrician, educator, children's author and pedagogue known as Pan Doktor or Stary Doktor. He was an early children's rights advocate, in 1919 drafting a children's constitution.

Józef Ignacy Kraszewski

Józef Ignacy Kraszewski 212 Józef Ignacy Kraszewski was a Polish novelist, journalist, historian, publisher, painter, and musician.

Wojciech Bartosz Głowacki

Wojciech Bartosz Głowacki 204 Wojciech Bartos(z) Głowacki (1758–1794), known also as Bartosz Głowacki, was a Polish peasant and the most famous member of the kosynierzy during the Kościuszko Uprising in 1794. Born as Wojciech Bartosz, he became a Polish national hero during the battle of Racławice on 4 April 1794, when he captured a Russian cannon by putting out the fuse with his hat. For this, he was promoted to the rank of 'chorąży' and received the surname 'Głowacki'. He was mortally wounded during the battle of Szczekociny on 6 June that year. Since then he has become one of the symbols of the Uprising and Polish valor.

Gabriel Narutowicz

Gabriel Narutowicz 201 Gabriel Józef Narutowicz was a Polish professor of hydroelectric engineering and politician who served as the first President of Poland from 11 December 1922 until his assassination on 16 December, five days after assuming office. He previously served as the Minister of Public Works from 1920 to 1922 and briefly as Minister of Foreign Affairs in 1922. A renowned engineer and politically independent, Narutowicz was the first elected head of state following Poland's regained sovereignty from partitioning powers.

Stefan Aleksander Okrzeja

Stefan Aleksander Okrzeja 193 Stefan Aleksander Okrzeja was a Polish worker, socialist and activist for Poland's independence.   

Jan Kasprowicz

Jan Kasprowicz 192 Jan Kasprowicz was a poet, playwright, critic and translator; a foremost representative of Young Poland.

Władysław Anders

Władysław Anders 184 Władysław Albert Anders was a general in the Polish Army and later in life a politician and prominent member of the Polish government-in-exile in London.

Krzysztof Kamil Baczyński

Krzysztof Kamil Baczyński 170 Krzysztof Kamil Baczyński, was a Polish poet and Home Army soldier, one of the most well known of the Generation of Columbuses, the young generation of Polish poets, of whom several perished in the Warsaw Uprising and during the German occupation of Poland.

Aleksander Fredro

Aleksander Fredro 166 Aleksander Fredro was a Polish poet, playwright and author active during Polish Romanticism in the period of partitions by neighboring empires. His works including plays written in the octosyllabic verse (Zemsta) and in prose as well as fables, belong to the canon of Polish literature. Fredro was harshly criticized by some of his contemporaries for light-hearted humor or even alleged immorality which led to years of his literary silence. Many of Fredro's dozens of plays were published and popularized only after his death. His best-known works have been translated into English, French, German, Russian, Czech, Romanian, Hungarian and Slovak.

Jan Henryk Dąbrowski

Jan Henryk Dąbrowski 163 Jan Henryk Dąbrowski was a Polish general and statesman, widely respected after his death for his patriotic attitude, and described as a national hero who spent his whole life restoring the legacy of Poland.

Maria Dąbrowska

Maria Dąbrowska 160 Maria Dąbrowska was a Polish writer, novelist, essayist, journalist and playwright, author of the popular Polish historical novel Noce i dnie written between 1932 and 1934 in four separate volumes. The novel was made into a film by the same title in 1975 by Jerzy Antczak. Besides her own work, she was also known for translating Samuel Pepys' Diary into Polish. In addition, Dąbrowska was awarded the prestigious Golden Laurel of the Polish Academy of Literature in 1935, and she was nominated for the Nobel Prize in Literature eleven times between 1939 and 1965.

Czesław Miłosz

Czesław Miłosz 159 Czesław Miłosz was a Polish-American poet, prose writer, translator, and diplomat. He primarily wrote his poetry in Polish. Regarded as one of the great poets of the 20th century, he won the 1980 Nobel Prize in Literature. In its citation, the Swedish Academy called Miłosz a writer who "voices man's exposed condition in a world of severe conflicts".

Stefan Czarniecki

Stefan Czarniecki 157 Stefan Czarniecki was a Polish nobleman, general and military commander. In his career, he rose from a petty nobleman to a magnate holding one of the highest offices in the Commonwealth, something that was unprecedented in the Commonwealth's history. On 22 July 1664 he received the office of the Voivode of Kijów and on 2 January 1665, a few weeks before his death, he was given the office of Field Hetman of the Crown of the Polish Kingdom. He is remembered as an accomplished military commander, and regarded as a Polish national hero. His status in Polish history is acknowledged by a mention of his name in the Polish national anthem.

Józef Haller

Józef Haller 156 Józef Haller von Hallenburg was a lieutenant general of the Polish Army, a legionary in the Polish Legions, harcmistrz, the president of the Polish Scouting and Guiding Association (ZHP), and a political and social activist. He was the cousin of Stanisław Haller.

Karol Szymanowski

Karol Szymanowski 156 Karol Maciej Szymanowski was a Polish composer and pianist. He was a member of the modernist Young Poland movement that flourished in the late 19th and early 20th century.

Józef Poniatowski

Józef Poniatowski 155 Prince Józef Antoni Poniatowski was a Polish general, minister of war and army chief, who became a Marshal of the French Empire during the Napoleonic Wars.

Zofia Nałkowska

Zofia Nałkowska 155 Zofia Nałkowska was a Polish prose writer, dramatist, and prolific essayist. She served as the executive member of the prestigious Polish Academy of Literature (1933–1939) during the interwar period.

Jan Brzechwa

Jan Brzechwa 155 Jan Brzechwa, was a Polish poet, author and lawyer, known mostly for his contribution to children's literature. He was born Jan Wiktor Lesman to a Polish family of Jewish descent.

Konstanty Ildefons Gałczyński

Konstanty Ildefons Gałczyński 152 Konstanty Ildefons Gałczyński, alias Karakuliambro, was a Polish poet. He is well known for the "paradramatic" absurd humorous sketches of the Green Goose Theatre.

Zygmunt Krasiński

Zygmunt Krasiński 150 Napoleon Stanisław Adam Feliks Zygmunt Krasiński was a Polish poet traditionally ranked after Adam Mickiewicz and Juliusz Słowacki as one of Poland's Three Bards – the Romantic poets who influenced national consciousness in the period of Partitions of Poland.

Jerzy Popiełuszko

Jerzy Popiełuszko 150 Jerzy Popiełuszko was a Polish Roman Catholic priest who became associated with the opposition Solidarity trade union in communist Poland. He was murdered in 1984 by three agents of Służba Bezpieczeństwa, who were shortly thereafter tried and convicted of the murder.

Józef Wybicki

Józef Wybicki 148 Józef Rufin Wybicki was a Polish nobleman, jurist, poet, political and military activist of Kashubian descent. He is best remembered as the author of "Mazurek Dąbrowskiego", which was adopted as the Polish national anthem in 1927.

Józef Chełmoński

Józef Chełmoński 143 Józef Marian Chełmoński was a Polish painter of the realist school with roots in the historical and social context of the late Romantic period in partitioned Poland. He is famous for monumental paintings now at the Sukiennice National Art Gallery in Kraków and at the MNW in Warsaw.

Ludwik Waryński

Ludwik Waryński 139 Ludwik Tadeusz Waryński was an activist and theoretician of the socialist movement in Poland.       

Emilia Plater

Emilia Plater 137 Countess Emilia Broel-Plater was a Polish–Lithuanian noblewoman and revolutionary from the lands of the partitioned Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. Raised in a patriotic tradition in Līksna near Daugavpils, she fought in the November Uprising of 1830–1831 against the Russian Empire. She raised a small unit, participated in several engagements in present-day Lithuania, and received the rank of captain in the Polish insurgent forces. When the main forces under the General Dezydery Chłapowski decided to cease fighting and cross into Prussia, Plater vowed to continue the fight and wanted to cross into Poland where the uprising was still ongoing. However, she fell ill and died.

Piotr Skarga

Piotr Skarga 135 Piotr Skarga was a Polish Jesuit, preacher, hagiographer, polemicist, and leading figure of the Counter-Reformation in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. Due to his oratorical gifts, he has been called "the Polish Bossuet".

Jan Długosz

Jan Długosz 132 Jan Długosz, also known in Latin as Johannes Longinus, was a Polish priest, chronicler, diplomat, soldier, and secretary to Bishop Zbigniew Oleśnicki of Kraków. He is considered Poland's first historian.

Ignacy Daszyński

Ignacy Daszyński 131 Ignacy Ewaryst Daszyński was a Polish socialist politician, journalist, and very briefly Prime Minister of the Second Polish Republic's first government, formed in Lublin in 1918.

Leopold Staff

Leopold Staff 129 Leopold Henryk Staff was a Polish poet; an artist of European modernism twice granted the Degree of Doctor honoris causa by universities in Warsaw and in Kraków. He was also nominated for the Nobel Prize in Literature by Polish PEN Club. Representative of classicism and symbolism in the poetry of Young Poland, he was an author of many philosophical poems influenced by the philosophy of Friedrich Nietzsche, the ideas of Franciscan order as well as paradoxes of Christianity.

Michał Drzymała

Michał Drzymała 126 Michał Drzymała was a Polish peasant living in the Greater Poland region under Prussian rule. He is a Polish folk hero because, after he was denied permission to build a house on his own land by the Prussian authorities in the village of Kaisertreu, he bought a circus wagon and turned it into his home. At the time, Prussian law considered any dwelling a house if it remained stationary for more than 24 hours. Drzymała used the mobility of the wagon to exploit the law and to avoid the negative consequences by moving the wagon each day and thus preventing the Prussians the ability to penalize him. His dwelling became known as Drzymała's wagon, and gained notoriety when this case was described by the Polish and European newspapers, making fun of the Prussian state, and energizing the Poles living under the Prussian authority against it.

Janusz Kusociński

Janusz Kusociński 126 Janusz Tadeusz Kusociński was a Polish athlete, winner in the 10,000 meters event at the 1932 Summer Olympics.

Saint Florian

Saint Florian 126 Florian was a Christian holy man and the patron saint of chimney sweeps; soapmakers, and firefighters. His feast day is 4 May. Florian is also the patron saint of Poland, the city of Linz, Austria, and Upper Austria, jointly with Leopold III, Margrave of Austria.

Henryk Wieniawski

Henryk Wieniawski 124 Henryk Wieniawski was a Polish virtuoso violinist, composer and pedagogue, who is regarded amongst the most distinguished violinists in history. His younger brother Józef Wieniawski and nephew Adam Tadeusz Wieniawski were also accomplished musicians, as was his daughter Régine, who became a naturalised British subject upon marrying into the peerage and wrote music under the name Poldowski.

Jarosław Dąbrowski

Jarosław Dąbrowski 120 Jarosław Żądło-Dąbrowski, also known as Jaroslav Dombrowski, was a Polish nobleman and military officer in the Imperial Russian Army, a Polish nationalist and radical republican for Poland, and general and military commander of the Paris Commune in its later period. He was a participant in the Polish 1863 January Uprising and one of the leaders of the "Red" faction among the insurrectionists as a member of the Central National Committee and the Polish Provisional National Government.

Stefan Rowecki

Stefan Rowecki 116 Stefan Paweł Rowecki was a Polish general, journalist and the leader of the Armia Krajowa. He was murdered by the Gestapo in prison on the personal order of Heinrich Himmler.

Henryk Sucharski

Henryk Sucharski 115 Henryk Sucharski (1898–1946) was a Polish military officer and a major in the Polish Army. At the outbreak of World War II, he was one of the commanders of the Westerplatte position in Gdańsk, which troops under his command defended for seven days against overwhelming odds. Sucharski survived the war.

Bolesław III Wrymouth

Bolesław III Wrymouth 112 Bolesław III Wrymouth, also known as Boleslaus the Wry-mouthed, was the duke of Lesser Poland, Silesia and Sandomierz between 1102 and 1107 and over the whole of Poland between 1107 and 1138. He was the only child of Duke Władysław I Herman and his first wife, Judith of Bohemia.

Karol Miarka (father)

Karol Miarka (father) 112 Karol Miarka also called Elder or Father was a Polish social activist in Upper Silesia, teacher, writer, publicist and printer. Initiator of the establishment and organizer of many Polish social and economic organizations.

Witold Pilecki

Witold Pilecki 110 Witold Pilecki was a Polish World War II cavalry officer, intelligence agent, and resistance leader.

Jacek Malczewski

Jacek Malczewski 106 Jacek Malczewski was a Polish symbolist painter who was one of the central figures of the patriotic Young Poland movement. His creative output combined the predominant style of his times with historical motifs of Polish martyrdom, the romantic ideals of independence, Christian and Greek mythology, folk tales, as well as his love of the natural world. He was the father of painter Rafał Malczewski.

Władysław Orkan

Władysław Orkan 106 Władysław Orkan was a Polish Goral writer and poet from the Young Poland period. He is known as one of the greatest Goral writers. The most famous of his works portray the common people from the region and Goral history.

Kazimierz Przerwa-Tetmajer

Kazimierz Przerwa-Tetmajer 104 Kazimierz Przerwa-Tetmajer was a Polish Goral poet, novelist, playwright, journalist and writer. He was a member of the Young Poland movement.

Stanisław Konarski

Stanisław Konarski 103 Stanisław Konarski, Sch.P. was a Polish pedagogue, educational reformer, political writer, poet, dramatist, Piarist priest and precursor of the Enlightenment in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.

Stanisław Maczek

Stanisław Maczek 103 Lieutenant General Stanisław Maczek was a Polish tank commander of World War II, whose division was instrumental in the Allied liberation of France, closing the Falaise pocket, resulting in the destruction of 14 German Wehrmacht and SS divisions. A veteran of World War I, the Polish–Ukrainian and Polish–Soviet Wars, Maczek was the commander of Poland's only major armoured formation during the September 1939 campaign, and later commanded a Polish armoured formation in France in 1940. He was the commander of the famous 1st Polish Armoured Division, and later of the I Polish Army Corps under Allied Command in 1942–45.

Maciej Rataj

Maciej Rataj 103 Maciej Rataj was a Polish politician and writer.                                                   

Piotr Ściegienny

Piotr Ściegienny 102 Piotr Wojciech Ściegienny – polski ksiądz katolicki, działacz niepodległościowy i socjalistyczny, przywódca ludowy.

Henryk Dobrzański

Henryk Dobrzański 99 Major Henryk Dobrzański was a Polish soldier, sportsman and partisan. He fought in the Polish Legions in World War I, Polish–Ukrainian War of 1918, the Polish–Bolshevik War of 1919–1921 and the Polish September Campaign of 1939. He is however best known as the leader of the partisan unit known as the Detached Unit of the Polish Army which operated in 1939 and early 1940 near Kielce.

Tadeusz Rejtan

Tadeusz Rejtan 98 Tadeusz Reytan was a nobleman from the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. He was a member of the Sejm of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth from the Nowogródek Voivodeship. Reytan is remembered for a dramatic gesture he made in September 1773, as a deputy of the Partition Sejm. There, Reytan tried to prevent the legalization of the first partition of Poland, a scene that has been immortalized in the painting Rejtan by Jan Matejko. He has been the subject of many other art works, and is a symbol of patriotism in Lithuania, Belarus and Poland. Despite his efforts, the partition of Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth was legalized soon afterwards.

Artur Grottger

Artur Grottger 98 Artur Grottger was a Polish Romantic painter and graphic artist, one of the most prominent artists of the mid 19th century under the partitions of Poland, despite a life cut short by incurable illness.

Kornel Makuszyński

Kornel Makuszyński 95 Kornel Makuszyński was a Polish writer of children's and youth literature. He was an elected member of the prestigious Polish Academy of Literature in the interwar Poland.

Adalbert of Prague

Adalbert of Prague 94 Adalbert of Prague, known in the Czech Republic, Poland and Slovakia by his birth name Vojtěch, was a Czech missionary and Christian saint. He was the Bishop of Prague and a missionary to the Hungarians, Poles, and Prussians, who was martyred in his efforts to convert the Baltic Prussians to Christianity. He is said to be the composer of the oldest Czech hymn Hospodine, pomiluj ny and Bogurodzica, the oldest known Polish hymn, but his authorship of them has not been confirmed.

Bolesław Leśmian

Bolesław Leśmian 93 Bolesław Leśmian was a Polish poet, artist, and member of the Polish Academy of Literature, one of the first poets to introduce Symbolism and Expressionism to Polish verse.

Gustaw Morcinek

Gustaw Morcinek 92 Gustaw Morcinek was a Polish writer, educator and later member of Sejm from 1952 to 1957. He is considered one of the most important writers from Silesia.

Leopold Okulicki

Leopold Okulicki 91 General Leopold Okulicki was a Polish Army general and the last commander of the anti-Nazi underground Home Army during World War II and the German occupation of Poland (1939–1945).

Joachim Lelewel

Joachim Lelewel 90 Joachim Lelewel was a Polish historian, geographer, bibliographer, polyglot and politician.         

Wojciech Korfanty

Wojciech Korfanty 89 Wojciech Korfanty was a Polish activist, journalist and politician, who served as a member of the German parliaments, the Reichstag and the Prussian Landtag, and later, in the Polish Sejm. Briefly, he also was a paramilitary leader, known for organizing the Polish Silesian Uprisings in Upper Silesia, which after World War I was contested by Germany and Poland. Korfanty fought to protect Poles from discrimination and the policies of Germanisation in Upper Silesia before the war and sought to join Silesia to Poland after Poland regained its independence.

Onufry Zagłoba

Onufry Zagłoba 88 Jan Onufry Zagłoba is a fictional character in the Trilogy by Henryk Sienkiewicz. Together with other characters of The Trilogy, Zagłoba engages in various adventures, fighting for the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, and seeking adventures and glory. Zagłoba is seen as one of Sienkiewicz most popular and significant characters. While he has often been compared to Shakespearean character of Falstaff, he also goes through extensive character development, becoming a jovial and cunning hero.

Gabriela Zapolska

Gabriela Zapolska 87 Maria Gabriela Stefania Korwin-Piotrowska (1857–1921), known as Gabriela Zapolska, was a Polish novelist, playwright, naturalist writer, feuilletonist, theatre critic and stage actress. Zapolska wrote 41 plays, 23 novels, 177 short stories, 252 works of journalism, one film script, and over 1,500 letters.

Józef Sowiński

Józef Sowiński 85 Józef Sowiński (1777–1831) was a Polish artillery general and a hero of Poland's November 1830 Uprising.

Wisława Szymborska

Wisława Szymborska 84 Maria Wisława Anna Szymborska was a Polish poet, essayist, translator, and recipient of the 1996 Nobel Prize in Literature. Born in Prowent, she resided in Kraków until the end of her life. In Poland, Szymborska's books have reached sales rivaling prominent prose authors', though she wrote in a poem, "Some Like Poetry", that "perhaps" two in a thousand people like poetry.

Wojciech Kossak

Wojciech Kossak 81 Wojciech Horacy Kossak was a Polish painter and member of the celebrated Kossak family of artists and writers. He was the son of painter Juliusz Kossak, and twin brother of freedom fighter Tadeusz Kossak, and the father of two highly talented literary daughters, Maria Pawlikowska-Jasnorzewska and Magdalena Samozwaniec and of a painter son, Jerzy Kossak.

John the Evangelist

John the Evangelist 78 John the Evangelist is the name traditionally given to the author of the Gospel of John. Christians have traditionally identified him with John the Apostle, John of Patmos, and John the Presbyter, although this has been disputed by most modern scholars.

Marian Raciborski

Marian Raciborski 78 Marian Raciborski – polski botanik, jeden z pierwszych w Polsce paleobotaników, pionier ruchu ochrony przyrody w Polsce, przewodniczący Prezydium Komitetu Obywatelskiego Polskiego Skarbu Wojskowego w sierpniu 1914 roku.

Andrzej Strug

Andrzej Strug 77 Andrzej Strug, real name Tadeusz Gałecki was a Polish socialist politician, publicist and activist for Poland's independence. He was also a freemason and declined the offer to join the prestigious Polish Academy of Literature, upset by official criticism of the movement.

Mieczysław Karłowicz

Mieczysław Karłowicz 77 Mieczysław Karłowicz was a Polish composer and conductor.                                           

Andrzej Kmicic

Andrzej Kmicic 77 Andrzej Kmicic is best known as a fictional character created by Henryk Sienkiewicz featured in the novel The Deluge. He is a typical szlachcic from the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth; unruly yet patriotic. During the course of the books, he transforms from a villain to a hero.

Jarosław Iwaszkiewicz

Jarosław Iwaszkiewicz 76 Jarosław Leon Iwaszkiewicz, was a Polish writer, poet, essayist, dramatist and translator. He is recognized for his literary achievements, beginning with poetry and prose written after World War I. After 1989, he was often presented as a political opportunist during his mature years lived in communist Poland, where he held high offices. He was nominated for the Nobel Prize in Literature four times. In 1988, he was recognized as a Righteous Among the Nations for his role in sheltering Jews during World War II.

Ignacy Łukasiewicz

Ignacy Łukasiewicz 76 Jan Józef Ignacy Łukasiewicz was a Polish pharmacist, engineer, businessman, inventor, and philanthropist. He was one of the most prominent philanthropists in the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, crown land of Austria-Hungary. He was a pioneer who in 1856 built the world's first modern oil refinery.

Julian Ursyn Niemcewicz

Julian Ursyn Niemcewicz 76 Julian Ursyn Niemcewicz was a Polish poet, playwright and statesman. He was a leading advocate for the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth's Constitution of 3 May 1791.

Zbigniew Herbert

Zbigniew Herbert 75 Zbigniew Herbert was a Polish poet, essayist, drama writer and moralist. He is one of the best known and the most translated post-war Polish writers. While he was first published in the 1950s, soon after he voluntarily ceased submitting most of his works to official Polish government publications. He resumed publication in the 1980s, initially in the underground press. Since the 1960s, he was nominated several times for the Nobel Prize in Literature. His books have been translated into 38 languages.

Józef Lompa

Józef Lompa 73 Józef Piotr Lompa – polski działacz, poeta, tłumacz, publicysta – współpracownik wielu ówczesnych pism, prozaik, pionier oświaty ludowej oraz etnografii na Śląsku. Prekursor procesu polskiego odrodzenia narodowego na Górnym Śląsku oraz autor polskich podręczników szkolnych.

Roman Dmowski

Roman Dmowski 73 Roman Stanisław Dmowski was a Polish politician, statesman, and co-founder and chief ideologue of the National Democracy political movement. He saw the Germanization of Polish territories controlled by the German Empire as the major threat to Polish culture and therefore advocated a degree of accommodation with another power that had partitioned Poland, the Russian Empire. He favoured the re-establishment of Polish independence by nonviolent means and supported policies favourable to the Polish middle class. While in Paris during World War I, he was a prominent spokesman for Polish aspirations to the Allies through his Polish National Committee. He was an instrumental figure in the postwar restoration of Poland's independent existence. Throughout most of his life, he was the chief ideological opponent of the Polish military and political leader Józef Piłsudski and of the latter's vision of Poland as a multinational federation against German and Russian imperialism.

Michał Wołodyjowski

Michał Wołodyjowski 71 Jerzy Michał Wołodyjowski is a fictional Polish hero in Henryk Sienkiewicz's Trilogy: With Fire and Sword, The Deluge and Pan Wołodyjowski.


Winnie-the-Pooh 70 Winnie-the-Pooh is a fictional anthropomorphic teddy bear created by English author A. A. Milne and English illustrator E. H. Shepard. Winnie-the-Pooh first appeared by name in a children's story commissioned by London's Evening News for Christmas Eve 1925. The character is inspired by a stuffed toy that Milne had bought for his son Christopher Robin in Harrods department store, and a bear they had viewed at London Zoo.

Wincenty Pol

Wincenty Pol 68 Wincenty Pol was a Polish poet and geographer.                                                     

Marian Langiewicz

Marian Langiewicz 66 Marian Langiewicz, full name Marian Antoni Melchior Langiewicz, was one of the leaders of the Polish January Uprising against the Russian Empire in 1863.

Jan Karol Chodkiewicz

Jan Karol Chodkiewicz 64 Jan Karol Chodkiewicz was a military commander of the Grand Ducal Lithuanian Army, who was from 1601 Field Hetman of Lithuania, and from 1605 Grand Hetman of Lithuania. He was one of the most prominent noblemen and military commanders of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth of his era. His coat of arms was Chodkiewicz, as was his family name.

Stanisław Żółkiewski

Stanisław Żółkiewski 64 Stanisław Żółkiewski was a Polish nobleman of the Lubicz coat of arms, a magnate, military commander, and Chancellor of the Polish Crown in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth who took part in many military campaigns in the Commonwealth and on its southern and eastern borders.

Feliks Nowowiejski

Feliks Nowowiejski 64 Feliks Nowowiejski was a Polish composer, conductor, concert organist, and music teacher. Nowowiejski was born in Wartenburg in Warmia in the Prussian Partition of Poland. He died in Poznań, Poland.

Zawisza the Black

Zawisza the Black 64 Zawisza the Black of Garbów, of Sulima coat of arms, was a Polish knight and nobleman who served as a commander and diplomat under Polish king Władysław II Jagiełło and Hungarian-Bohemian king Sigismund of Luxembourg. During his life, he was regarded as a model of knightly virtues and was renowned for winning multiple tournaments.

Leon Wyczółkowski

Leon Wyczółkowski 63 Leon Jan Wyczółkowski was one of the leading painters of the Young Poland movement, as well as the principal representative of Polish Realism in art of the Interbellum. From 1895 to 1911 he served as professor of the Jan Matejko Academy of Fine Arts (ASP) in Kraków, and from 1934, ASP in Warsaw. He was a founding member of the Society of Polish Artists "Sztuka".

Juliusz Kossak

Juliusz Kossak 62 Juliusz Fortunat Kossak was a Polish historical painter and master illustrator who specialized in battle scenes, military portraits and horses. He was the progenitor of an artistic family that spanned four generations, father of painter Wojciech Kossak and grandfather of painter Jerzy Kossak.

Walery Antoni Wróblewski

Walery Antoni Wróblewski 61 Walery Antoni Wróblewski was a Polish-Belarusian and French revolutionary, politician, general of Paris Commune and commander of January Uprising and one of the leaders of the Reds.

Stanisław Lem

Stanisław Lem 61 Stanisław Herman Lem was a Polish writer of science fiction and essays on various subjects, including philosophy, futurology, and literary criticism. Many of his science fiction stories are of satirical and humorous character. Lem's books have been translated into more than 50 languages and have sold more than 45 million copies. Worldwide, he is best known as the author of the 1961 novel Solaris. In 1976 Theodore Sturgeon wrote that Lem was the most widely read science fiction writer in the world.

Saint Anne

Saint Anne 60 According to apocrypha, as well as Christian and Islamic tradition, Saint Anne was the mother of Mary, the wife of Joachim and the maternal grandmother of Jesus. Mary's mother is not named in the Bible's canonical gospels. In writing, Anne's name and that of her husband Joachim come only from New Testament apocrypha, of which the Gospel of James seems to be the earliest that mentions them. The mother of Mary is mentioned but not named in the Quran.

Juliusz Ligoń

Juliusz Ligoń 60 Juliusz Ligoń – polski działacz społeczny Górnego Śląska, śląski poeta ludowy, publicysta, dziadek Stanisława Ligonia.

Ludwik Solski

Ludwik Solski 60 Ludwik Solski, born Ludwik Napoleon Karol Sosnowski, was a Polish stage actor and theatre director. From his stage debut in 1876 until his death he played in nearly a thousand roles. He was married to the Polish actress and director Irena Solska nee Poświk.

Bolesław Limanowski

Bolesław Limanowski 59 Bolesław Limanowski was a Polish socialist politician, as well as historian and journalist and advocate of Agrarianism. He was one of the first people to promote socialist ideas in Poland.

John II Casimir Vasa

John II Casimir Vasa 58 John II Casimir Vasa was King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1648 to his abdication in 1668 as well as a claimant to the throne of Sweden from 1648 to 1660. He was the first son of Sigismund III Vasa with his second wife Constance of Austria. John Casimir succeeded his older half-brother, Władysław IV Vasa.

Jan Skrzetuski

Jan Skrzetuski 58 Jan Skrzetuski is a fictional character created by Polish author Henryk Sienkiewicz in the novel With Fire and Sword. He is a man of honour, always faithful to his master, duke Jeremi Wiśniowiecki. He loves Helena Kurcewiczówna, who was kidnapped by the Ukrainian Cossack Yuri Bohun, who is also in love with her. Skrzetuski is the best friend of Michał Wołodyjowski. Jan Skrzetuski is partly based on a historical character, Mikołaj Skrzetuski, the Polish hero of the Siege of Zbarazh.

Franciszek Kleeberg

Franciszek Kleeberg 57 Franciszek Kleeberg was a Polish general. He served in the Austro-Hungarian Army before joining the Polish Legions in World War I and following the Polish Independence later the Polish Army. During the German Invasion of Poland he commanded Independent Operational Group Polesie. He never lost a battle in the Invasion of Poland, although he was eventually forced to surrender after his forces ran out of ammunition. Imprisoned in Oflag IV-B Koenigstein, he died in hospital in Dresden on 5 April 1941 and was buried there.

Saint Barbara

Saint Barbara 57 Saint Barbara, known in the Eastern Orthodox Church as the Great Martyr Barbara, was an early Christian Greek saint and martyr.

L. L. Zamenhof

L. L. Zamenhof 57 L. L. Zamenhof was the creator of Esperanto, the most widely used constructed international auxiliary language.

Marcin Kasprzak

Marcin Kasprzak 56 Marcin Kasprzak was a Polish Marxist revolutionary and a prominent leader of Poland's labour movement. He was a member of the Social Democratic Party of Germany, the First Proletariat party, the Polish Socialist Party in Prussia, and the Social Democracy of the Kingdom of Poland and Lithuania party, and was a founder of the Second Proletariat party.

Michał Kajka

Michał Kajka 56 Michał Kajka również Kayka, ps. „Prawdziński”, „Obserwator spod Ełku” – mazurski poeta ludowy, artysta, działacz mazurski, działacz na rzecz polskości Mazur.

Melchior Wańkowicz

Melchior Wańkowicz 55 Melchior Wańkowicz was a Polish army officer, popular writer, political journalist and publisher. He is most famous for his reporting for the Polish Armed Forces in the West during World War II and writing a book about the battle of Monte Cassino.

Julian Fałat

Julian Fałat 55 Julian Fałat was one of the most prolific Polish watercolorists, one of the country's foremost landscapists, and a leading impressionist.

Zygmunt I Stary

Zygmunt I Stary 53 Zygmunt I Stary – od roku 1506 wielki książę litewski, od 1507 do 1548 roku król Polski. Był przedostatnim z dynastii Jagiellonów. Na tronie polskim zasiadł po śmierci swego brata Aleksandra Jagiellończyka. Był przedostatnim z sześciu synów Kazimierza IV Jagiellończyka i Elżbiety Rakuszanki, ojcem m.in. Zygmunta II Augusta. Dwukrotnie żonaty: z Barbarą Zápolyą (1512), a po jej śmierci z Boną z rodu Sforzów (1518).

Helena Modjeska

Helena Modjeska 53 Helena Modrzejewska, known professionally as Helena Modjeska, was a Polish actress who specialized in Shakespearean and tragic roles. She was successful first on the Polish stage. After emigrating to the United States, she also succeeded on stage in America and London. She is regarded as the greatest actress in the history of theatre in Poland.

Tadeusz Boy-Żeleński

Tadeusz Boy-Żeleński 53 Tadeusz Kamil Marcjan Żeleński, better known by his pen name Tadeusz Boy-Żeleński or simply as Boy, was a Polish stage writer, poet, critic and, above all, the translator of over 100 French literary classics into Polish. He was a pediatrician and gynecologist by profession.

Jan Śniadecki

Jan Śniadecki 52 Jan Śniadecki was a Polish mathematician, philosopher, and astronomer at the turn of the 18th and 19th centuries.

Saint Joseph

Saint Joseph 52 Joseph was a 1st-century Jewish man of Nazareth who, according to the canonical Gospels, was married to Mary, the mother of Jesus, and was the legal father of Jesus.

Bolesław II the Bold

Bolesław II the Bold 52 Bolesław II the Bold, also known as the Generous was Duke of Poland from 1058 to 1076 and King of Poland from 1076 to 1079. He was the eldest son of Duke Casimir I the Restorer and Maria Dobroniega of Kiev.

Xawery Dunikowski

Xawery Dunikowski 52 Xawery Dunikowski was a Polish sculptor and artist, notable for surviving Auschwitz concentration camp, and best known for his Neo-Romantic sculptures and Auschwitz-inspired art.

Wojciech Bogusławski

Wojciech Bogusławski 52 Wojciech Romuald Bogusławski was a Polish actor, theater director and playwright of the Polish Enlightenment. He was the director of the National Theatre, Warsaw,, during three distinct periods, as well as establishing a Polish opera. He is considered the "Father of Polish theatre."

Leonid Teliga

Leonid Teliga 51 Leonid Teliga was a Polish sailor, writer, journalist, translator, and the first Pole to single-handedly circumnavigate the globe on his yawl Opty.

Maximilian Kolbe

Maximilian Kolbe 51 Maximilian Maria Kolbe was a Polish Catholic priest and Conventual Franciscan friar who volunteered to die in place of a man named Franciszek Gajowniczek in the German death camp of Auschwitz, located in German-occupied Poland during World War II. He had been active in promoting the veneration of the Immaculate Virgin Mary, founding and supervising the monastery of Niepokalanów near Warsaw, operating an amateur-radio station (SP3RN), and founding or running several other organizations and publications.

Bona Sforza

Bona Sforza 51 Bona Sforza d'Aragona was Queen of Poland and Grand Duchess of Lithuania as the second wife of Sigismund the Old, and Duchess of Bari and Rossano by her own right. She was a surviving member of the powerful House of Sforza, which had ruled the Duchy of Milan since 1447.

Louis I of Hungary

Louis I of Hungary 50 Louis I, also Louis the Great or Louis the Hungarian, was King of Hungary and Croatia from 1342 and King of Poland from 1370. He was the first child of Charles I of Hungary and his wife, Elizabeth of Poland, to survive infancy. A 1338 treaty between his father and Casimir III of Poland, Louis's maternal uncle, confirmed Louis's right to inherit the Kingdom of Poland if his uncle died without a son. In exchange, Louis was obliged to assist his uncle to reoccupy the lands that Poland had lost in previous decades. He bore the title of Duke of Transylvania between 1339 and 1342 but did not administer the province.

Albert Chmielowski

Albert Chmielowski 50 Albert Chmielowski - born Adam Hilary Bernard Chmielowski - was a Polish Franciscan tertiary, painter, disabled veteran of the Uprising of 1863, and founder of both the Albertine Brothers and Albertine Sisters servants of the homeless and destitute.

Casimir IV Jagiellon

Casimir IV Jagiellon 50 Casimir IV was Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1440 and King of Poland from 1447 until his death in 1492. He was one of the most active Polish-Lithuanian rulers; under him, Poland defeated the Teutonic Knights in the Thirteen Years' War and recovered Pomerania.

Augustyn Kordecki

Augustyn Kordecki 49 Abbot Augustyn Kordecki was a prior of the Jasna Góra Monastery, Poland.                           

Walerian Łukasiński

Walerian Łukasiński 49 Walerian Łukasiński was a Polish officer and political activist. He was sentenced by Russian Imperial authorities to 14 years' imprisonment. He died after 46 years of solitary incarceration. He became a symbol of the Polish struggle for independence.

Johannes Hevelius

Johannes Hevelius 48 Johannes Hevelius was a councillor and mayor of Gdańsk in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. As an astronomer, he gained a reputation as "the founder of lunar topography", and described ten new constellations, seven of which are still used by astronomers.

Stanisław Mikołajczyk

Stanisław Mikołajczyk 48 Stanisław Mikołajczyk was a Polish politician. He was a Prime Minister of the Polish government-in-exile during World War II, and later Deputy Prime Minister in post-war Poland until 1947.

Ignacy Skorupka

Ignacy Skorupka 48 Ignacy Skorupka was a Polish priest, chaplain of the Polish Army. He died during the battle of Warsaw. He became one of the most famous casualties of the battle.

Stefan Jaracz

Stefan Jaracz 47 Stefan Jaracz was a Polish actor and theater producer. He served as the artistic director of Ateneum Theatre in Warsaw during the interwar period (1930–32), and within a short period raised its reputation as one of the leading voices for Poland's new intelligentsia, with groundbreaking productions of Danton's Death by Georg Büchner (1931), The Captain of Köpenick by Carl Zuckmayer (1932), as well as popular Ladies and Husars by Aleksander Fredro (1932) and The Open House by Michał Bałucki.

Eugeniusz Kwiatkowski

Eugeniusz Kwiatkowski 47 Eugeniusz Kwiatkowski was a Polish politician and economist, Deputy Prime Minister of Poland, government minister and manager of the Second Polish Republic.

Oskar Kolberg

Oskar Kolberg 47 Henryk Oskar Kolberg was a Polish ethnographer, folklorist, and composer active in Partitioned Poland.

Johann Dzierzon

Johann Dzierzon 47 Johann Dzierzon, or Jan Dzierżon or Dzierżoń, also John Dzierzon, was a Polish apiarist who discovered the phenomenon of parthenogenesis in bees.

Karol Kurpiński

Karol Kurpiński 47 Karol Kazimierz Kurpiński was a Polish composer, conductor and pedagogue. He was a representative of late classicism and a member of the Warsaw Society of Friends of Learning. He is also known for having composed the music to the 1831 patriotic song La Varsovienne with lyrics by Casimir Delavigne. He was also a mentor and an influence on young Chopin.

Piotr Wysocki

Piotr Wysocki 46 Piotr Wysocki, was a Polish captain and leader of the Polish conspiracy against Russian Tsar Nicolas I. He was a nobleman (szlachcic) who bore the Odrowąż coat of arms. On 29 November 1830, he raised military insurgents, starting the November Uprising against Russia. In 1831, he was sentenced to death by Russians, but his sentence was commuted to a 20 years exile in Siberia.

Bronisław Czech

Bronisław Czech 46 Bronisław "Bronek" Czech was a Polish sportsman and artist. A gifted skier, he won championships of Poland 24 times in various skiing disciplines, including Alpine skiing, Nordic skiing and ski jumping. A member of the Polish national team at three consecutive Winter Olympics, he was also one of the pioneers of mountain rescue in the Tatra Mountains and a glider instructor. He was murdered in the Auschwitz concentration camp.

Michał Kleofas Ogiński

Michał Kleofas Ogiński 45 Michał Kleofas Ogiński was a Polish diplomat and politician, Grand Treasurer of Lithuania, and a senator of Tsar Alexander I. He was also a composer of late Classical and early Romantic music.

Stanisław Ignacy Witkiewicz

Stanisław Ignacy Witkiewicz 44 Stanisław Ignacy Witkiewicz, commonly known as Witkacy, was a Polish writer, painter, philosopher, theorist, playwright, novelist, and photographer active before World War I and during the interwar period.

Stefan Starzyński

Stefan Starzyński 44 Stefan Bronisław Starzyński was a Polish statesman, economist, military officer and Mayor of Warsaw before and during the Siege of 1939.

Stanisław Małachowski

Stanisław Małachowski 44 Count Stanisław Małachowski, of the Nałęcz coat-of-arms was a Polish statesman, the first Prime Minister of Poland, a member of the Polish government's Permanent Council (1776–1780), Marshal of the Crown Courts of Justice from 1774, Crown Grand Referendary (1780–1792) and Marshal of the Four-Year Sejm (1788–1792).

Andrzej Frycz Modrzewski

Andrzej Frycz Modrzewski 43 Andrzej Frycz Modrzewski was a Polish Renaissance scholar, humanist and theologian, called "the father of Polish democracy". His book De Republica emendanda was widely read and praised across most of Renaissance Europe, influencing thinkers such as Jean Bodin, Hugo Grotius and Johannes Althusius.

Ignacy Prądzyński

Ignacy Prądzyński 42 Ignacy Prądzyński was a Polish military commander, general of the Polish Army and an engineer. A veteran of the Napoleonic Wars, he was one of the most successful Polish commanders of the November Uprising against Russia. He is also notable for constructing the Augustów Canal.

Józef Chłopicki

Józef Chłopicki 42 Józef Grzegorz Chłopicki was a Polish general who was involved in fighting in Europe at the time of Napoleon and later.

Karol Marcinkowski

Karol Marcinkowski 42 Karol Marcinkowski was a Polish physician, social activist in the Greater Poland region, supporter of the basic education programmes, organizer of the Scientific Help Society and the Poznań Bazar - the Polish mall in Poznań that included a hotel, meeting rooms, crafts and shops.

Hieronim Derdowski

Hieronim Derdowski 42 Hieronim Derdowski, Kashubian-Polish intellectual and activist, was born to Kashubian parents in the Pomeranian village of Wiele. By the time Derdowski emigrated to the United States in 1885, he had already studied for the Roman Catholic priesthood, been repeatedly incarcerated by the German authorities, and edited a newspaper in the city of Torun. At the time, however, Derdowski was better known as a poet. Within two years of reaching the United States he became editor of the Winona, Minnesota Polish-language newspaper Wiarus. In this role he gained a reputation as a strong voice for the Polish-American community, also known as Polonia.

Alexander Pushkin

Alexander Pushkin 40 Alexander Sergeyevich Pushkin was a Russian poet, playwright, and novelist of the Romantic era. He is considered by many to be the greatest Russian poet, as well as the founder of modern Russian literature.

Jan Zamoyski

Jan Zamoyski 39 Jan Sariusz Zamoyski was a Polish nobleman, magnate, statesman and the 1st ordynat of Zamość. He served as the Royal Secretary from 1565, Deputy Chancellor from 1576, Grand Chancellor of the Crown from 1578, and Great Hetman of the Crown from 1581.

Konstanty Damrot

Konstanty Damrot 39 Konstanty Damrot ps. Czesław Lubiński – duchowny katolicki, poeta, pisarz i działacz górnośląski.   

Adolf Dygasiński

Adolf Dygasiński 39 Adolf Dygasiński was a Polish novelist, publicist and educator. In Polish literature, he was one of the leading representatives of Naturalism.

Jan Twardowski

Jan Twardowski 39 Jan Jakub Twardowski was a Polish poet and Catholic priest. He was a chief Polish representative of contemporary religious lyrics. He wrote short, simple poems, humorous, which often included colloquialisms. He joined observations of nature with philosophical reflections.


Hubertus 38 Hubertus or Hubert was a Christian saint who became the first bishop of Liège in 708 A.D. He is the patron saint of hunters, mathematicians, opticians and metalworkers. Known as the "Apostle of the Ardennes", he was called upon, until the early 20th century, to cure rabies through the use of the traditional Saint Hubert's Key.

Marie Casimire Sobieska

Marie Casimire Sobieska 38 Marie Casimire Louise de La Grange d'Arquien, known also by the diminutive form "Marysieńka", was a French noblewoman who became the queen consort of Poland and grand duchess consort of Lithuania from 1674 to 1696 by her marriage to King and Grand Duke John III Sobieski of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. She had great influence upon the affairs of state with the approval of her spouse, and acted in effect as regent during his absence.

Saint Roch

Saint Roch 38 Roch, also called Rock in English, was a Majorcan Catholic confessor whose death is commemorated on 16 August and 9 September in Italy; he was especially invoked against the plague. He has the designation of Rollox in Glasgow, Scotland, said to be a corruption of Roch's Loch, which referred to a small loch once near a chapel dedicated to Roch in 1506.

Berek Joselewicz

Berek Joselewicz 37 Berek Joselewicz was a Polish Jewish colonel of the Polish Army during the Kościuszko Uprising. Joselewicz commanded the first Jewish military formation in modern history excluding Prince Potemkin's Israelovsky Regiment. He was also a merchant and financial agent of the Polish magnate Prince Massalski.

Ignacy Mościcki

Ignacy Mościcki 37 Ignacy Mościcki was a Polish chemist and politician who was the country's president from 1926 to 1939. He was the longest serving president in Polish history. Mościcki was the President of Poland when Germany invaded the country on 1 September 1939 and started World War II.

Tadeusz Kutrzeba

Tadeusz Kutrzeba 37 Tadeusz Kutrzeba was a general of the army during the Second Polish Republic. He served as a major general in the Polish Army in overall command of Army Poznań during the 1939 German Invasion of Poland.

Władysław Grabski

Władysław Grabski 37 Władysław Dominik Grabski was a Polish National Democratic politician, economist and historian. He was the main author of the currency reform in the Second Polish Republic and served as Prime Minister of Poland in 1920 and from 1923 to 1925. He was the brother of Stanisław Grabski and Zofia Kirkor-Kiedroniowa.

Yuri Gagarin

Yuri Gagarin 37 Yuri Alekseyevich Gagarin was a Soviet pilot and cosmonaut who, aboard the first successful crewed spaceflight, became the first human to journey into outer space. Travelling on Vostok 1, Gagarin completed one orbit of Earth on 12 April 1961, with his flight taking 108 minutes. By achieving this major milestone for the Soviet Union amidst the Space Race, he became an international celebrity and was awarded many medals and titles, including the nation's highest distinction: Hero of the Soviet Union.

Tadeusz Bór-Komorowski

Tadeusz Bór-Komorowski 37 Generał Tadeusz Komorowski, better known by the name Bór-Komorowski was a Polish military leader. He was appointed commander in chief a day before the capitulation of the Warsaw Uprising and following World War II, 32nd Prime Minister of Poland, 3rd Polish government-in-exile in London.

Maria Rodziewiczówna

Maria Rodziewiczówna 36 Maria Rodziewiczówna was a Polish writer, among the most famous of the interwar years. Her works often addressed patriotism, rural life, and praised the countryside and peasantry. Rodziewiczówna is also noted for advocating for women's rights. Her writings include Wrzos (Heather), Dewajtis, Lato leśnych ludzi, Straszny dziadunio.

Henryk Siemiradzki

Henryk Siemiradzki 36 Henryk Hektor Siemiradzki was a Polish painter. He spent most of his active creative life in Rome. Best remembered for his monumental academic art. He was particularly known for his depictions of scenes from the ancient Greek-Roman world and the New Testament, owned by many national galleries of Europe.

Witold Gombrowicz

Witold Gombrowicz 36 Witold Marian Gombrowicz was a Polish writer and playwright. His works are characterised by deep psychological analysis, a certain sense of paradox and absurd, anti-nationalist flavor. In 1937, he published his first novel, Ferdydurke, which presented many of his usual themes: problems of immaturity and youth, creation of identity in interactions with others, and an ironic, critical examination of class roles in Polish society and culture.

Jan Kiepura

Jan Kiepura 35 Jan Wiktor Kiepura was a Polish singer and actor.                                                   

Aleksander Gierymski

Aleksander Gierymski 35 Ignacy Aleksander Gierymski was a Polish painter of the late 19th century, the younger brother of Maksymilian Gierymski. He was a representative of Realism as well as an important precursor of Impressionism in Poland.

Florian Ceynowa

Florian Ceynowa 35 Florian Stanisław Ceynowa was a doctor, political activist, writer, and linguist. He undertook efforts to identify Kashubian language, culture and traditions. He and Alexander Hilferding were not the only ones to study the language and legends of the Kashubians, but they had the greatest influence and prompted others to take up investigations. The individual nature of the Kashubian character and language was first described by Hilferding, to whom we are indebted for the first data about the range of Kashubian dialects. In 1856, he and Ceynowa traveled to the Kashubia. He awakened Kashubian self-identity, thereby opposing Germanisation and Prussian authority, and Polish nobility and clergy. He believed in a separate Kashubian identity and strove for a Russian-led pan-Slavic federation. He strove to create a program aimed at the introduction of a Kashubian standard in grammar, pronunciation and spelling, based on the spirit of the 1848 Revolution. He compiled treatises on Kashubian grammar and published Kashubian texts along with their translations into other Slavic languages. An important person for Kashubian literature, he was also a translator of Russian texts into Kashubian language.

Santa Claus

Santa Claus 34 Santa Claus is a legendary figure originating in Western Christian culture who is said to bring gifts during the late evening and overnight hours on Christmas Eve. He is said to accomplish this with the aid of Christmas elves, who make the toys in his workshop, and with the aid of flying reindeer who pull his sleigh through the air.

Piotr Wawrzyniak

Piotr Wawrzyniak 34 Piotr Wawrzyniak was a Polish priest, economic and educational activist, patron of the Union of the Earnings and Economic Societies.

Anthony of Padua

Anthony of Padua 34 Anthony of Padua, OFM or Anthony of Lisbon was a Portuguese Catholic priest and friar of the Franciscan Order.

Stefania Sempołowska

Stefania Sempołowska 34 Stefania Sempołowska was a Polish educator, activist and writer.                                   

Piotr Michałowski

Piotr Michałowski 34 Piotr Michałowski was a Polish painter of the Romantic period, especially known for his many portraits, and oil studies of horses. Broadly educated, he was also a social activist, legal advocate, city administrator and President of the Kraków Agricultural Society. The Sukiennice Museum, a division of the National Museum in Kraków, contains a room that is named after him and devoted to Michałowski's work.


Napoleon 34 Napoleon Bonaparte, later known by his regnal name Napoleon I, was a French emperor and military commander who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led successful campaigns during the Revolutionary Wars. He was the leader of the French Republic as First Consul from 1799 to 1804, then of the French Empire as Emperor of the French from 1804 until 1814, and briefly again in 1815. His political and cultural legacy endures as a celebrated and controversial leader. He initiated many enduring reforms, but has been criticized for his authoritarian rule. He is considered one of the greatest military commanders in history and his wars and campaigns are still studied at military schools worldwide. However, historians still debate the degree to which he was responsible for the Napoleonic Wars, in which between three and six million people died.

Stanisław Dubois

Stanisław Dubois 33 Stanisław Józef Dubois was a Polish journalist and political activist in the Second Polish Republic, member of the left-wing Polish Socialist Party as well as the Youth Organisation of the Workers' University Society.

Jakub Jasiński

Jakub Jasiński 33 Jakub Krzysztof Jasiński of Rawicz Clan was a Polish general, and poet of Enlightenment. He participated in the War in Defence of the Constitution in 1792, was an enemy of the Targowica Confederation and organized an action against its supporters in Vilnius. He participated also in the Kościuszko Uprising, during the course of which he was killed in the Battle of Praga in 1794.


Jacob 33 Jacob, later given the name Israel, is regarded as a patriarch of the Israelites and is an important figure in Abrahamic religions, such as Judaism, Samaritanism, Christianity, and Islam. Jacob first appears in the Book of Genesis, originating from the Hebrew tradition in the Torah. Described as the son of Isaac and Rebecca, and the grandson of Abraham, Sarah, and Bethuel, Jacob is presented as the second-born among Isaac's children. His fraternal twin brother is the elder, named Esau, according to the biblical account. Jacob is said to have bought Esau's birthright and, with his mother's help, deceived his aging father to bless him instead of Esau. Later in the narrative, following a severe drought in his homeland of Canaan, Jacob and his descendants, with the help of his son Joseph, moved to Egypt where Jacob died at the age of 147. He is supposed to have been buried in the Cave of Machpelah.

Tytus Chałubiński

Tytus Chałubiński 32 Tytus Aureliusz Chałubiński was a Polish physician, naturalist, and co-founder of the Polish Tatra Society. His collections of natural history specimens are now held in the Tatra Mountains Museum in Zakopane.

Sigismund II Augustus

Sigismund II Augustus 32 Sigismund II Augustus was King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania, the son of Sigismund I the Old, whom Sigismund II succeeded in 1548. He was the first ruler of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and the last male monarch from the Jagiellonian dynasty.

Ludwik Mierosławski

Ludwik Mierosławski 32 Ludwik Adam Mierosławski was a Polish general, writer, poet, historian and political activist. Mierosławski took part in the November Uprising of the 1830s, and after its failure he emigrated to France, where he taught Slavic history and military theory. Chosen as a commander for the Greater Poland Uprising of 1846, he was taken prisoner early but amnestied during the Spring of Nations. In 1848 and 1849 he fought for the insurgents in Baden and in the Electorate of the Palatinate. Afterwards he returned to France; he also had contacts with Italian activists like Giuseppe Garibaldi. He also took part in the January Uprising in the 1860s, as the first of four dictators of the Uprising.

Norbert Barlicki

Norbert Barlicki 32 Norbert Barlicki was a Polish publicist, lawyer and politician of the Polish Socialist Party (PPS). 

Paweł Stalmach

Paweł Stalmach 32 Paweł Stalmach − polski dziennikarz, publicysta, redaktor i wydawca gazet, działacz społeczny i narodowy działający na Śląsku Cieszyńskim.

Czesław Niemen

Czesław Niemen 32 Czesław Niemen, often credited as just Niemen, was one of the most important and original Polish singer-songwriters and rock balladeers of the 20th century, singing mainly in Polish.

Henryk Jordan

Henryk Jordan 32 Henryk Jordan was a Polish philanthropist, physician and pioneer of physical education. A professor of obstetrics from 1895 at Kraków's Jagiellonian University, Jordan became best known for organizing children’s playgrounds, called "Jordan's parks" after him.

Władysław III of Poland

Władysław III of Poland 32 Władysław III of Poland, also known as Ladislaus of Varna, was King of Poland and Supreme Duke of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania from 1434 as well as King of Hungary and Croatia from 1440 until his death at the Battle of Varna. He was the eldest son of Władysław II Jagiełło (Jogaila) and the Lithuanian noblewoman Sophia of Halshany.

Władysław Syrokomla

Władysław Syrokomla 31 Ludwik Władysław Franciszek Kondratowicz, better known as Władysław Syrokomla, was a Polish romantic poet, writer and translator working in Vilnius and Vilna Governorate, then Russian Empire, whose writings were mainly dedicated to the former Grand Duchy of Lithuania. In his writings, Syrokomla called himself a Lithuanian but was disappointed by his inability to speak the Lithuanian language.

Martin of Tours

Martin of Tours 31 Martin of Tours, also known as Martin the Merciful, was the third bishop of Tours. He has become one of the most familiar and recognizable Christian saints in France, heralded as the patron saint of the Third Republic, and is patron saint of many communities and organizations across Europe. A native of Pannonia, he converted to Christianity at a young age. He served in the Roman cavalry in Gaul, but left military service at some point prior to 361, when he became a disciple of Hilary of Poitiers, establishing the monastery at Ligugé. He was consecrated as Bishop of Caesarodunum (Tours) in 371. As bishop, he was active in the suppression of the remnants of Gallo-Roman religion, but he opposed the violent persecution of the Priscillianist sect of ascetics.

Józef Dwernicki

Józef Dwernicki 31 Józef Dwernicki was a General of Cavalry in the Polish Army, and a participant in the November Uprising (1830–1831).

Witold Lutosławski

Witold Lutosławski 31 Witold Roman Lutosławski was a Polish composer and conductor. Among the major composers of 20th-century classical music, he is "generally regarded as the most significant Polish composer since Szymanowski, and possibly the greatest Polish composer since Chopin". His compositions—of which he was a notable conductor—include representatives of most traditional genres, aside from opera: symphonies, concertos, orchestral song cycles, other orchestral works, and chamber works. Among his best known works are his four symphonies, the Variations on a Theme by Paganini (1941), the Concerto for Orchestra (1954), and his cello concerto (1970).

Anna Jagiellon

Anna Jagiellon 31 Anna Jagiellon was Queen of Poland and Grand Duchess of Lithuania from 1575 to 1587.               

Henry II the Pious

Henry II the Pious 30 Henry II the Pious was Duke of Silesia and High Duke of Poland as well as Duke of South-Greater Poland from 1238 until his death. Between 1238 and 1239 he also served as regent of Sandomierz and Opole–Racibórz. He was the son of Henry the Bearded and a member of the Silesian Piast dynasty. In October 2015, the Roman Catholic Diocese of Legnica opened up his cause for beatification, obtaining him the title of Servant of God.

Antoni Abraham

Antoni Abraham 30 Antoni Abraham was a Polish promoter of Pomeranian culture, Kashubian activist and popular writer. 

Stanisław August Poniatowski

Stanisław August Poniatowski 30 Stanisław II August, known also by his regnal Latin name Stanislaus II Augustus, and as Stanisław August Poniatowski, was King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1764 to 1795, and the last monarch of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.

Karol Olszewski

Karol Olszewski 29 Karol Stanisław Olszewski was a Polish chemist, mathematician and physicist. Together with Zygmunt Wróblewski, he was the first scientist in the world to liquify oxygen and nitrogen in 1883.

Teofil Lenartowicz

Teofil Lenartowicz 29 Teofil Aleksander Lenartowicz was a Polish ethnographer, sculptor, poet and Romantic conspirator. Linked to Bohemians among Warsaw intellectuals, Lenartowicz was associated with Oskar Kolberg and Roman Zmorski in the anti-Tsarist independence movement, and participated in the Greater Poland Uprising of 1848 during his stay in Kraków. While in exile he taught Slavic literature at the University of Bologna, composed patriotic and religious poems, as well as lyrical and historical epics based on the folklore of his beloved region of Mazowsze. He did portrait-sculptures, and designed tombstones.

Edward Dembowski

Edward Dembowski 29 Edward Dembowski was a Polish philosopher, literary critic, journalist, and leftist independence activist.

Tadeusz Makowski

Tadeusz Makowski 29 Tadeusz Makowski was a Polish painter who worked in France and was associated with the School of Paris.

Faustina Kowalska

Faustina Kowalska 29 Maria Faustyna Kowalska, OLM, also known as Maria Faustyna Kowalska of the Blessed Sacrament, was a Polish Catholic religious sister and mystic. Faustyna, popularly spelled "Faustina", had apparitions of Jesus Christ which inspired the Catholic devotion to the Divine Mercy and earned her the title of "Secretary of Divine Mercy".

Henry the Bearded

Henry the Bearded 28 Henry the Bearded was a Polish duke from the Piast dynasty.                                         

Stanisław Brzóska

Stanisław Brzóska 28 Stanisław Brzóska was a Polish priest, general, one of leaders of the Polish insurgency and the last partisan of the January Uprising. He commanded the Polish detachment in South Podlasie and northern Lesser Poland, defeating the Russians in many skirmishes. He was captured eventually in April 1865, sentenced to death by the Russians and hanged publicly in Sokołów Podlaski in the presence of a crowd of 10,000 people.

Józef Elsner

Józef Elsner 27 Józef Antoni Franciszek Elsner was a Polish composer, music teacher, and music theoretician, active mainly in Warsaw. He was one of the first composers in Poland to weave elements of folk music into his works.

Franciszek Żwirko

Franciszek Żwirko 27 Franciszek Żwirko [english pronunciation like: frantsishek zhvirko] was a prominent Polish sport and military aviator. Along with Stanisław Wigura, he won the international air contest Challenge 1932.

Mieczysław Niedziałkowski

Mieczysław Niedziałkowski 27 Mieczysław Niedziałkowski was a Polish politician and writer. He was an activist in the Polish Socialist Party, editor in chief of Robotnik, and one of the primary activists and cofounders of the Centrolew alliance. He published several works on socialism and Polish politics. He took part in the defence of Warsaw in 1939, organizing the volunteer militias. He was subsequently arrested and interrogated by the Gestapo. He was executed on 21 June 1940 in Palmiry during the German AB-Aktion.


Vytautas 27 Vytautas, also known as Vytautas the Great from the late 14th century onwards, was a ruler of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. He was also the prince of Grodno (1370–1382), prince of Lutsk (1387–1389), and the postulated king of the Hussites.

Saint Peter

Saint Peter 27 Saint Peter, also known as Peter the Apostle, Simon Peter, Simeon, Simon, or Cephas, was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus Christ and one of the first leaders of the early Christian Church. He appears repeatedly and prominently in all four New Testament gospels as well as the Acts of the Apostles. Catholic tradition accredits Peter as the first bishop of Rome‍—‌or pope‍—‌and also as the first bishop of Antioch.

Władysław IV Vasa

Władysław IV Vasa 27 Władysław IV Vasa or Ladislaus IV of Poland was King of Poland, Grand Duke of Lithuania and claimant of the thrones of Sweden and Russia. Born into the House of Vasa as a prince of Poland and of Sweden, Władysław IV was the eldest son of Sigismund III Vasa and Sigismund's first wife, Anna of Austria.

Stanisław Dąbek

Stanisław Dąbek 27 Stanisław Dąbek was a Polish infantry colonel in the Polish Armed Forces, he was commander of the Marine Brigade of National Defense and acting commander of the Land Defense of the Coast during the Invasion of Poland; posthumously promoted to the rank of brigadier general.

Stanisław Przybyszewski

Stanisław Przybyszewski 27 Stanisław Przybyszewski was a Polish novelist, dramatist, and poet of the decadent naturalistic school. His drama is associated with the Symbolist movement. He wrote both in Polish and in German.

Franklin D. Roosevelt

Franklin D. Roosevelt 26 Franklin Delano Roosevelt, commonly known by his initials FDR, was an American statesman and politician who served as the 32nd president of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945. He was a member of the Democratic Party and is the only U.S. president to have served more than two terms. His initial two terms were centered on combating the Great Depression, while his third and fourth saw him shift his focus to America's involvement in World War II.

Saint Lawrence

Saint Lawrence 26 Saint Lawrence or Laurence was one of the seven deacons of the city of Rome under Pope Sixtus II who were martyred in the persecution of the Christians that the Roman Emperor Valerian ordered in 258.

Mary, mother of Jesus

Mary, mother of Jesus 26 Mary was a first-century Jewish woman of Nazareth, the wife of Joseph and the mother of Jesus. She is a central figure of Christianity, venerated under various titles such as virgin or queen, many of them mentioned in the Litany of Loreto. The Eastern and Oriental Orthodox, Church of the East, Catholic, Anglican, and Lutheran churches believe that Mary, as mother of Jesus, is the Mother of God. Other Protestant views on Mary vary, with some holding her to have lesser status.

Hans Christian Andersen

Hans Christian Andersen 26 Hans Christian Andersen was a Danish author. Although a prolific writer of plays, travelogues, novels, and poems, he is best remembered for his literary fairy tales.

Pola Gojawiczyńska

Pola Gojawiczyńska 26 Pola Gojawiczyńska, real name Apolonia Gojawiczyńska, née Koźniewska was a Polish writer.           

Lucjan Rydel

Lucjan Rydel 26 Lucjan Rydel, also known as Lucjan Antoni Feliks Rydel, was a Polish playwright and poet from the Young Poland movement.

Józef Zajączek

Józef Zajączek 26 Prince Józef Zajączek was a Polish general and politician.                                         

Bronisław Malinowski

Bronisław Malinowski 26 Bronisław Kasper Malinowski was a Polish-British anthropologist and ethnologist whose writings on ethnography, social theory, and field research have exerted a lasting influence on the discipline of anthropology.

Pan Tadeusz

Pan Tadeusz 26 Pan Tadeusz is an epic poem by the Polish poet, writer, translator and philosopher Adam Mickiewicz. The book, written in Polish alexandrines, was first published by Aleksander Jełowicki on 28 June 1834 in Paris. It is deemed one of the last great epic poems in European literature.

Julian Przyboś

Julian Przyboś 26 Julian Przyboś was a Polish poet, essayist and translator, one of the most important poets of the Kraków Avant-Garde.

Kinga of Poland

Kinga of Poland 26 Kinga of Poland or Kinga of Hungary, also Saint Kinga is a saint in the Catholic Church and patroness of Poland and Lithuania.

Casimir I the Restorer

Casimir I the Restorer 26 Casimir I the Restorer, a member of the Piast dynasty, was the duke of Poland from 1040 until his death. Casimir was the son of Mieszko II Lambert and Richeza of Lotharingia. He is known as the Restorer because he managed to reunite parts of the Kingdom of Poland after a period of turmoil. He reincorporated Masovia, and conquered Silesia and Pomerania. However, he failed to crown himself King of Poland, mainly because of internal and external threats to his rule.

Aleksander Majkowski

Aleksander Majkowski 25 Aleksander Majkowski was a Polish-Kashubian writer, poet, journalist, editor, activist, and physician. He was the most important figure in the Kashubian movement before World War II. He was the editor of "Gryf" and author of the greatest Kashubian novel Żëcé i przigodë Remusa, and The History of the Kashubs.

Ludomir Różycki

Ludomir Różycki 25 Ludomir Różycki was a Polish composer and conductor. He was, with Mieczysław Karłowicz, Karol Szymanowski and Grzegorz Fitelberg, a member of the group of composers known as Young Poland, the intention of which was to invigorate the musical culture of their generation in their mother country.

Jerzy Kukuczka

Jerzy Kukuczka 25 Józef Jerzy Kukuczka was a Polish mountaineer. He was born in Katowice, his family was ethnically Silesian Goral. On 18 September 1987, he became the second man to climb all fourteen eight-thousanders in the world; a feat which took him less than 8 years to accomplish. He is the only person to have climbed two eight-thousanders in one winter. Altogether, he ascended four eight-thousanders in winter, including three as first ascents. Along with Tadeusz Piotrowski, Kukuczka established a new route on K2 in alpine style, which no one has repeated.

Catherine of Alexandria

Catherine of Alexandria 25 Catherine of Alexandria, also spelled Katherine is, according to tradition, a Christian saint and virgin, who was martyred in the early fourth century at the hands of the emperor Maxentius. According to her hagiography, she was both a princess and a noted scholar who became a Christian around the age of 14, converted hundreds of people to Christianity and was martyred around the age of 18. More than 1,100 years after Catherine's martyrdom, Joan of Arc identified her as one of the saints who appeared to and counselled her.

Jędrzej Śniadecki

Jędrzej Śniadecki 25 Jędrzej Śniadecki was a Polish writer, physician, chemist, biologist and philosopher. His achievements include being the first person who linked rickets to lack of sunlight. He also created modern Polish terminology in the field of chemistry.

Antoni Grabowski

Antoni Grabowski 25 Antoni Grabowski was a Polish chemical engineer, and an activist of the early Esperanto movement. His translations had an influential impact on the development of Esperanto into a language of literature.

Arka Bożek

Arka Bożek 24 Arka Bożek, właśc. Arkadiusz Bożek – polski działacz na Śląsku Opolskim, członek Rady Narodowej RP (1939–1945), wicewojewoda śląski (1945–1950), poseł do Krajowej Rady Narodowej (1946–1947) i Sejmu Ustawodawczego (1947–1952).

Tadeusz Zawadzki

Tadeusz Zawadzki 24 Tadeusz Leon Józef Zawadzki, alias "Kajman", "Kotwicki", "Lech Pomarańczowy", "Tadeusz", or "Zośka", was a Polish scout instructor, scoutmaster, Home Army second lieutenant, commander of assault groups in Warsaw, one of the protagonists of Aleksander Kamiński's book Kamienie na szaniec.

Maurycy Mochnacki

Maurycy Mochnacki 24 Maurycy Mochnacki was a Polish literary, theatre and music critic, publicist, journalist, pianist, historian and independence activist. One of the main theorists of Polish Romanticism. He joined the November Uprising in 1830 taking part in several battles for example at Stoczek, Ostrołęka, Grochów and Wawer. For that activity he was promoted to officer rank and awarded the War Order of Virtuti Militari, which is the highest Polish military decoration.

August Emil Fieldorf

August Emil Fieldorf 24 August Emil Fieldorf was a Polish brigadier general who served as deputy commander-in-chief of the Home Army after the suppression of the Warsaw Uprising.

Helena Marusarzówna

Helena Marusarzówna 24 Helena Marusarzówna – polska mistrzyni sportów narciarskich, kurierka tatrzańska, żołnierz Związku Walki Zbrojnej (ZWZ).

Kornel Ujejski

Kornel Ujejski 24 Kornel Ujejski, also known as Cornelius Ujejski, was a Polish poet, patriot and political writer of the Austrian Empire and Austria-Hungary.

Francis of Assisi

Francis of Assisi 24 Giovanni di Pietro di Bernardone, known as Francis of Assisi, was an Italian mystic, poet and Catholic friar who founded the religious order of the Franciscans. He was inspired to lead a Christian life of poverty as a beggar and itinerant preacher. One of the most venerated figures in Christianity, Francis was canonized by Pope Gregory IX on 16 July 1228. He is commonly portrayed wearing a brown habit with a rope tied around his waist, featuring three knots that symbolize the three Franciscan vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience.

Hassling-Ketling of Elgin

Hassling-Ketling of Elgin 23 Ketling is a fictional character in Henryk Sienkiewicz's novel Fire in the Steppe, the third volume of his award-winning The Trilogy. A Scotsman, Ketling moved to Poland where he became a Colonel of Artillery in service of the king of Poland John Casimir. Ketling married Krystyna Drohojowska, a former fiancée of his friend, Michał Wołodyjowski.

Alfred Szklarski

Alfred Szklarski 23 Alfred Szklarski was a Polish author of youth literature. He also published his books under the pseudonyms Alfred Bronowski, Fred Garland and Alfred Murawski.

Maksymilian Gierymski

Maksymilian Gierymski 23 Maksymilian Dionizy Gierymski was a Polish painter, specializing mainly in watercolours. He was the older brother of painter Aleksander Gierymski.

Wincenty Kadłubek

Wincenty Kadłubek 23 Wincenty Kadłubek was a Polish Catholic prelate and professed Cistercian who served as the Bishop of Kraków from 1208 until his resignation in 1218. His episcopal mission was to reform the diocesan priests to ensure their holiness and invigorate the faithful and cultivate greater participation in ecclesial affairs on their part. Wincenty was much more than just a bishop; he was a leading scholar in Poland from the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. He was also a lawyer, historian, church reformer, monk, magister, and the father of Polish culture and national identity.

Janina Porazińska

Janina Porazińska 23 Janina Porazińska – polska prozaiczka, redaktorka, tłumaczka literatury skandynawskiej i literatury szwedzkojęzycznej.

Tadeusz Sygietyński

Tadeusz Sygietyński 23 Tadeusz Sygietyński – polski kompozytor i dyrygent, pedagog muzyczny, założyciel Państwowego Zespołu Ludowego Pieśni i Tańca „Mazowsze” (1948).

Karol Libelt

Karol Libelt 22 Karol Libelt was a Polish philosopher, writer, political and social activist, social worker and liberal, nationalist politician, and president of the Poznań Society of Friends of Learning.

Józef Mirecki

Józef Mirecki 22 Józef Anastazy Mirecki, pseudonim „Montwiłł”, „Grzegorz”, „Bronisław”, „Sawicki” – polski socjalista, jeden z przywódców Organizacji Bojowej Polskiej Partii Socjalistycznej i członek jej Wydziału Bojowego. Organizator i uczestnik wielu zamachów. Stracony na stokach Cytadeli.

Wojciech Kętrzyński

Wojciech Kętrzyński 22 Wojciech Kętrzyński, was a Polish historian and the director of the Ossolineum Library in Lemberg, then the capital of Galicia, Austrian Empire. He focused on Polish history at a time when Poland was partitioned between foreign powers. He opposed the idea of Germanization and assisted in the January Uprising for Poland's cause. In 1861 he legally changed his name and became a Polish national.

Romuald Mielczarski

Romuald Mielczarski 22 Romuald Mielczarski (ps. Jan Wierzba) – działacz spółdzielczy i niepodległościowy. Współtwórca Towarzystwa Kooperatystów, prezes Związku Spółdzielni Spożywców RP.

Janusz Groszkowski

Janusz Groszkowski 22 Janusz Groszkowski – polski naukowiec zajmujący się elektroniką i radiotechniką, kandydat do nagrody Nobla, inżynier, prezes Polskiej Akademii Nauk, polityk, przewodniczący Ogólnopolskiego Komitetu Frontu Jedności Narodu oraz poseł na Sejm PRL VI kadencji i zastępca przewodniczącego Rady Państwa (1972–1976). Budowniczy Polski Ludowej.

Zygmunt Sierakowski

Zygmunt Sierakowski 21 Zygmunt Erazm Gaspar Józef Sierakowski was a Polish leader of the January Uprising in lands of the former Grand Duchy of Lithuania in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.

Stanisław Skarżyński

Stanisław Skarżyński 21 Stanisław Jakub Skarżyński was a lieutenant colonel in the Polish Air Force and aviator famous for his transatlantic solo flight in 1933.

Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky

Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky 21 Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky was a Russian composer of the Romantic period. He was the first Russian composer whose music would make a lasting impression internationally. Tchaikovsky wrote some of the most popular concert and theatrical music in the current classical repertoire, including the ballets Swan Lake and The Nutcracker, the 1812 Overture, his First Piano Concerto, Violin Concerto, the Romeo and Juliet Overture-Fantasy, several symphonies, and the opera Eugene Onegin.

Kazimierz Sosnkowski

Kazimierz Sosnkowski 21 General Kazimierz Sosnkowski was a Polish independence fighter, general, diplomat, and architect.   

Zygmunt Noskowski

Zygmunt Noskowski 21 Zygmunt Noskowski was a Polish composer, conductor, and teacher.                                   

Grażyna Bacewicz

Grażyna Bacewicz 21 Grażyna Bacewicz Biernacka was a Polish composer and violinist of Lithuanian origin. She is the second Polish female composer to have achieved national and international recognition, the first being Maria Szymanowska in the early 19th century.

Władysław Raginis

Władysław Raginis 21 Władysław Raginis was a Polish military commander during the Invasion of Poland in 1939 of a small force holding the Polish fortified defense positions against a vastly larger German force during the Battle of Wizna. Because the positions were held at great cost for three days before being annihilated with few survivors, Wizna is referred to as the Polish Thermopylae and Captain Raginis as a modern Leonidas.

Grzegorz Piramowicz

Grzegorz Piramowicz 20 Grzegorz Piramowicz was a Polish Roman Catholic priest, educator, writer, and philosopher of Armenian origin. He was a member of the Commission of National Education and Society for Elementary Books, and one of the founders of the Society of Friends of the Constitution.

Eugeniusz Romer

Eugeniusz Romer 20 Eugeniusz Mikołaj Romer was a distinguished Polish geographer, cartographer and geopolitician, whose maps and atlases are still highly valued by experts.

Tadeusz Borowski

Tadeusz Borowski 20 Tadeusz Borowski was a Polish writer and journalist. His wartime poetry and stories dealing with his experiences as a prisoner at Auschwitz are recognized as classics of Polish literature.

Marek Hłasko

Marek Hłasko 20 Marek Hłasko was a Polish author and screenwriter.                                                 

Konstantin Tsiolkovsky

Konstantin Tsiolkovsky 20 Konstantin Eduardovich Tsiolkovsky was a Russian and Soviet rocket scientist who pioneered astronautics. Along with Hermann Oberth and Robert H. Goddard, he is one of the pioneers of space flight and the founding father of modern rocketry and astronautics. His works later inspired Wernher von Braun and leading Soviet rocket engineers Sergei Korolev and Valentin Glushko, who contributed to the success of the Soviet space program. Tsiolkovsky spent most of his life in a log house on the outskirts of Kaluga, about 200 km (120 mi) southwest of Moscow. A recluse by nature, his unusual habits made him seem bizarre to his fellow townsfolk.

Stefan Banach

Stefan Banach 19 Stefan Banach was a Polish mathematician who is generally considered one of the 20th century's most important and influential mathematicians. He was the founder of modern functional analysis, and an original member of the Lwów School of Mathematics. His major work was the 1932 book, Théorie des opérations linéaires, the first monograph on the general theory of functional analysis.

Joseph Sulkowski

Joseph Sulkowski 19 Joseph Sulkowski was a Polish captain in the French Revolutionary Army and friend and aide de camp to Napoleon Bonaparte. He also became friends with Muiron, Vivant Denon, Lazare Carnot, Augereau, and Bourienne. His name is engraved on the Arc de Triomphe, on the 28th column, as SULKOSKY.

Tomasz Zan

Tomasz Zan 19 Tomasz Zan, was a notable Polish and Belarusian poet and activist. Zan played a significant role in the cultural and literary movements of his time, advocating for the preservation and promotion of both Polish and Belarusian cultures. Zan's poetry touched upon various themes, including patriotism, nature, and the human experience. He is often recognized as one of the pioneers of Belarusian literature.

Bolesław Domański

Bolesław Domański 19 Bolesław Domański was a famous Polish Catholic priest, chief of the Union of Poles in Germany. In the years 1903–1939 he was a parson of Zakrzewo parish. Domański was a fighter for the rights of the Polish minority in Grenzmark Posen-West Prussia, at the time a Prussian province on the border of Germany and Poland, as well as for the rights of Polish emigrants in the Ruhr area.

Dezydery Chłapowski

Dezydery Chłapowski 19 Baron Dezydery Adam Chłapowski of the Dryja coat of arms was a Polish general, businessman and political activist.

Tadeusz Czacki

Tadeusz Czacki 19 Tadeusz Czacki was a Polish historian, pedagogue and numismatist. Czacki played an important part in the Enlightenment in Poland.

Gallus Anonymus

Gallus Anonymus 19 Gallus Anonymus, also known by his Polonized variant Gall Anonim, is the name traditionally given to the anonymous author of Gesta principum Polonorum, composed in Latin between 1112 and 1118. Gallus is generally regarded as the first historian to have described the history of Poland. His Chronicles are an obligatory text for university courses in Polish history. Very little is known of the author himself and it is widely believed that he was a foreigner.

Stefan Kisielewski

Stefan Kisielewski 19 Stefan Kisielewski, nicknames Kisiel, Julia Hołyńska, Teodor Klon, Tomasz Staliński, was a Polish writer, publicist, composer and politician, and one of the members of Znak, one of the founders of the Unia Polityki Realnej, the Polish libertarian and conservative political party.

Norbert Bonczyk

Norbert Bonczyk 19 Norbert Bonczyk – ksiądz katolicki, poeta, autor artykułów do „Zwiastuna Górnośląskiego”, działacz narodowy na rzecz polskości Górnego Śląska, tłumacz liryki niemieckiej. Zwany „Śląskim Homerem”. Opisując obrazy z życia górnośląskiej społeczności wiejskiej, zwracał przede wszystkim uwagę na odrębność tych terenów w sensie historycznym, obyczajowym i częściowo językowym. Wieloletni współpracownik księdza Józefa Szafranka.

Przemyslaus I Noszak, Duke of Cieszyn

Przemyslaus I Noszak, Duke of Cieszyn 19 Przemysław I Noszak, was a Duke of Cieszyn-Bytom-Siewierz from 1358, from 1384 ruler over half of both Głogów and Ścinawa and after 1401 ruler over Toszek.

Jan Dekert

Jan Dekert 19 Jan Dekert or Jan Dekiert was a Polish merchant of German descent and political activist. Starting in the 1760s, he rose to become one of the most prominent merchants in the Polish capital of Warsaw. He was an activist arguing for more rights for the burghers in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth while opposing Jewish merchants. As the representative of Warsaw, he was elected a deputy to the Sejms of 1784 and 1786, as well as to the Great Sejm (1788–1792). He was the mayor of Warsaw (1789–1790), during which period he organized the Black Procession on 2 December 1789. This was a major step towards the passing of the Free Royal Cities Act enfranchising burghers, as one of the reforms of the Great Sejm and part of the Constitution of the 3rd May, 1791.

Leszek II the Black

Leszek II the Black 19 Leszek II the Black, was a Polish prince of the House of Piast, Duke of Sieradz since 1261, Duke of Łęczyca since 1267, Duke of Inowrocław in the years 1273-1278, Duke of Sandomierz and High Duke of Poland from 1279 until his death.

Hansel and Gretel

Hansel and Gretel 19 "Hansel and Gretel" is a German fairy tale collected by the Brothers Grimm and published in 1812 as part of Grimms' Fairy Tales. It is also known as Little Step Brother and Little Step Sister.

Karol Wojtyła (senior)

Karol Wojtyła (senior) 19 Karol Wojtyła was a Polish military officer who was a non-commissioned officer of the Austro-Hungarian Army and a lieutenant of the Polish Armed Forces' administration. He was the father and namesake of Karol Józef Wojtyła, who became Pope John Paul II in 1978, and the father of Polish doctor Edmund Wojtyła. He died from what is believed to be a heart attack in 1941 while his son was away, an event considered to have influenced his son's decision to join the seminary.

Aleksandra Billewiczówna

Aleksandra Billewiczówna 19 Aleksandra Billewicz is a fictional character created by Henryk Sienkiewicz, appearing in the novel The Deluge as the main female protagonist. She is a wise Lithuanian noblewoman, by the will of her grandfather engaged to Andrzej Kmicic.

Stanislaus of Szczepanów

Stanislaus of Szczepanów 18 Stanislaus of Szczepanów was a Polish Catholic prelate who served as Bishop of Kraków and was martyred by the Polish King Bolesław II the Bold. Stanislaus is venerated in the Catholic Church as Stanislaus the Martyr.

Antoni Madaliński

Antoni Madaliński 18 Antoni Madaliński (1739–1805) was a Polish Lieutenant General and commander of the 1st Greater Polish National Cavalry Brigade during the Kościuszko Uprising.

Mark the Evangelist

Mark the Evangelist 18 Mark the Evangelist also known as John Mark or Saint Mark, is the person who is traditionally ascribed to be the author of the Gospel of Mark. Modern Bible scholars have concluded that the Gospel of Mark was written by an anonymous author rather than an identifiable historical figure. According to Church tradition, Mark founded the episcopal see of Alexandria, which was one of the five most important sees of early Christianity. His feast day is celebrated on April 25, and his symbol is the winged lion.

Franciszek Stefczyk

Franciszek Stefczyk 18 Franciszek Kazimierz Stefczyk – nauczyciel, ekonomista, działacz społeczny, spółdzielczy i ruchu ludowego. Inicjator zakładania spółdzielczych kas oszczędnościowo-pożyczkowych, znanych później jako Kasy Stefczyka.

Ignacy Domeyko

Ignacy Domeyko 18 Ignacy Domeyko or Domejko, pseudonym: Żegota was a Polish geologist, mineralogist, educator, and founder of the University of Santiago, in Chile. Domeyko spent most of his life, and died, in his adopted country, Chile.

Elizabeth (biblical figure)

Elizabeth (biblical figure) 18 Elizabeth was the mother of John the Baptist, the wife of Zechariah, and maternal aunt of Mary, mother of Jesus, according to the Gospel of Luke and in Islamic tradition. She was past normal child-bearing age when she conceived and gave birth to John.

Olga Boznańska

Olga Boznańska 18 Olga Boznańska was a Polish painter of the turn of the 20th century. She was a notable painter in Poland and Europe, and was stylistically associated with the French impressionism, though she rejected this label.

Michael (archangel)

Michael (archangel) 18 Michael, also called Saint Michael the Archangel, Archangel Michael and Saint Michael the Taxiarch is an archangel in Judaism, Christianity, Islam, and the Baha'i faith. The earliest surviving mentions of his name are in third- and second-century-BC Jewish works, often but not always apocalyptic, where he is the chief of the angels and archangels, and he is the guardian prince of Israel and is responsible for the care of Israel. Christianity conserved nearly all the Jewish traditions concerning him, and he is mentioned explicitly in Revelation 12:7–12, where he does battle with Satan, and in the Epistle of Jude, where the author denounces heretics by contrasting them with Michael.

John Scolvus

John Scolvus 17 John Scolvus or John of Kolno may have been a navigator of the late 15th century. According to some sources he was among a group of early Europeans to reach the shores of the Americas prior to Columbus, arriving in 1476 as steersman of Didrik Pining, although this view is not supported by contemporary evidence, and as he is not mentioned contemporaneously, his identity and even existence have been disputed.

Bogislaw X, Duke of Pomerania

Bogislaw X, Duke of Pomerania 17 Bogislaw X of Pomerania, the Great, was Duke of Pomerania from 1474 until his death in 1523.       

Stanisław Leszczyński

Stanisław Leszczyński 17 Stanisław I Leszczyński, also Anglicized and Latinized as Stanislaus I, was twice King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania, and at various times Prince of Deux-Ponts, Duke of Bar and Duke of Lorraine.

Hipolit Cegielski

Hipolit Cegielski 17 Hipolit Cegielski was a Polish businessman and social and cultural activist. He founded H. Cegielski – Poznań in 1846.

Franciszek Karpiński

Franciszek Karpiński 17 Franciszek Karpiński was the leading sentimental Polish poet of the Age of Enlightenment. He is particularly remembered for his religious works later rendered as hymns and carols. He is also considered one of the most original Polish writers of the early partitions. In his native Poland he was cherished during the Polish Romantic Period of the early 19th century.

Władysław Szafer

Władysław Szafer 17 Prof Władysław Szafer PAS HFRSE was a Polish botanist, palaeobotanist, quaternary geologist and professor of botany at the Jagiellonian University in Kraków. He was a world pioneer in nature conservation.

Aleksander Orłowski

Aleksander Orłowski 17 Aleksander Orłowski was a Polish painter and sketch artist, and a pioneer of lithography in the Russian Empire.

Woodrow Wilson

Woodrow Wilson 17 Thomas Woodrow Wilson was an American politician and academic who served as the 28th president of the United States from 1913 to 1921. A member of the Democratic Party, Wilson served as the president of Princeton University and as the governor of New Jersey before winning the 1912 presidential election. As president, Wilson changed the nation's economic policies and led the United States into World War I in 1917. He was the leading architect of the League of Nations, and his progressive stance on foreign policy came to be known as Wilsonianism.

Jerzy Bajan

Jerzy Bajan 17 Jerzy Bajan was a prominent Polish sports and military aviator, winner of the Challenge 1934 contest.

Stanisław Kunicki

Stanisław Kunicki 17 Stanisław Kunicki was a Polish revolutionary.                                                       

Juliusz Osterwa

Juliusz Osterwa 17 Juliusz Osterwa, born Julian Andrzej Maluszek, was a renowned Polish actor, theatre director and art theoretician active in the interwar period. He was the founder of Theatre Reduta, the first experimental stage in Warsaw following Poland's return to independence at the end of World War One. Osterwa began his Warsaw career at the age of 33 by staging the works of Poland's revolutionary dramatists including Juliusz Słowacki, Stanisław Wyspiański, Stefan Żeromski, Jerzy Szaniawski, Kazimierz Przerwa-Tetmajer, and Cyprian Norwid. This team was commonly known as the actor's commune, resembling an ascetic monastery devoted to spiritual practice.

Stanisław Taczak

Stanisław Taczak 17 Stanisław Taczak was a Polish general. Until 8 January 1919, he was temporary commander-in-chief of the Great Poland Uprising (1918-1919).

Przemysł II

Przemysł II 17 Przemysł II was the Duke of Poznań from 1257–1279, of Greater Poland from 1279 to 1296, of Kraków from 1290 to 1291, and Gdańsk Pomerania (Pomerelia) from 1294 to 1296, and then King of Poland from 1295 until his death. After a long period of Polish high dukes and two nominal kings, he was the first to obtain the hereditary title of king, and thus to return Poland to the rank of kingdom. A member of the Greater Poland branch of the House of Piast as the only son of Duke Przemysł I and the Silesian Princess Elisabeth, he was born posthumously; for this reason he was brought up at the court of his uncle Bolesław the Pious and received his own district to rule, the Duchy of Poznań in 1273. Six years later, after the death of his uncle, he also obtained the Duchy of Kalisz.

Juliusz Konstanty Ordon

Juliusz Konstanty Ordon 17 Konstanty Juliusz Ordon was a participant in the Polish November Uprising in 1830–1831.             

Hyacinth of Poland

Hyacinth of Poland 17 Hyacinth was a Polish Dominican priest and missionary who worked to reform the women's monasteries in his native Poland. Educated in Paris and Bologna, he was a Doctor of Sacred Studies.

Józef Rymer

Józef Rymer 17 Józef Rymer (1882–1922) was a Polish and Silesian activist and politician.                         

Zygmunt Florenty Wróblewski

Zygmunt Florenty Wróblewski 16 Zygmunt Florenty Wróblewski was a Polish physicist and chemist. Together with Karol Olszewski, he was the first scientist in the world to liquify nitrogen in 1883.

Mieczysława Ćwiklińska

Mieczysława Ćwiklińska 16 Mieczysława Ćwiklińska-Steinsberg was a Polish film actress, stage actor, and singer. She was often nicknamed Lińska or Amiette.

Stanislaus Kostka

Stanislaus Kostka 16 Stanisław Kostka S.J. was a Polish novice of the Society of Jesus. He is venerated in the Catholic Church as Saint Stanislaus Kostka.

Seweryn Goszczyński

Seweryn Goszczyński 16 Seweryn Goszczyński was a Polish Romantic prose writer and poet.                                   

Emil Zegadłowicz

Emil Zegadłowicz 16 Emil Zegadłowicz was a Polish poet, prose writer, novelist, playwright, translator, expert of art; co-originator of Polish expressionism, member of expressionists' group Zdrój, co-founder of group Czartak.

Aniela Krzywoń

Aniela Krzywoń 16 Aniela Krzywoń was a private in the "Emilia Plater" Independent Women's Battalion of the Polish People's Army during the Second World War and became the only woman in history who was not a citizen of the Soviet Union to be awarded the USSR's highest honor for bravery, the title Hero of the Soviet Union, after she died of injuries sustained while rescuing important military documents from a burning truck after a Luftwaffe bombing raid.

Cyprian Godebski (poet)

Cyprian Godebski (poet) 16 Cyprian Godebski was a Polish poet, novelist and father of writer Franciszek Ksawery. He was an outstanding poet of the so-called "Legions Poetry".

Joseph Conrad

Joseph Conrad 16 Joseph Conrad was a Polish-British novelist and story writer. He is regarded as one of the greatest writers in the English language; though he did not speak English fluently until his twenties, he came to be regarded a master prose stylist who brought a non-English sensibility into English literature. He wrote novels and stories, many in nautical settings, that depict crises of human individuality in the midst of what he saw as an indifferent, inscrutable and amoral world.

Jan Nowak-Jeziorański

Jan Nowak-Jeziorański 16 Jan Nowak-Jeziorański was a Polish journalist, writer, politician, social worker and patriot. He served during the Second World War as one of the most notable resistance fighters of the Home Army. He is best remembered for his work as an emissary shuttling between the commanders of the Home Army and the Polish Government in Exile in London and other Allied governments which gained him the nickname "Courier from Warsaw", and for his participation in the Warsaw Uprising. After the war he worked as the head of the Polish section of Radio Free Europe, and later as a security advisor to the US presidents Ronald Reagan and Jimmy Carter. In 1996, President Bill Clinton awarded him with America's highest civilian award the Presidential Medal of Freedom.

Jan Karski

Jan Karski 16 Jan Karski was a Polish soldier, resistance-fighter, and diplomat during World War II. He is known for having acted as a courier in 1940–1943 to the Polish government-in-exile and to Poland's Western Allies about the situation in German-occupied Poland. He reported about the state of Poland, its many competing resistance factions, and also about Germany's destruction of the Warsaw Ghetto and its operation of extermination camps on Polish soil that were murdering Jews, Poles, and others.

Tadeusz Gajcy

Tadeusz Gajcy 16 Tadeusz Stefan Gajcy alias Karol Topornicki”, „Roman Oścień”, „Topór”, „Orczyk“ , was a Polish poet, playwright, editor-in-chief of the Sztuka i Naród periodical, member of the Confederation of the Nation, soldier of the Home Army.

Saint Christopher

Saint Christopher 16 Saint Christopher is venerated by several Christian denominations as a martyr killed in the reign of the 3rd-century Roman emperor Decius, or alternatively under the emperor Maximinus Daia. There appears to be confusion due to the similarity in names "Decius" and "Daia". Churches and monasteries were named after him by the 7th century.

Aleksander Zelwerowicz

Aleksander Zelwerowicz 16 Aleksander Zelwerowicz was a Polish actor, director, theatre president and a teacher. He received the Order of Polonia Restituta and is one of the Polish Righteous among the Nations.

Stanisław Wojciechowski

Stanisław Wojciechowski 16 Stanisław Wojciechowski was a Polish politician and scholar who served as President of Poland between 1922 and 1926, during the Second Polish Republic.

Little Red Riding Hood

Little Red Riding Hood 16 Little Red Riding Hood is a European fairy tale about a young girl and a sly wolf. Its origins can be traced back to several pre-17th-century European folk tales. The two best known versions were written by Charles Perrault and the Brothers Grimm.

Leszek the White

Leszek the White 16 Leszek the White was Prince of Sandomierz and High Duke of Poland in the years 1194–1198, 1199, 1206–1210, and 1211–1227. During the early stages of his reign, his uncle Duke Mieszko III the Old and cousin Władysław III Spindleshanks, from the Greater Polish branch of the royal Piast dynasty, contested Leszek's right to be High Duke.


Cinderella 16 "Cinderella", or "The Little Glass Slipper", is a folk tale with thousands of variants that are told throughout the world. The protagonist is a young girl living in forsaken circumstances that are suddenly changed to remarkable fortune, with her ascension to the throne via marriage. The story of Rhodopis, recounted by the Greek geographer Strabo sometime between 7 BC and 23 AD, about a Greek slave girl who marries the king of Egypt, is usually considered to be the earliest known variant of the Cinderella story.

The Little Prince

The Little Prince 16 The Little Prince is a novella written and illustrated by French writer, and military pilot, Antoine de Saint-Exupéry. It was first published in English and French in the United States by Reynal & Hitchcock in April 1943 and was published posthumously in France following liberation; Saint-Exupéry's works had been banned by the Vichy Regime. The story follows a young prince who visits various planets, including Earth, and addresses themes of loneliness, friendship, love, and loss. Despite its style as a children's book, The Little Prince makes observations about life, adults, and human nature.

Wojciech Kilar

Wojciech Kilar 16 Wojciech Kilar was a Polish classical and film music composer. One of his greatest successes came with his score to Francis Ford Coppola's Bram Stoker's Dracula in 1992, which received the ASCAP Award and the nomination for the Saturn Award for Best Music. In 2003, he won the César Award for Best Film Music written for The Pianist, for which he also received a BAFTA nomination.

Władysław I Herman

Władysław I Herman 16 Władysław I Herman was the duke of Poland from 1079 until his death.                               

Agnieszka Osiecka

Agnieszka Osiecka 16 Agnieszka Osiecka was a Polish poet, writer, author of theatre and television screenplays, film director and journalist. She was a prominent Polish songwriter, having authored the lyrics to more than 2000 songs, and is considered an icon of Polish culture.

Kazimierz Górski

Kazimierz Górski 16 Kazimierz Klaudiusz Górski was a coach of Poland national football team and honorary president of the Polish Football Association. He was also a football player, capped once for Poland.

Artur Zawisza (kapitan)

Artur Zawisza (kapitan) 15 Artur Zawisza Czarny herbu Przerowa – działacz niepodległościowy, uczestnik powstania listopadowego (1830–1831), członek Towarzystwa Patriotycznego, od 1831 na emigracji we Francji, członek Towarzystwa Demokratycznego Polskiego, uczestnik partyzantki Zaliwskiego (1833).

Kazimierz Brodziński

Kazimierz Brodziński 15 Kazimierz Brodziński was an important Polish Romantic poet.                                         

Jan Chryzostom Pasek

Jan Chryzostom Pasek 15 Jan Chryzostom Pasek of Gosławice (c.1636–1701) was a Polish nobleman and writer during the times of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. He is best remembered for his memoirs (Pamiętniki), which are a valuable historical source about Baroque sarmatian culture and events in the Commonwealth.

Henryk Rodakowski

Henryk Rodakowski 15 Henryk Hipolit Rodakowski was a Polish painter.                                                     

Kazimierz Wierzyński

Kazimierz Wierzyński 15 Kazimierz Wierzyński was a Polish poet and journalist; an elected member of the prestigious Polish Academy of Literature in the Second Polish Republic.

Michał Bałucki

Michał Bałucki 15 Michał Bałucki, pseudonym Elpidon, was a Polish playwright and poet.                               

Maurice Benyovszky

Maurice Benyovszky 15 Count Maurice Benyovszky de Benyó et Urbanó was a renowned military officer, adventurer, and writer from the Kingdom of Hungary, who described himself as both a Hungarian and a Pole. He is considered a national hero in Hungary, Poland, and Slovakia.

Józef Pankiewicz

Józef Pankiewicz 15 Józef Pankiewicz was a Polish impressionist painter, graphic artist and teacher who spent much of his career in France.

Wanda Rutkiewicz

Wanda Rutkiewicz 15 Wanda Rutkiewicz was a Polish mountaineer and computer engineer. She was the first woman to reach the summit of K2 and the third woman to summit Mount Everest.

Paweł Strzelecki

Paweł Strzelecki 15 Sir Paweł Edmund Strzelecki, also known as Paul Edmund de Strzelecki and Sir Paul Strzelecki, was a Polish explorer, geologist, humanitarian, environmentalist, nobleman, scientist, businessman and philanthropist who in 1845 also became a British subject.

Jacek Kaczmarski

Jacek Kaczmarski 15 Jacek Marcin Kaczmarski was a Polish singer, songwriter, poet and author.                           

Mary Magdalene

Mary Magdalene 15 Mary Magdalene was a woman who, according to the four canonical gospels, traveled with Jesus as one of his followers and was a witness to his crucifixion and resurrection. She is mentioned by name twelve times in the canonical gospels, more than most of the apostles and more than any other woman in the gospels, other than Jesus's family. Mary's epithet Magdalene may be a toponymic surname, meaning that she came from the town of Magdala, a fishing town on the western shore of the Sea of Galilee in Roman Judea.

Stanisław Skalski

Stanisław Skalski 15 Stanisław Skalski, was a Polish aviator and fighter ace who served with the Polish Air Force and British Royal Air Force during the Second World War. Skalski was the top Polish fighter ace of the war and chronologically the first Allied fighter ace of the war, credited, according to the Bajan's list, with 18 11/12 victories and two probable. Some sources, including Skalski himself, give a number of 22 11/12 victories.

Marek Grechuta

Marek Grechuta 15 Marek Michał Grechuta was a Polish singer, songwriter, composer, and lyricist.                     

Stanisław Jachowicz

Stanisław Jachowicz 15 Stanisław Jachowicz was a Polish educator, poet and children books author. He is regarded as the founding father of children's literature in Poland.

Aleksander Kamiński

Aleksander Kamiński 15 Aleksander Kamiński, assumed name: Aleksander Kędzierski. Also known under aliases such as Dąbrowski, J. Dąbrowski, Fabrykant, Faktor, Juliusz Górecki, Hubert, Kamyk, Kaźmierczak, Bambaju was an educator, co-founder of Cub Scouts methodology, and soldier of the Home Army. He was one of the ideological leaders of the Grey Ranks and chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Council of the Polish Scouting Association.

August Cieszkowski

August Cieszkowski 14 Count August Dołęga Cieszkowski was a Polish philosopher, economist and social and political activist. His Hegelian philosophy influenced the young Karl Marx and action theorists.

Feliks Stamm

Feliks Stamm 14 Feliks “Papa” Stamm was a prominent Polish boxing coach. He is widely regarded as the father of Polish boxing, and the creator of the so-called Polish school of boxing. To commemorate him, since 1977 annual Feliks Stamm Boxing Tournament takes place in Warsaw. In 1987, the tournament was won by Lennox Lewis.

Antoni Słonimski

Antoni Słonimski 14 Antoni Słonimski was a Polish poet, artist, journalist, playwright and prose writer, president of the Union of Polish Writers in 1956–1959 during the Polish October, known for his devotion to social justice.

Dionizy Czachowski

Dionizy Czachowski 14 Dionizy Feliks Czachowski was a Polish general and commander of the Sandomierz Voivodeship during the January Uprising in Congress Poland.

Tadeusz Kotarbiński

Tadeusz Kotarbiński 14 Tadeusz Marian Kotarbiński was a Polish philosopher, logician and ethicist.                         

Adam Naruszewicz

Adam Naruszewicz 14 Adam Stanisław Naruszewicz was a Polish-Lithuanian nobleman, poet, historian, dramatist, translator, publicist, Jesuit and Roman Catholic bishop.

Roman Abraham

Roman Abraham 13 Roman Józef Abraham was a Polish cavalry general, commander of the Wielkopolska Cavalry Brigade during the German and Soviet Invasion of Poland in September 1939, and Battle of Bzura commander of Polish cavalry. During the Second Polish Republic, he was Brigadier-General and, for a short period, from 1930 to 1931, Abraham was also a member of the Polish Parliament.

Danuta Siedzikówna

Danuta Siedzikówna 13 Danuta Helena Siedzikówna was a Polish medical orderly in the 4th Squadron of the 5th Wilno Brigade of the Home Army. In 1946 she served with the Brigade's 1st Squadron in Poland's Pomerania region. Considered a national heroine, she was captured, tortured and sentenced to death at the age of 17 by the communist authorities.

Józef Kustroń

Józef Kustroń 13 Józef Rudolf Kustroń was a brigadier general of the Polish Army in the Second Polish Republic, commandant of the 21st Mountain Infantry Division. He was the first Polish general to die during the German invasion of Poland, and the second general officer casualty of the campaign overall; the first was Wilhelm Fritz von Roettig.

Anna Walentynowicz

Anna Walentynowicz 13 Anna Walentynowicz was a Polish free trade union activist and co-founder of Solidarity, the first non-communist trade union in the Eastern Bloc. Her firing from her job at the Lenin Shipyard in Gdańsk in August 1980 was the event that ignited the strike at the shipyard, set off a wave of strikes across Poland, and quickly paralyzed the Baltic coast. The Interfactory Strike Committee (MKS) based in the Gdańsk shipyard eventually transformed itself into Solidarity; by September, more than one million workers were on strike in support of the 21 demands of MKS, making it the largest strike ever.

Christopher Columbus

Christopher Columbus 13 Christopher Columbus was an Italian explorer and navigator from the Republic of Genoa who completed four Spanish-based voyages across the Atlantic Ocean sponsored by the Catholic Monarchs, opening the way for the widespread European exploration and European colonization of the Americas. His expeditions were the first known European contact with the Caribbean and Central and South America.

Stanisław Sosabowski

Stanisław Sosabowski 13 Stanisław Franciszek Sosabowski was a Polish general in World War II. He fought in the Polish Campaign of 1939 and at the Battle of Arnhem (Netherlands), as a part of Operation Market Garden, in 1944 as commander of the Polish 1st Independent Parachute Brigade.

Aleksander Kostka Napierski

Aleksander Kostka Napierski 13 Aleksander Leon Kostka-Napierski (1620–1651), Polish captain during the Thirty Years' War in Swedish service, participant of battle in Germany and organizer of the Kostka-Napierski Uprising. According to the historian prof. Paweł Wieczorkiewicz, Napierski was in service to Khmelnytsky. Professor of History Janusz Tazbir was of a similar opinion. However, other historians, such as Adam Kersten, cautiously connect Kostka-Napierski with the Swedish king, with Khmelnytsky, or with the court of Rákóczi.

Edmund Bojanowski

Edmund Bojanowski 13 Edmund Bojanowski was a Polish Roman Catholic and the founder of four separate religious congregations. He studied art and literature during his education in Breslau and Berlin before distinguishing himself during a cholera epidemic in which he tended to the ill. Bojanowski founded several orphanages and libraries for the poor and even worked in them to provide for those people. But his main desire was to enter the priesthood: ill health blocked this once and his own death prevented his second attempt after his deteriorating health forced him to stop his ecclesial studies.

Vladimir Mayakovsky

Vladimir Mayakovsky 13 Vladimir Vladimirovich Mayakovsky was a Russian and Soviet poet, playwright, artist, and actor.     

Jan Ostroróg

Jan Ostroróg 13 Jan Ostroróg (1436–1501) was a Polish political writer, voivode of Poznan and adviser to the Polish kings Casimir IV Jagiellon and John I Albert.

Czesław Tański

Czesław Tański 13 Czesław Aleksy Tański – polski artysta malarz, wynalazca, konstruktor lotniczy, pionier szybownictwa i popularyzator lotnictwa w Polsce. Nazywany jest ojcem polskiego lotnictwa.

Mariusz Zaruski

Mariusz Zaruski 13 Mariusz Zaruski was a brigadier-general in the Polish Army, a pioneer of Polish sports yachting, an outstanding climber of the winter and caves of Tatra Mountains. He was a photographer, painter, poet and writer, a seamen and traveler, a conspirator, legionnaire and lancer in Polish cavalry.

Józef Mehoffer

Józef Mehoffer 13 Józef Mehoffer was a Polish painter and decorative artist, one of the leading artists of the Young Poland movement and one of the most revered Polish artists of his time.

Bernard Sychta

Bernard Sychta 13 Bernard Sychta – ksiądz katolicki, działacz kaszubski, etnograf, językoznawca, dramatopisarz, autor 7-tomowego Słownika gwar kaszubskich na tle kultury ludowej.

Pyotr Bardovsky

Pyotr Bardovsky 13 Pyotr Vasilevich Bardovsky was a Russian lawyer and a supporter of independence for Poland. He was executed for his connection to Polish revolutionaries.

Stanisław Stojałowski

Stanisław Stojałowski 13 Stanisław Stojałowski, herbu Sternberg – polski duchowny katolicki, prałat, polityk, poseł na sejm galicyjski i do parlamentu austriackiego, zwolennik panslawizmu i agraryzmu, wydawca pism ludowych: „Wieniec” i „Pszczółka”, propagator haseł: oddzielenia Kościoła od państwa, parcelacji wielkiej własności ziemskiej, bezpłatnego szkolnictwa i wyboru hierarchów kościelnych przez wiernych, w 1896 ekskomunikowany przez Kościół rzymskokatolicki, rok później ekskomunikę cofnięto. Jeden z prekursorów i pierwszych przywódców ruchu ludowego i chrześcijańsko-społecznego.

Alfons Zgrzebniok

Alfons Zgrzebniok 13 Alfons Alfred Zgrzebniok was a Polish teacher, activist, and politician from Silesia. He was one of the cofounders of the Silesian Insurgent Association in the early 1920s and also helped organize the Association for Defense of the Western Border and the Committee for the Defense of Upper Silesia. He commanded the Polish-Silesian forces in both the First and Second Silesian Uprising. He was the recipient of several awards and several schools and other landmarks in Poland are named after him. He has also been the subject of a number of poems and songs.

Józef Wieczorek (polityk)

Józef Wieczorek (polityk) 13 Józef Wieczorek, pseud. Ryszard – działacz komunistyczny, powstaniec, poseł na Sejm Śląski II kadencji (1930), współzałożyciel PPR.

Halina Poświatowska

Halina Poświatowska 13 Halina Poświatowska was a Polish poet and writer.                                                   

Arkady Fiedler

Arkady Fiedler 13 Arkady Fiedler was a Polish writer, journalist and adventurer.                                     

Saint Valentine

Saint Valentine 13 Saint Valentine was a 3rd-century Roman saint, commemorated in Western Christianity on February 14 and in Eastern Orthodoxy on July 6. From the High Middle Ages, his feast day has been associated with a tradition of courtly love. He is also a patron saint of Terni, epilepsy and beekeepers. Saint Valentine was a clergyman – either a priest or a bishop – in the Roman Empire who ministered to persecuted Christians. He was martyred and his body buried on the Via Flaminia on February 14, which has been observed as the Feast of Saint Valentine since at least the eighth century.

Maria Pawlikowska-Jasnorzewska

Maria Pawlikowska-Jasnorzewska 13 Maria Pawlikowska-Jasnorzewska, née Kossak, was a Polish poet. She was known as the "Polish Sappho" and "queen of lyrical poetry" during Poland's interwar period. She was also a dramatist.

Jerzy Szaniawski

Jerzy Szaniawski 13 Jerzy Szaniawski was a Polish writer, playwright, and essayist; an elected member of the prestigious Polish Academy of Literature in the interwar period. He is best remembered for his series of short stories about the fictitious Professor Tutka, published in daily press in postwar Poland. During Stalinism his writing was temporarily banned as "ideologically adverse".

Sigismund III Vasa

Sigismund III Vasa 13 Sigismund III Vasa was King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1587 to 1632 and, as Sigismund, King of Sweden and Grand Duke of Finland from 1592 to 1599. He was the first Polish sovereign from the House of Vasa. Religiously zealous, he imposed Roman Catholicism across the vast realm, and his crusades against neighbouring states marked Poland's largest territorial expansion. As an enlightened despot, he presided over an era of prosperity and achievement, further distinguished by the transfer of the country's capital from Kraków to Warsaw.

Zygmunt Padlewski

Zygmunt Padlewski 12 Zygmunt Padlewski (1836–1863) was a Polish insurgent who participated in the January Uprising. He was one of the leaders of the "Red" faction among the insurrectionists as a member of the Central National Committee and the Provisional National Government.

Paweł Jasienica

Paweł Jasienica 12 Paweł Jasienica was the pen name of Leon Lech Beynar, a Polish historian, journalist, essayist and soldier.

Maksymilian Jackowski

Maksymilian Jackowski 12 Maksymilian Jackowski was a Polish activist, secretary-general of the Central Economic Society, patron of the agricultural circles.

Charles Darwin

Charles Darwin 12 Charles Robert Darwin was an English naturalist, geologist and biologist, widely known for his contributions to evolutionary biology. His proposition that all species of life have descended from a common ancestor is now generally accepted and considered a fundamental concept in science. In a joint publication with Alfred Russel Wallace, he introduced his scientific theory that this branching pattern of evolution resulted from a process he called natural selection, in which the struggle for existence has a similar effect to the artificial selection involved in selective breeding. Darwin has been described as one of the most influential figures in human history and was honoured by burial in Westminster Abbey.

Matthias the Apostle

Matthias the Apostle 12 Matthias was, according to the Acts of the Apostles, chosen by God through the apostles to replace Judas Iscariot following the latter's betrayal of Jesus and his subsequent death. His calling as an apostle is unique, in that his appointment was not made personally by Jesus, who had already ascended into heaven, and it was also made before the descent of the Holy Spirit upon the early Church.

Johann Sebastian Bach

Johann Sebastian Bach 12 Johann Sebastian Bach was a German composer and musician of the late Baroque period. He is known for his prolific authorship of music across a variety of instruments and forms, including; orchestral music such as the Brandenburg Concertos; solo instrumental works such as the cello suites and sonatas and partitas for solo violin; keyboard works such as the Goldberg Variations and The Well-Tempered Clavier; organ works such as the Schubler Chorales and the Toccata and Fugue in D minor; and choral works such as the St Matthew Passion and the Mass in B minor. Since the 19th-century Bach Revival, he has been generally regarded as one of the greatest composers in the history of Western music.

Jan Lechoń

Jan Lechoń 12 Leszek Józef Serafinowicz was a Polish poet, literary and theater critic, diplomat, and co-founder of the Skamander literary movement and the Polish Institute of Arts and Sciences of America.

Grzegorz Fitelberg

Grzegorz Fitelberg 12 Grzegorz Fitelberg was a Polish conductor, violinist and composer. He was a member of the Young Poland group, together with artists such as Karol Szymanowski, Ludomir Różycki and Mieczysław Karłowicz.

Andrew Bobola

Andrew Bobola 12 Andrew Bobola, SJ was a Polish missionary and martyr of the Society of Jesus, known as the Apostle of Lithuania and the "hunter of souls". He was beaten and tortured to death during the Khmelnytsky Uprising. He was canonized in 1938 by Pope Pius XI.

Saint Casimir

Saint Casimir 12 Casimir Jagiellon was a prince of the Kingdom of Poland and of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. The second son of King Casimir IV Jagiellon, he was tutored by Johannes Longinus, a Polish chronicler and diplomat. After his elder brother Vladislaus was elected as King of Bohemia in 1471, Casimir became the heir apparent. At the age of 13, Casimir participated in the failed military campaign to install him as King of Hungary. He became known for his piety, devotion to God, and generosity towards the sick and poor. He became ill and died at the age of 25. He was buried in Vilnius Cathedral. His canonization was initiated by his brother King Sigismund I the Old in 1514 and the tradition holds that he was canonized in 1521.

Piast the Wheelwright

Piast the Wheelwright 12 Piast the Wheelwright was a legendary figure in medieval Poland, the progenitor of the Piast dynasty that ruled Kingdom of Poland.

Maria Kownacka

Maria Kownacka 12 Maria Kownacka (1894–1982) was a Polish writer, translator and editor, specializing in children's literature. She was a long-time writer of Płomyk. Her best-known work is the series of books about "Plastuś", that began with Plastusiowy pamiętnik (1936).

Kazimierz Deyna

Kazimierz Deyna 12 Kazimierz Deyna was a Polish professional footballer who played as an attacking midfielder in the playmaker role and was one of the most highly regarded players of his generation, due to his excellent vision.

Jan Tarnowski

Jan Tarnowski 12 Jan Amor Tarnowski was a Polish nobleman, knight, military commander, military theoretician, and statesman of the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland. He was Grand Crown Hetman from 1527, and was the founder of the city of Tarnopol, where he built the Ternopil Castle and the Ternopil Pond. The first Count of the Holy Roman Empire in the Tarnowski family (1547).

Witold Małcużyński

Witold Małcużyński 12 Witold Małcużyński was a distinguished Polish pianist who specialized in the works of Frédéric Chopin.

Mestwin II, Duke of Pomerania

Mestwin II, Duke of Pomerania 12 Mestwin II was a Duke of Pomerelia, member of the Samborides dynasty. He ruled Pomerelia as a sole ruler from 1273 to 1294.

John the Baptist

John the Baptist 12 John the Baptist was a Jewish preacher active in the area of the Jordan River in the early 1st century AD. He is also known as Saint John the Forerunner in Eastern Orthodoxy, John the Immerser in some Baptist Christian traditions, Saint John by certain Catholic churches, and Prophet Yahya in Islam. He is sometimes alternatively referred to as John the Baptiser.

Galileo Galilei

Galileo Galilei 12 Galileo di Vincenzo Bonaiuti de' Galilei, commonly referred to as Galileo Galilei or simply Galileo, was an Italian astronomer, physicist and engineer, sometimes described as a polymath. He was born in the city of Pisa, then part of the Duchy of Florence. Galileo has been called the father of observational astronomy, modern-era classical physics, the scientific method, and modern science.

Stanisław Ligoń

Stanisław Ligoń 12 Stanisław Ligoń, ps. Karlik z Kocyndra – polski pisarz, malarz, ilustrator, działacz kulturalny i narodowy, reżyser, aktor.

Włodzimierz Puchalski

Włodzimierz Puchalski 12 Włodzimierz Puchalski was a Polish photographer and film director. He was a pioneer of wildlife film-making in Poland and became famous for publishing his album "Bezkrwawe łowy" in 1954.

Kazimiera Iłłakowiczówna

Kazimiera Iłłakowiczówna 12 Kazimiera Iłłakowiczówna was a Polish poet, prose writer, playwright and translator. She was one of the most acclaimed and celebrated poets during Poland's interwar period.

Edward Stachura

Edward Stachura 12 Edward Stachura was a Polish poet, writer and translator. He rose to prominence in the 1960s, receiving prizes for both poetry and prose. His literary output includes four volumes of poetry, three collections of short stories, two novels, a book of essays, and the final work, Fabula rasa, which is difficult to classify. In addition to writing, Stachura translated literature from Spanish and French, most notably works of Jorge Luis Borges, Gaston Miron and Michel Deguy. He also wrote songs, and occasionally performed them. He died by suicide at the age of forty-one. 

Aleksander Świętochowski

Aleksander Świętochowski 11 Aleksander Świętochowski was a Polish writer, educator, and philosopher of the Positivist period that followed the January 1863 Uprising.

Stanisław Noakowski

Stanisław Noakowski 11 Stanisław Noakowski was a Polish architect, watercolorist and art historian. His work was part of the painting event in the art competition at the 1928 Summer Olympics.

Ryszard Kaczorowski

Ryszard Kaczorowski 11 Ryszard Kaczorowski, GCMG was a Polish statesman. From 1989 to 1990, he served as the last President of Poland-in-exile. He succeeded Kazimierz Sabbat, and resigned his post following Poland's regaining independence from the Soviet sphere of influence and the election of Lech Wałęsa as the first democratically elected President of Poland since before the Second World War. He died on 10 April 2010 in the plane crash near Smolensk, Russia, along with the President of Poland Lech Kaczyński and other senior government officials.

Emilia Sczaniecka

Emilia Sczaniecka 11 Emilia Sczaniecka herbu Ossoria – polska działaczka społeczna i narodowościowa, zasłużyła się m.in. pomocą niesioną rannym w czasie powstania listopadowego (1830–1831) w Królestwie Polskim.

Ferdinand Foch

Ferdinand Foch 11 Ferdinand Foch was a French general, Marshal of France and member of the Académie Française. He distinguished himself as Supreme Allied Commander on the Western Front during the First World War in 1918.

Jakub Wejher

Jakub Wejher 11 Jakub Wejher, was a member of the Polish line of the Weyher family, a Count of the Holy Roman Empire and member of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth szlachta (nobility). His coat of arms was Wejher. Wejher was the Castellan of Puck and Voivode of Malbork (Marienburg) from 1643–1657, the Castellan of Chmielno, and the Starost of Człuchów, Kiszporek, Bychów and Brzechowo. He is remembered as a pious and tolerant magnate and an experienced military leader.

Jan Stanisławski (painter)

Jan Stanisławski (painter) 11 Jan Grzegorz Stanisławski was a Polish modernist painter, art educator, and founder and member of various innovative art groups and literary societies. In 1906 he became a full professor at the Academy of Fine Arts in Kraków.

Ludwik Idzikowski

Ludwik Idzikowski 11 Ludwik Idzikowski was a Polish military aviator. He died during a transatlantic flight trial.       

Konrad Wallenrod

Konrad Wallenrod 11 Konrad Wallenrod is an 1828 narrative poem, in Polish, by Adam Mickiewicz, set in the 14th-century Grand Duchy of Lithuania.

Henryk Arctowski

Henryk Arctowski 11 Henryk Arctowski, born Henryk Artzt, was a Polish scientist and explorer.                           

Józef Czechowicz

Józef Czechowicz 11 Józef Czechowicz was an avant-garde Polish poet. Known as a nostalgic, catastrophic author, he was also the leader of the literary avant-garde and bohemians in Lublin. For this visionary poet, verse seemed to be a question of imagination; he would play with word consonances, dreamlike associations, musicality, and create picturesque visions. Czechowicz lived and worked in Lublin before moving to Warsaw; he also died in Lublin, a few days after World War II had started.

Wojciech Gerson

Wojciech Gerson 11 Wojciech Gerson was a leading Polish painter of the mid-19th century, and one of the foremost representatives of the Polish school of Realism during the foreign Partitions of Poland. He served as long-time professor of the School of Fine Arts in Warsaw, and taught future luminaries of Polish neo-romanticism including Józef Chełmoński, Leon Wyczółkowski, Władysław Podkowiński, Józef Pankiewicz and Anna Bilińska-Bohdanowiczowa among others. He also wrote art-reviews and published a book of anatomy for the artists. A large number of his paintings were stolen by Nazi Germany in World War II, and never recovered.

Józef Brandt

Józef Brandt 11 Józef Brandt was a Polish painter, a representative of the Munich School, best known for his paintings of battles.

Zygmunt Gloger

Zygmunt Gloger 11 Zygmunt Gloger was a Polish historian, archaeologist, geographer and ethnographer, bearer of the Wilczekosy coat of arms. Gloger founded the precursor of modern and widely popular Polish Tourist and Sightseeing Society (PTTK).

Zofia Kossak-Szczucka

Zofia Kossak-Szczucka 11 Zofia Kossak-Szczucka was a Polish writer and World War II resistance fighter. She co-founded two wartime Polish organizations: Front for the Rebirth of Poland and Żegota, set up to assist Polish Jews to escape the Holocaust. In 1943, she was arrested by the Germans and sent to Auschwitz concentration camp, but survived the war.

John I Albert

John I Albert 11 John I Albert was King of Poland from 1492 to his death and Duke of Głogów from 1491 to 1498. He was the fourth Polish sovereign from the Jagiellonian dynasty and the son of Casimir IV and Elizabeth of Austria.

Józef Szafranek

Józef Szafranek 11 Józef Szafranek, właśc. Joseph Schaffranek – śląski ksiądz katolicki, działacz społeczny, polityczny, tłumacz, autor i wydawca. W latach 1840–1874 proboszcz parafii Wniebowzięcia Najświętszej Maryi Panny w Bytomiu.

Andrzej Mielęcki

Andrzej Mielęcki 11 Andrzej Mielęcki herbu Ciołek – polski działacz społeczny i polityczny na Górnym Śląsku, lekarz.   

John Cantius

John Cantius 11 John Cantius was a Polish Catholic priest, scholastic philosopher, physicist and theologian.       

Louis Pasteur

Louis Pasteur 11 Louis Pasteur was a French chemist, pharmacist, and microbiologist renowned for his discoveries of the principles of vaccination, microbial fermentation, and pasteurization, the last of which was named after him. His research in chemistry led to remarkable breakthroughs in the understanding of the causes and preventions of diseases, which laid down the foundations of hygiene, public health and much of modern medicine. Pasteur's works are credited with saving millions of lives through the developments of vaccines for rabies and anthrax. He is regarded as one of the founders of modern bacteriology and has been honored as the "father of bacteriology" and the "father of microbiology".

Jan Cybis

Jan Cybis 11 Jan Cybis was a prominent Polish painter and art teacher.                                           

Gustaw Orlicz-Dreszer

Gustaw Orlicz-Dreszer 11 Gustaw Konstanty Orlicz-Dreszer was a Polish general, and a political and social activist.         

Tadeusz Rozwadowski

Tadeusz Rozwadowski 11 Count Tadeusz Jordan-Rozwadowski was a Polish military commander, diplomat, and politician, a general of the Austro-Hungarian Army and then the Polish Army.

Bartholomew the Apostle

Bartholomew the Apostle 11 Bartholomew was one of the twelve apostles of Jesus according to the New Testament. Most scholars today identify Bartholomew as Nathanael or Nathaniel, who appears in the Gospel of John.

Andrew the Apostle

Andrew the Apostle 11 Andrew the Apostle, also called Saint Andrew, was an apostle of Jesus. According to the New Testament, he was a fisherman and one of the Twelve Apostles chosen by Jesus. The title First-Called stems from the Gospel of John, where Andrew, initially a disciple of John the Baptist, follows Jesus and, recognizing him as the Messiah, introduces his brother Simon Peter to him.

Peter and Wendy

Peter and Wendy 11 Peter Pan; or, the Boy Who Wouldn't Grow Up, often known simply as Peter Pan, is a work by J. M. Barrie, in the form of a 1904 play and a 1911 novel titled Peter and Wendy, often extended in Peter Pan and Wendy. Both versions tell the story of Peter Pan, a mischievous little boy who can fly, and has many adventures on the island of Neverland that is inhabited by mermaids, fairies, Native Americans, and pirates. The Peter Pan stories also involve the characters Wendy Darling and her two brothers John and Michael, Peter's fairy Tinker Bell, the Lost Boys, and the pirate Captain Hook. The play and novel were inspired by Barrie's friendship with the Llewelyn Davies family.

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart 11 Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was a prolific and influential composer of the Classical period. Despite his short life, his rapid pace of composition resulted in more than 800 works representing virtually every Western classical genre of his time. Many of these compositions are acknowledged as pinnacles of the symphonic, concertante, chamber, operatic, and choral repertoire. Mozart is widely regarded as being one of the greatest composers in the history of Western music, with his music admired for its "melodic beauty, its formal elegance and its richness of harmony and texture".

Benedykt Dybowski

Benedykt Dybowski 11 Benedykt Tadeusz Dybowski was a Polish naturalist and physician.                                   

Sigismund I the Old

Sigismund I the Old 11 Sigismund I the Old was King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1506 until his death in 1548. Sigismund I was a member of the Jagiellonian dynasty, the son of Casimir IV and younger brother of Kings John I Albert and Alexander I Jagiellon. He was nicknamed "the Old" in later historiography to distinguish him from his son and successor, Sigismund II Augustus. Before ascending to the Polish and Lithuanian thrones, he was Duke of Głogów from 1499, Duke of Opava from 1501, and governor of Silesia from 1504 on behalf of his brother, King Vladislaus II of Bohemia and Hungary.

Tadeusz Ślusarski

Tadeusz Ślusarski 11 Tadeusz Ślusarski was a Polish Olympic gold medalist in pole vault at the 1976 Olympics, as well as a silver medalist at the 1980 Olympics.

Józef Tischner

Józef Tischner 11 Józef Stanisław Tischner was a Polish priest and philosopher. The first chaplain of the trade union, "Solidarity".

Edmund Taczanowski

Edmund Taczanowski 11 Edmund Taczanowski was a Polish general, insurrectionist, member of the Taczanowski magnate dynasty, and Lord of the estate of Choryń in the province of Poznań.

Krzysztof Komeda

Krzysztof Komeda 11 Krzysztof Trzciński, known professionally as Krzysztof Komeda, was a Polish film music composer and jazz pianist. Perhaps best known for his work in film scores, Komeda wrote the scores for Roman Polanski’s films Knife in the Water (1962), Cul-de-sac (1966), The Fearless Vampire Killers (1967), and Rosemary’s Baby (1968). Komeda's album Astigmatic (1965) is often considered one of the most important European jazz albums. British critic Stuart Nicholson describes the album as "marking a shift away from the dominant American approach with the emergence of a specific European aesthetic."

Stanisław Gabriel Worcell

Stanisław Gabriel Worcell 10 Stanisław Gabriel Worcell was a socialist Polish revolutionary.                                     

Jan Pietrusiński

Jan Pietrusiński 10 Jan Pietrusiński – tkacz, działacz ruchu robotniczego.                                             

Tomasz Nocznicki

Tomasz Nocznicki 10 Tomasz Nocznicki, ps. Paweł spod Grójca, Tomasz Wiejski – polski działacz ruchu ludowego i niepodległościowego, publicysta, współzałożyciel „Zarania”, poseł na Sejm i senator. Minister bez teki w rządzie Jędrzeja Moraczewskiego.

Leopold Lis-Kula

Leopold Lis-Kula 10 Leopold Lis-Kula was a Colonel of Infantry of the Polish Army, and recipient of the Virtuti Militari. Lis Kula was born on November 11, 1896, in the village of Kosina near Łańcut, and died on March 7, 1919, in the village of Torczyn near Lutsk, Volhynia, during the Polish–Ukrainian War.

Ludwik Rydygier

Ludwik Rydygier 10 Ludwik Antoni Rydygier was a Polish surgeon, professor of medicine, rector of the University of Lwów and Brigadier General of the Polish Army. He was one of the most distinguished Polish and worldwide known surgeons in the late 19th and early 20th century.

Jan Parandowski

Jan Parandowski 10 Jan Parandowski was a Polish writer, essayist, and translator. Best known for his works relating to classical antiquity, he was also the president of the Polish PEN Club between 1933 and 1978, with a break during World War II. He was born in Lwów, and died in Warsaw.

Robert Koch

Robert Koch 10 Heinrich Hermann Robert Koch was a German physician and microbiologist. As the discoverer of the specific causative agents of deadly infectious diseases including tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax, he is regarded as one of the main founders of modern bacteriology. As such he is popularly nicknamed the father of microbiology, and as the father of medical bacteriology. His discovery of the anthrax bacterium in 1876 is considered as the birth of modern bacteriology. Koch used his discoveries to establish that germs "could cause a specific disease" and directly provided proofs for the germ theory of diseases, therefore creating the scientific basis of public health, saving millions of lives. For his life's work Koch is seen as one of the founders of modern medicine.

Stefan Drzewiecki

Stefan Drzewiecki 10 Stefan Drzewiecki was a Polish scientist, journalist, engineer, constructor and inventor, known for designing and constructing the world's first electric-powered submarine. He worked mainly in France and the Russian Empire.

Karol Kniaziewicz

Karol Kniaziewicz 10 Baron Karol Otto Kniaziewicz was a Polish general and political activist.                           

Fryderyk Skarbek

Fryderyk Skarbek 10 Fryderyk Florian Skarbek, a member of the Polish nobility, was an economist, novelist, historian, social activist, administrator, politician, and penologist who designed the Pawiak Prison of World War II ill fame.

Ludwik Hirszfeld

Ludwik Hirszfeld 10 Ludwik Hirszfeld was a Polish microbiologist and serologist. He is considered a co-discoverer of the inheritance of ABO blood types.

Maria Zientara-Malewska

Maria Zientara-Malewska 10 Maria Zientara-Malewska – poetka, nauczycielka i działaczka warmińska. Budownicza Polski Ludowej.   

Józef Rostek

Józef Rostek 10 Józef Rostek – polski lekarz w Raciborzu, znany działacz społeczny Górnego Śląska, założyciel kilku stowarzyszeń polskich.

Jan Zygmunt Skrzynecki

Jan Zygmunt Skrzynecki 10 Jan Zygmunt Skrzynecki was a Polish general, and commander-in-chief of the November Uprising (1830–1831).

Edward Rydz-Śmigły

Edward Rydz-Śmigły 10 Marshal Edward Rydz-Śmigły, also called Edward Śmigły-Rydz, was a Polish politician, statesman, Marshal of Poland and Commander-in-Chief of Poland's armed forces, as well as a painter and poet.

Irena Sendler

Irena Sendler 10 Irena Stanisława Sendler (née Krzyżanowska), also referred to as Irena Sendlerowa in Poland, nom de guerre Jolanta, was a Polish humanitarian, social worker, and nurse who served in the Polish Underground Resistance during World War II in German-occupied Warsaw. From October 1943 she was head of the children's section of Żegota, the Polish Council to Aid Jews.

Lucjan Żeligowski

Lucjan Żeligowski 10 Lucjan Żeligowski was a Polish-Lithuanian general, politician, military commander and veteran of World War I, the Polish-Soviet War and World War II. He is mostly remembered for his role in Żeligowski's Mutiny and as head of a short-lived Republic of Central Lithuania.

Halina Konopacka

Halina Konopacka 10 Halina Konopacka was a Polish athlete. She won the discus throw event at the 1928 Summer Olympics, defeating American silver medal winner Lillian Copeland, breaking her own world record, and becoming the first Polish Olympic champion. After retiring from athletics she became a writer and poet. She immigrated to the United States after World War II, and died there.

Władysław Komar

Władysław Komar 10 Władysław Stefan Komar was a Polish shot putter, actor and cabaretist. Competing in three Summer Olympics between 1964 and 1972, he won the gold medal at the Munich Games in 1972 with a throw of 21.18 metres. His nickname was "King Kong" Komar as attributed to a Sports Illustrated article.

Władysław Podkowiński

Władysław Podkowiński 10 Władysław Podkowiński was a Polish master painter and illustrator associated with the Young Poland movement during the Partition period.

Henryk Dembiński

Henryk Dembiński 10 Henryk Dembiński was a Polish engineer, traveler and general.                                       

Jan Kozietulski

Jan Kozietulski 10 Baron Jan Leon Hipolit Kozietulski was a Polish noble, military commander and an officer of the armed forces of the Duchy of Warsaw during the Napoleonic Wars. He is best remembered as the heroic commander of the Polish cavalry charge at the Battle of Somosierra.

Mieczysław Jastrun

Mieczysław Jastrun 10 Mieczysław Jastrun born Mojsze Agatstein was a Polish poet and essayist of Jewish origin. The main themes of his poetry are philosophy and morality. He translated French, Russian, and German poetry to Polish.

Ignacy Solarz

Ignacy Solarz 10 Ignacy Solarz, ps. Chrzestny – polski pedagog, działacz ruchu ludowego i spółdzielczego, założyciel Związku Młodzieży Wiejskiej RP i uniwersytetów ludowych.

Hanka Ordonówna

Hanka Ordonówna 10 Hanka Ordonówna or Ordonka was a Polish singer, dancer and actress.                                 

Henryk Górecki

Henryk Górecki 10 Henryk Mikołaj Górecki was a Polish composer of contemporary classical music. According to critic Alex Ross, no recent classical composer has had as much commercial success as Górecki. He became a leading figure of the Polish avant-garde during the post-Stalin cultural thaw. His Anton Webern-influenced serialist works of the 1950s and 1960s were characterized by adherence to dissonant modernism and influenced by Luigi Nono, Karlheinz Stockhausen, Krzysztof Penderecki and Kazimierz Serocki. He continued in this direction throughout the 1960s, but by the mid-1970s had changed to a less complex sacred minimalist sound, exemplified by the transitional Symphony No. 2 and the Symphony No. 3. This later style developed through several other distinct phases, from such works as his 1979 Beatus Vir, to the 1981 choral hymn Miserere, the 1993 Kleines Requiem für eine Polka and his requiem Good Night.

George Washington

George Washington 9 George Washington was an American Founding Father, military officer, and politician who served as the first president of the United States from 1789 to 1797. Appointed by the Second Continental Congress as commander of the Continental Army in 1775, Washington led Patriot forces to victory in the American Revolutionary War and then served as president of the Constitutional Convention in 1787, which drafted and ratified the Constitution of the United States and established the U.S. federal government. Washington has thus become commonly known as the "Father of his Country".

Ignacy Potocki

Ignacy Potocki 9 Count Roman Ignacy Potocki, generally known as Ignacy Potocki, was a Polish nobleman, member of the influential magnate Potocki family, owner of Klementowice and Olesin, a politician, statesman, writer, and office holder. He was the Marshal of the Permanent Council in 1778–1782, Grand Clerk of Lithuania from 1773, Court Marshal of Lithuania from 1783, Grand Marshal of Lithuania from 16 April 1791 to 1794.

Franciszek Ratajczak

Franciszek Ratajczak 9 Franciszek Ratajczak – polski wojskowy i działacz niepodległościowy. Pierwszy powstaniec wielkopolski poległy w walce.

Paweł Włodkowic

Paweł Włodkowic 9 Paweł Włodkowic was a Polish scholar, jurist, statesman and rector of the Kraków Academy. He advocated a form of religious tolerance and defended Poland and native non-Christian tribes against the Teutonic Knights and the crusading movement in general.

Zbyszko z Bogdańca

Zbyszko z Bogdańca 9 Zbyszko z Bogdańca – pierwszoplanowa postać literacka z powieści Krzyżacy Henryka Sienkiewicza.     

Klemens Janicki

Klemens Janicki 9 Klemens Janicki (1516–1543) was one of the most outstanding Latin poets of the 16th century.       

Tomasz Judym

Tomasz Judym 9 Tomasz Judym – fikcyjna postać literacka, główny bohater powieści Stefana Żeromskiego pt. „Ludzie bezdomni”.

Adam Próchnik

Adam Próchnik 9 Adam Feliks Próchnik was a Polish socialist activist, politician and historian.                     

Krzysztof Celestyn Mrongovius

Krzysztof Celestyn Mrongovius 9 Krzysztof Celestyn Mrongovius was a Protestant pastor, writer, philosopher, distinguished linguist, and translator. Mrongovius was a noted defender of the Polish language in Warmia and Mazury.

Piotr Niedurny

Piotr Niedurny 9 Piotr Niedurny – polski działacz niepodległościowy.                                                 

Leo Tolstoy

Leo Tolstoy 9 Count Lev Nikolayevich Tolstoy, usually referred to in English as Leo Tolstoy, was a Russian writer. He is regarded as one of the greatest and most influential authors of all time. He received nominations for the Nobel Prize in Literature every year from 1902 to 1906 and for the Nobel Peace Prize in 1901, 1902, and 1909.

Marcin Kromer

Marcin Kromer 9 Marcin Kromer was Prince-Bishop of Warmia (Ermland), a Polish cartographer, diplomat and historian in the Kingdom of Poland and later in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. He was a personal secretary to two Kings of Poland, Sigismund I the Old and Sigismund II Augustus.

Ludwik Krzywicki

Ludwik Krzywicki 9 Ludwik Joachim Franciszek Krzywicki was a Polish Marxist anthropologist, economist, and sociologist.

Mikołaj Bołtuć

Mikołaj Bołtuć 9 Mikołaj Bołtuć was a brigadier-general of the Polish Army, commander of the IV Polish infantry Division during World War II.

Władysław Skoczylas

Władysław Skoczylas 9 Władysław Skoczylas was a Polish watercolorist, woodcutter, sculptor and art teacher.               

Karol Lipiński

Karol Lipiński 9 Karol Józef Lipiński was a Polish music composer and virtuoso violinist active during the partitions of Poland. The Karol Lipiński University of Music in Wrocław, Poland is named after him.

August Hlond

August Hlond 9 August Hlond, SDB was a Polish Salesian prelate who served as Archbishop of Poznań and Gniezno and as Primate of Poland. He was later appointed as Archbishop of Gniezno and Warsaw and was made a cardinal of the Catholic Church by Pope Pius XI in 1927.

Alfred Nobel

Alfred Nobel 9 Alfred Bernhard Nobel was a Swedish chemist, inventor, engineer and businessman. He is known for inventing dynamite as well as having bequeathed his fortune to establish the Nobel Prize. He also made several important contributions to science, holding 355 patents in his lifetime.

Maria Kuncewiczowa

Maria Kuncewiczowa 9 Maria Kuncewiczowa was a Polish writer and novelist. Kuncewiczowa's works span from short stories to novels to radio novels to literary diaries.

Krzysztof Arciszewski

Krzysztof Arciszewski 9 Krzysztof Arciszewski was a Polish nobleman, military officer, engineer, and ethnographer. Arciszewski also served as a general of artillery for the Netherlands and Poland.

Michał Grażyński

Michał Grażyński 9 Michał Grażyński was a Polish military leader, social and political activist, doctor of philosophy and law, voivode of the Silesian Voivodeship, Scouting activist and president of Związek Harcerstwa Polskiego.

Tadeusz Banachiewicz

Tadeusz Banachiewicz 9 Tadeusz Julian Banachiewicz was a Polish astronomer, mathematician and geodesist.                   

Leon Kruczkowski

Leon Kruczkowski 9 Leon Kruczkowski was a Polish writer, publicist and public figure. He wrote books and dramas and was prominent in Polish theatre of the post-World War II period. His best known work is the drama Niemcy, written in 1949.

Ryszard Kukliński

Ryszard Kukliński 9 Ryszard Jerzy Kukliński was a Polish Army colonel and Cold War spy for NATO. He was posthumously promoted to brigadier general by Polish President Andrzej Duda.

Jan Aleksander Karłowicz

Jan Aleksander Karłowicz 9 Jan Aleksander Ludwik Karłowicz herbu Ostoja – polski etnograf, muzykolog, językoznawca, folklorysta, członek Akademii Umiejętności, członek honorowy Towarzystwa Muzeum Narodowego Polskiego w Rapperswilu od 1890 roku.

Andrzej Wajda

Andrzej Wajda 9 Andrzej Witold Wajda was a Polish film and theatre director. Recipient of an Honorary Oscar, the Palme d'Or, as well as Honorary Golden Lion and Honorary Golden Bear Awards, he was a prominent member of the "Polish Film School". He was known especially for his trilogy of war films consisting of A Generation (1955), Kanał (1957) and Ashes and Diamonds (1958).

Wacław Sieroszewski

Wacław Sieroszewski 9 Wacław Kajetan Sieroszewski was a Polish writer, Polish Socialist Party activist, and soldier in the World War I-era Polish Legions. For activities subversive of the Russian Empire, he had spent many years in Siberian exile.

Tadeusz Jasiński

Tadeusz Jasiński 9 Tadeusz Jasiński - was one of the young defenders of Grodno in September 1939, after the Soviet invasion of Poland. He was one of the civilians captured and used by the Soviets as "human shields" attached to the armor and tanks.

Aleksander Zawadzki

Aleksander Zawadzki 9 Aleksander Zawadzki, alias Kazik, Wacek, Bronek, One was a Polish communist politician, divisional general of the Polish Army, and the Chairman of the State Council of the Polish People's Republic from 1952 until his death in 1964.

Franciszek Myśliwiec

Franciszek Myśliwiec 9 Franciszek Myśliwiec – polski działacz narodowy na Śląsku Opolskim, prezes Dzielnicy Śląskiej Związku Polaków w Niemczech.

Jurand ze Spychowa

Jurand ze Spychowa 9 Jurand ze Spychowa – fikcyjna postać z powieści Krzyżacy Henryka Sienkiewicza (1887–1900); polski rycerz, który po śmierci swej żony stał się pogromcą odpowiedzialnych za jej zgon Krzyżaków; ojciec Danusi.

Barbara Radziwiłł

Barbara Radziwiłł 9 Barbara Radziwiłł was Queen of Poland and Grand Duchess of Lithuania as consort of Sigismund II Augustus, the last male monarch of the Jagiellon dynasty. Barbara, a great beauty and already widowed, became a royal mistress most likely in 1543 and they married in secret in July or August 1547. The marriage caused a scandal; it was vehemently opposed by Polish nobles, including Queen mother Bona Sforza. Sigismund Augustus, assisted by Barbara's cousin Mikołaj "the Black" Radziwiłł and brother Mikołaj "the Red" Radziwiłł, worked tirelessly to gain recognition of their marriage and to crown Barbara as Queen of Poland. They succeeded and Barbara's coronation was held on 7 December 1550 at Wawel Cathedral. However, her health was already failing and she died just five months later. Even though it was brief, her reign propelled the Radziwiłł family to new heights of political power and influence.

Stanisław Orzechowski

Stanisław Orzechowski 9 Stanisław Orzechowski, also known among others as Stanisław Orżechowski Roxolan, Stanislaus Orichovius Polonus, Stanislaus Orichovius Ruthenus, Stanislaus Okszyc Orzechowski Roxolanus, Stanislas Orzechowski and Stanislaus Orzechowski (1513–1566) was a Polish political writer. The son of a Catholic father and a Ruthenian Orthodox mother, he was a strict Roman Catholic for much of his life but at one stage, probably the 1540s, he appeared to have turned to Protestantism, which he later detracted from. He was highly critical of Protestant reformer Francesco Stancaro and authored a critique of him in around 1550, by which time he had turned his back on the Protestants. He is considered to be an early champion of Polish nationalism and in his writings often defended the Golden Liberty and privileges of the Polish nobility.

Joseph Freiherr von Eichendorff

Joseph Freiherr von Eichendorff 9 Joseph Freiherr von Eichendorff was a German poet, novelist, playwright, literary critic, translator, and anthologist. Eichendorff was one of the major writers and critics of Romanticism. Ever since their publication and up to the present day, some of his works have been very popular in German-speaking Europe.

Bolek and Lolek

Bolek and Lolek 9 Bolek and Lolek, are two Polish cartoon characters from the children's animated comedy television series by the same name. The series was created, written and directed by Władysław Nehrebecki and designed by Nehrebecki, Alfred Ledwig and Leszek Lorek. The series is about two brothers and their fun adventures which often involve spending a lot of time outdoors.

Ewaryst Estkowski

Ewaryst Estkowski 9 Ewaryst Estkowski was a Polish teacher, education activist, and editor of Szkoła Polska magazine. Ewaryst Estkowski died 1856 in Germany Bad Soden am Taunus near Frankfurt Main.

Jan Wiktor (pisarz)

Jan Wiktor (pisarz) 9 Jan Wiktor – polski pisarz, publicysta, dziennikarz, działacz ludowy, poseł na Sejm PRL I kadencji. 

Bronisław Markiewicz

Bronisław Markiewicz 9 Bronisław Markiewicz, SDB was a Polish Roman Catholic priest and a professed member of the Salesians of Don Bosco. Markiewicz established the Congregation of Saint Michael the Archangel that devoted itself to the principles and teachings of John Bosco under the patronage of Saint Michael the Archangel.

Saint Rosalia

Saint Rosalia 9 Rosalia, nicknamed la Santuzza, is the patron saint of Palermo in Italy, Camargo in Chihuahua, and three towns in Venezuela: El Hatillo, Zuata, and El Playón. She is especially important internationally as a saint invoked in times of plague. From 2020 onwards she has been invoked by some citizens of Palermo to protect the city from COVID-19.

Janusz Meissner

Janusz Meissner 8 Janusz Meissner was a Polish writer and journalist, and a pilot of Polish Air Force.               

Mother Teresa

Mother Teresa 8 Mary Teresa Bojaxhiu MC, better known as Mother Teresa, was an Albanian-Indian Catholic nun and the founder of the Missionaries of Charity. Born in Skopje, then part of the Ottoman Empire, at the age of 18 she moved to Ireland and later to India, where she lived most of her life. On 4 September 2016, she was canonised by the Catholic Church as Saint Teresa of Calcutta. The anniversary of her death, 5 September, is her feast day.

Tadeusz Szeligowski

Tadeusz Szeligowski 8 Tadeusz Szeligowski was a Polish composer, educator, lawyer and music organizer. His works include the operas The Rise of the Scholars, Krakatuk and Theodor Gentlemen, the ballets The Peacock and the Girl and Mazepa ballets, two violin concertos, chamber and choral works.

Szymon Szymonowic

Szymon Szymonowic 8 Szymon Szymonowic was a Polish Renaissance poet. He was known as "the Polish Pindar."               

Ryszard Wincenty Berwiński

Ryszard Wincenty Berwiński 8 Ryszard Wincenty Berwiński was a noted Polish poet, translator, folklorist, and nationalist.       

Mieczysław Orłowicz

Mieczysław Orłowicz 8 Mieczysław Emil Orłowicz – polski doktor prawa, urzędnik ministerialny II Rzeczypospolitej i Polski Ludowej, z zamiłowania krajoznawca i popularyzator turystyki. Autor licznych przewodników turystycznych. Założyciel Akademickiego Klubu Turystycznego we Lwowie.

Mieczysław Romanowski

Mieczysław Romanowski 8 Mieczysław Romanowski (1833–1863) was a Polish Romantic poet.                                       

Wacław Potocki

Wacław Potocki 8 Wacław Potocki was a Polish nobleman (szlachcic), moralist, poet, and writer. He was the podczaszy of Kraków from 1678 to 1685. He is remembered as one of the most important Polish baroque artists. His most famous works are: Transakcja wojny chocimskiej and his collection of epigrams, Ogród fraszek. They give a vivid picture of ideas and manners among the szlachta towards the end of the Polish Golden Age, and of many political and religious conflicts.

Marian Smoluchowski

Marian Smoluchowski 8 Marian Smoluchowski was a Polish physicist who worked in the territories of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. He was a pioneer of statistical physics and made significant contributions to the theory of Brownian motion and stochastic processes. He is known for the Smoluchowski equation, Einstein–Smoluchowski relation and Feynman–Smoluchowski ratchet.

Narcyza Żmichowska

Narcyza Żmichowska 8 Narcyza Żmichowska pronounced [narˈt͡sɨza ʐmʲiˈxɔfska], also known under her popular pen name Gabryella, was a Polish novelist and poet. She is considered a precursor of feminism in Poland.

Marcin Borelowski

Marcin Borelowski 8 Marcin Maciej Borelowski, ps. „Lelewel” – polski rzemieślnik, działacz społeczny i patriotyczny, pułkownik w powstaniu styczniowym, komisarz wojenny województwa podlaskiego w maju i czerwcu 1863 roku.

Anton Chekhov

Anton Chekhov 8 Anton Pavlovich Chekhov was a Russian playwright and physician. His career as a playwright produced four classics, and his best short stories are held in high esteem by writers and critics. Along with Henrik Ibsen and August Strindberg, Chekhov is often referred to as one of the three seminal figures in the birth of early modernism in the theatre. Chekhov was a physician by profession. "Medicine is my lawful wife", he once said, "and literature is my mistress."

Walenty Roździeński

Walenty Roździeński 8 Walenty Roździeński − polski hutnik, właściciel kuźni, zarządca hut, poeta i literat epoki baroku. Autor poematu Officina ferraria.

Stanisław Grochowiak

Stanisław Grochowiak 8 Stanisław Antoni Grochowiak, pen-name "Kain" was a Polish poet and dramatist. His is often classified as a representative of turpism, because of his interest in the physical, ugly and brutal, but he also exhibits strong tendencies toward formal, rhymed poetry, reaching on many occasions the ornamental grace of a baroque style. Grochowiak was born in Leszno and died, aged 42, in Warsaw.

Zyndram of Maszkowice

Zyndram of Maszkowice 8 Zyndram z Maszkowic was a Polish 14th and 15th century knight. His coat of arms was Słońce.         

Józef Wajda

Józef Wajda 8 Józef Wajda, polski duchowny rzymskokatolicki, działacz społeczny i narodowy na Górnym Śląsku, poseł do parlamentu Rzeszy (1908–1912) oraz do pruskiego Landtagu (1922–1923).

Casimir II the Just

Casimir II the Just 8 Casimir II the Just was a Lesser Polish Duke of Wiślica from 1166 to 1173, and of Sandomierz after 1173. He became ruler over the Polish Seniorate Province at Kraków and thereby High Duke of Poland in 1177; a position he held until his death, though interrupted once by his elder brother and predecessor Mieszko III. In 1186 Casimir also inherited the Duchy of Masovia from his nephew Leszek, becoming the progenitor of the Masovian branch of the royal Piast dynasty, and great-grandfather of the later Polish king Władysław I the Elbow-high. The honorific title "the Just" was not contemporary and first appeared in the 16th century.

Stefan Szolc-Rogoziński

Stefan Szolc-Rogoziński 8 Stefan Szolc-Rogoziński was a Polish explorer of Africa. He was planning to create a Polish colony in Cameroon.

Francesco Nullo

Francesco Nullo 8 Francesco Nullo was an Italian patriot, military officer and merchant, and a close friend and confidant of Giuseppe Garibaldi. He supported independence movements in Italy and Poland. He was a participant in the Five Days of Milan and other events of the revolutions of 1848 in the Italian states, Sicilian Expedition of the Thousand in 1860 and the Polish January Uprising in 1863. His military career ended with him receiving the rank of general in Poland, shortly before his death in the Battle of Krzykawka.

Pope Urban I

Pope Urban I 8 Pope Urban I, also known as Saint Urban (175?–230), was the bishop of Rome from 222 to 23 May 230. He was born in Rome and succeeded Callixtus I, who had been martyred. It was believed for centuries that Urban I was also martyred. However, recent historical discoveries now lead scholars to believe that he died of natural causes.

Michał Tokarzewski-Karaszewicz

Michał Tokarzewski-Karaszewicz 8 General Michał Tadeusz Tokarzewski-Karaszewicz, Coat of arms of Trąby pseudonym Doktor, Stolarski, Torwid was a Polish general, founder of the resistance movement "Polish Victory Service".

Władysław Żeleński (composer)

Władysław Żeleński (composer) 8 Władysław Marcjan Mikołaj Żeleński was a Polish composer, pianist and organist.                     

Kazimierz Pużak

Kazimierz Pużak 8 Kazimierz Pużak (1883–1950) was a Polish socialist politician of the interwar period. Active in the Polish Socialist Party, he was one of the leaders of the Polish Secret State and Polish resistance, sentenced by the Soviets in the infamous Trial of the Sixteen in 1945.

Gustaw Daniłowski

Gustaw Daniłowski 8 Gustaw Daniłowski, właśc. August Daniłowski, ps. Władysław Orwid – polski pisarz, publicysta, działacz socjalistyczny i niepodległościowy.

Stanisław Koniecpolski

Stanisław Koniecpolski 8 Stanisław Koniecpolski was a Polish military commander, regarded as one of the most talented and capable in the history of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. He was also a magnate, a royal official (starosta), a castellan, a member of the Polish nobility (szlachta), and the voivode (governor) of Sandomierz from 1625 until his death. He led many successful military campaigns against rebelling Cossacks and invading Tatars. From 1618 he held the rank of Field Crown Hetman before becoming the Grand Crown Hetman, the military commander second only to the King, in 1632.

Padre Pio

Padre Pio 8 Pio of Pietrelcina, widely known as Padre Pio, was an Italian Capuchin friar, priest, stigmatist, and mystic. He is venerated as a saint in the Catholic Church, celebrated on 23 September.

Lech Bądkowski

Lech Bądkowski 8 Lech Bądkowski was a Polish writer, journalist, publicist and Kashubian-Pomeranian activist, a promoter of regional history and culture, co-founder and leader of the Kashubian-Pomeranian Association, and opponent of the Communist rules in postwar Poland.

Kazimierz Kruczkowski

Kazimierz Kruczkowski 8 Kazimierz Kruczkowski – major piechoty Wojska Polskiego, w kampanii wrześniowej dowódca II batalionu 94 pułku piechoty rezerwowego oraz dowódca III batalionu 164 pułku piechoty rezerwowego.

Jan Karnowski

Jan Karnowski 8 Jan Karnowski was a Kashubian judge, poet and ideologist of the Young Kashubians movement. He contributed to the development of this movement.

Johannes Kepler

Johannes Kepler 8 Johannes Kepler was a German astronomer, mathematician, astrologer, natural philosopher and writer on music. He is a key figure in the 17th-century Scientific Revolution, best known for his laws of planetary motion, and his books Astronomia nova, Harmonice Mundi, and Epitome Astronomiae Copernicanae, influencing among others Isaac Newton, providing one of the foundations for his theory of universal gravitation. The variety and impact of his work made Kepler one of the founders and fathers of modern astronomy, the scientific method, natural and modern science. He has been described as the "father of science fiction" for his novel Somnium.

Augustyn Necel

Augustyn Necel 8 Augustyn Necel właśc. Netzel – pisarz, najwybitniejszy i najpłodniejszy kaszubski autor powieści historycznych, z zawodu rybak, laureat Medalu Stolema, „kaszubski Sienkiewicz”, zwany też „kronikarzem spod Rozewskiej Blizy”.

Tadeusz Różewicz

Tadeusz Różewicz 8 Tadeusz Różewicz was a Polish poet, playwright, writer, and translator. Różewicz was in the first generation of Polish writers born after Poland regained its independence in 1918, following the century of foreign partitions. He was born in Radomsko, near Łódź, in 1921. He first published his poetry in 1938. During World War II, he served in the Polish underground Home Army. His elder brother, Janusz, also a poet, was executed by the Gestapo in 1944 for serving in the Polish resistance movement. His younger brother, Stanisław, became a noted film director and screenwriter.

Tadeusz Kantor

Tadeusz Kantor 8 Tadeusz Kantor was a Polish painter, assemblage and Happenings artist, set designer and theatre director. Kantor is renowned for his revolutionary theatrical performances in Poland and abroad. Laureate of Witkacy Prize – Critics' Circle Award (1989).

Irena Kosmowska

Irena Kosmowska 8 Irena Kosmowska was a Polish educator and politician. She was one of the first group of women elected to the Legislative Sejm in 1919, serving in parliament until 1930.

Edward Bernard Raczyński

Edward Bernard Raczyński 8 Count Edward Bernard Raczyński was a Polish diplomat, writer, politician, President of Poland-in-exile.

Roch Kowalski

Roch Kowalski 8 Roch Kowalski herbu Korab – postać literacka, bohater powieści Potop Henryka Sienkiewicza, oficer dragonów pana Mieleszki.

Ewa Szelburg-Zarembina

Ewa Szelburg-Zarembina 8 Ewa Szelburg-Zarembina was a Polish novelist, poet and screenplay writer.                           

Florian Marciniak

Florian Marciniak 8 Florian Marciniak was a Polish scoutmaster (harcmistrz), and the first Naczelnik of the paramilitary scouting resistance organization, the Szare Szeregi, during the Second World War.

Klementyna Hoffmanowa

Klementyna Hoffmanowa 8 Klementyna Hoffmanowa, born Klementyna Tańska was a Polish novelist, playwright, editor, translator, teacher and activist. She was the first woman in Poland to support herself from writing and teaching, as well as one of Poland's first writers of children's literature.

Kajetan Koźmian

Kajetan Koźmian 8 Kajetan Koźmian herbu Nałęcz, krypt.: X. – polski prawnik i poeta, reprezentant klasycyzmu, krytyk literacki i teatralny, mason, publicysta, pamiętnikarz, tłumacz; referendarz Rady Stanu Księstwa Warszawskiego w 1811 roku, członek Rady Generalnej Konfederacji Generalnej Królestwa Polskiego w 1812, radca stanu Królestwa Polskiego w 1830 roku, członek Komisji Najwyższej Egzaminacyjnej w Królestwie w 1829 roku, członek Komisji Emerytalnej przy Radzie Stanu w 1829 roku.

Edmund Biernacki

Edmund Biernacki 8 Edmund Faustyn Biernacki was a Polish physician.                                                   

Witold Doroszewski

Witold Doroszewski 8 Witold Doroszewski (1899–1976) was a Polish lexicographer and linguist.                             

Jan Bażyński

Jan Bażyński 8 Hans von Baysen or Jan Bażyński was a Prussian knight and statesman, leader of the Prussian Confederation and the first Polish governor of Royal Prussia.

Sławomir Mrożek

Sławomir Mrożek 8 Sławomir Mrożek was a Polish dramatist, writer and cartoonist.                                     

Józef Chociszewski

Józef Chociszewski 7 Józef Chociszewski – polski redaktor, wydawca, pisarz ludowy, działacz narodowy.                   

Robert Schuman

Robert Schuman 7 Jean-Baptiste Nicolas Robert Schuman was a Luxembourg-born French statesman. Schuman was a Christian democratic political thinker and activist. Twice Prime Minister of France, a reformist Minister of Finance and a Foreign Minister, he was instrumental in building postwar European and trans-Atlantic institutions and was one of the founders of the European Communities, the Council of Europe and NATO. The 1964–1965 academic year at the College of Europe was named in his honour. In 2021, Schuman was declared venerable by Pope Francis in recognition of his acting on Christian principles.

Hubert Wagner

Hubert Wagner 7 Hubert Aleksander Wagner was a Polish volleyball player and coach. He was a member of the Poland national team from 1963 to 1971, a participant in the Mexico 1968 Olympics, and a bronze medallist at the 1967 European Championship. As a head coach, he led Poland to the titles of the 1974 World Champions and the 1976 Olympic Champions.

Emilia Gierczak

Emilia Gierczak 7 Emilia Gierczak was a Polish soldier of the Polish Armed Forces in the East during the Second World War. After being killed in combat, several streets and organisations were subsequently named after her in Poland.

Our Lady of Fátima

Our Lady of Fátima 7 Our Lady of Fátima is a Catholic title of Mary, mother of Jesus, based on the Marian apparitions reported in 1917 by three shepherd children at the Cova da Iria in Fátima, Portugal. The three children were Lúcia dos Santos and her cousins Francisco and Jacinta Marto. José Alves Correia da Silva, Bishop of Leiria, declared the events worthy of belief on 13 October 1930.

Andrzej Małkowski

Andrzej Małkowski 7 Andrzej Juliusz Małkowski was a Polish Scoutmaster (harcmistrz) activist of youth and independence organisations. He and his wife, Olga, are widely regarded as the founders of Scouting in Poland. To honor his name, his troop wrote a song about him called Na Polanie.

Kamila Skolimowska

Kamila Skolimowska 7 Kamila Skolimowska was a Polish hammer thrower. She is best known for her gold medal in the Sydney 2000 Summer Olympics, which made her the youngest Olympic hammer champion, as well as for her two medals from the European Championships. Her personal best throw, and former Polish record, was 76.83 metres, achieved in May 2007 in Doha. She died on 18 February 2009 in Vila Real de Santo António, Portugal at the Polish national team training camp.

Władysław Bandurski

Władysław Bandurski 7 Władysław Bandurski – polski duchowny rzymskokatolicki, doktor, biskup pomocniczy archidiecezji lwowskiej i archidiecezji wileńskiej, honorowy kapelan Legionów Polskich, naczelny kapelan Wojska Litwy Środkowej i przewodniczący Zarządu Oddziału Wileńskiego Związku Harcerstwa Polskiego, kawaler Orderu Virtuti Militari.

Józef Mackiewicz

Józef Mackiewicz 7 Józef Mackiewicz was a Polish writer, novelist and political commentator; best known for his documentary novels Nie trzeba głośno mówić, and Droga donikąd. He staunchly opposed communism, referring to himself as an "anticommunist by nationality". Mackiewicz died in exile. His older brother Stanisław Mackiewicz was also a writer.

Sebastian Klonowic

Sebastian Klonowic 7 Sebastian Fabian Klonowic was a Polish poet, composer and mayor of Lublin.                         

Adam Prazmowski

Adam Prazmowski 7 Adam Józef Ignacy Prażmowski (1821–1885) was a Polish astronomer and astrophysicist of the 19th century. He worked in 1839 to 1850 at the Warsaw Observatory. Among his many discoveries, he discovered the polarized emissions from the Sun's corona in 1860.

Szymon Konarski

Szymon Konarski 7 Szymon Konarski (1808–1839) was a 19th-century Polish-Lithuanian radical democratic politician and revolutionary, one of the leaders of the November Uprising of 1831. As a politician, he supported the radical idea of social and economic equality for all men, as well as the right of political and national liberty and self-governance. Konarski supported the idea of land reform in the form of parceling out aristocratic estates among the poor peasants, and opposed the clergy.

Adam Chętnik

Adam Chętnik 7 Adam Chętnik was a Polish ethnographer who studied the Kurpie. He is the author of several books on the Kurpie residing in Puszcza Zielona. In 1927 he founded Skansen Kurpiowski in Nowogród, an open-air museum dedicated to Kurpie culture. He published over 100 scholarly works. He was also an elected deputy to the Sejm, as well as a member of the Polish Academy of Learning.

Bolesław Krupiński

Bolesław Krupiński 7 Bolesław Krupiński – specjalista w dziedzinie górnictwa, profesor Akademii Górniczo-Hutniczej i Politechniki Śląskiej. Członek korespondent Polskiej Akademii Nauk od 1961 r., członek Polskiego Towarzystwa Geologicznego.

Teodor Axentowicz

Teodor Axentowicz 7 Teodor Axentowicz was a Polish-Armenian painter and university professor. A renowned artist of his times, he was also the rector of the Academy of Fine Arts in Kraków. As an artist, Axentowicz was famous for his portraits and subtle scenes of Hutsul life, set in the Carpathians.

Stanisław Pigoń

Stanisław Pigoń 7 Stanisław Pigoń – historyk literatury polskiej, edytor, wychowawca i pedagog, w latach 1926–1928 rektor Uniwersytetu Stefana Batorego w Wilnie.

Paweł Maria Sapieha

Paweł Maria Sapieha 7 Paweł Maria Sapieha – oficer Wojska Polskiego II RP, podpułkownik Armii Stanów Zjednoczonych, pracownik kontrwywiadu.

Emanuel Konstanty Imiela

Emanuel Konstanty Imiela 7 Emanuel Konstanty Imiela, ps. „Karol Dym” – górnośląski pisarz, urzędnik państwowy, działacz oświatowy i plebiscytowy.

Stefan Żółkiewski

Stefan Żółkiewski 7 Stefan Jakub Żółkiewski was a Polish theoretist, historian of literature and literary critic. He was born and died in Warsaw. He was a co-founder of the Polish Workers' Party, editor-in-chief of Kuźnica (1945–1948), Polityka (1957–1958), Minister of Higher Education (1956–1959), director and professor of Polish Academy of Sciences and professor of Warsaw University.


Sabała 7 Sabała or Sablik was a Goral amateur musician, storyteller and folk singer active in or around the Tatra Mountains. A friend to many renowned Polish artists of the late 19th century, he is featured in numerous Polish works of art of the epoch.

Mordechai Anielewicz

Mordechai Anielewicz 7 Mordechai Anielewicz was the leader of the Jewish Combat Organization during the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising; the largest Jewish resistance movement during the Second World War. Anielewicz inspired further rebellions in both ghettos and extermination camps with his leadership. His character was engraved as a symbol of courage and sacrifice, and was a major figure of Jewish resistance during the Holocaust.

Łukasz Ciepliński

Łukasz Ciepliński 7 Łukasz Ciepliński [Polish pronunciation: [ˈwukaʂ t͡ɕɛˈpliɲskʲi]] was a Polish soldier who fought in the Polish anti-Nazi and anti-communist resistance movements. He used various aliases: Pług, Ostrowski, Ludwik, Grzmot, and Bogdan. Ciepliński was executed at Mokotów Prison in Warsaw, with a shot to the back of the head by the Polish secret police, Urząd Bezpieczeństwa.

Franciszek Fenikowski

Franciszek Fenikowski 7 Franciszek Jan Fenikowski – polski poeta, prozaik, reportażysta, autor popularnych powieści historycznych, legend i baśni regionalnych.

Hedwig of Silesia

Hedwig of Silesia 7 Hedwig of Silesia, also Hedwig of Andechs, a member of the Bavarian comital House of Andechs, was Duchess of Silesia from 1201 and of Greater Poland from 1231 as well as High Duchess consort of Poland from 1232 until 1238. She was canonized by the Catholic Church in 1267 by Pope Clement IV.

Ferdinand Magellan

Ferdinand Magellan 7 Ferdinand Magellan was a Portuguese explorer best known for having planned and led the 1519 Spanish expedition to the East Indies across the Pacific Ocean to open a maritime trade route, during which he discovered the interoceanic passage thereafter bearing his name and achieved the first European navigation to Asia via the Pacific. After his death, this expedition was the first to circumnavigate the globe in 1519–22 in the service of Spain.

Franciszek Zabłocki

Franciszek Zabłocki 7 Franciszek Ksawery Mikołaj Zabłocki, is considered the most distinguished Polish comic dramatist and satirist of the Enlightenment period. He descends from an old aristocratic family of Poland with coat of arms Łada. He translated many French comedies, among others those by Molière, but also wrote his own plays concentrating on Polish issues.

Józef Londzin

Józef Londzin 7 Józef Londzin − polski ksiądz katolicki, działacz społeczny i polityczny, historyk, burmistrz Cieszyna.

Gustaw Herling-Grudziński

Gustaw Herling-Grudziński 7 Gustaw Herling-Grudziński was a Polish writer, journalist, essayist, World War II underground fighter, and political dissident abroad during the communist system in Poland. He is best known for writing a personal account of life in the Soviet Gulag entitled A World Apart, first published in 1951 in London.

Elżbieta Drużbacka

Elżbieta Drużbacka 7 Elżbieta Drużbacka was a Polish poet of the late Baroque period.                                   

Gustaw Gizewiusz

Gustaw Gizewiusz 7 Gustaw Herman Marcin Gizewiusz, or Gustav Gisevius was a Polish political figure, folklorist, and translator. He was married to a Mazur Polish woman, who encouraged him to become a political figure. He was born in Pisz (Johannisburg). From 1835 he was also an Evangelical-Lutheran pastor in Ostróda.

Good Shepherd

Good Shepherd 6 The Good Shepherd is an image used in the pericope of John 10:1–21, in which Jesus Christ is depicted as the Good Shepherd who lays down his life for his sheep. Similar imagery is used in Psalm 23 and Ezekiel 34:11–16. The Good Shepherd is also discussed in the other gospels, the Epistle to the Hebrews, the First Epistle of Peter and the Book of Revelation.

Mieczysław Smorawiński

Mieczysław Smorawiński 6 Brigadier General Mieczysław Makary Smorawiński (1893–1940), was a Polish military commander and officer of the Polish Army. He was one of the Polish generals identified by forensic scientists of the Katyn Commission as the victim of the Soviet Katyn massacre of 1940.

Jeremi Wiśniowiecki

Jeremi Wiśniowiecki 6 Prince Jeremi Michał Korybut Wiśniowiecki, nicknamed Hammer on the Cossacks, was a notable member of the aristocracy of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Prince of Vyshnivets, Lubny and Khorol in the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the father of the future King of Poland, Michael I.

Marian Rejewski

Marian Rejewski 6 Marian Adam Rejewski was a Polish mathematician and cryptologist who in late 1932 reconstructed the sight-unseen German military Enigma cipher machine, aided by limited documents obtained by French military intelligence.

Jerzy Ziętek

Jerzy Ziętek 6 Jerzy Jan Antoni Ziętek was a Polish politician and general. A Silesian Insurrectionist in his youth, during the Second World War he joined the Polish armed forces in the USSR and later became an important politician representing Silesia in the People's Republic of Poland.

Bronisław Trentowski

Bronisław Trentowski 6 Bronisław Ferdynand Trentowski was a Polish "Messianist" philosopher, pedagogist, journalist and Freemason, and the chief representative of the Polish Messianist "national philosophy."

Julian Ejsmond

Julian Ejsmond 6 Julian Ejsmond – polski poeta, bajkopisarz, tłumacz literatury, porucznik piechoty Wojska Polskiego, odznaczony Krzyżem Walecznych.

Sophie of Pomerania, Duchess of Pomerania

Sophie of Pomerania, Duchess of Pomerania 6 Sophia of Pomerania-Stolp, was a Duchess of Pomerania by birth, and married to Eric II, Duke of Pomerania.

Karol Koziołek

Karol Koziołek 6 Karol Koziołek – polski ksiądz katolicki i działacz narodowy na Śląsku Opolskim, prezes I Dzielnicy ZPwN, poseł do Sejmiku Opolskiego (1928–1932).

Stanisław Kujot

Stanisław Kujot 6 Stanisław Kujot – polski duchowny katolicki, historyk, członek Towarzystwa Historycznego we Lwowie. 

Maria Grzegorzewska

Maria Grzegorzewska 6 Maria Grzegorzewska was a Polish educator who brought the special education movement to Poland. Born to a family from the Żmudź region, she was strongly influenced by her parents' beliefs in humanitarianism. After attending clandestine schools to earn her basic education from Polish rather than Russian educators, she obtained her teaching credentials in Lithuania. She continued her education at the Jagiellonian University in Kraków and in 1913 joined her countrywoman, Józefa Joteyko in Brussels to study at the International Paedological Faculty. When her studies in Belgium were interrupted by World War I, Grzegorzewska made her way to Paris and earned her PhD from the Sorbonne in 1916.

Lech Kaczyński

Lech Kaczyński 6 Lech Aleksander Kaczyński was a Polish politician who served as the city mayor of Warsaw from 2002 until 2005, and as President of Poland from 2005 until his death in 2010. Before his tenure as president, he previously served as President of the Supreme Audit Office from 1992 to 1995 and later Minister of Justice and Public Prosecutor General in Jerzy Buzek's cabinet from 2000 until his dismissal in July 2001.

Wincenty Styczyński

Wincenty Styczyński 6 Wincenty Styczyński – polski działacz narodowy, lekarz, w latach 1919–1922 radny miejski, przewodniczący frakcji polskiej w Gliwicach.

Ludwik Nabielak

Ludwik Nabielak 6 Ludwik Nabielak – działacz polityczny, poeta, krytyk literacki, historyk, inżynier górnictwa.       

Karol Adamiecki

Karol Adamiecki 6 Karol Adamiecki was a Polish engineer, management researcher, economist, and professor.             

Franciszek Hynek

Franciszek Hynek 6 Franciszek Hynek – major pilot balonowy Wojska Polskiego, dwukrotny zdobywca Pucharu Gordona Bennetta.

Karol Brzostowski

Karol Brzostowski 6 Hrabia Karol Brzostowski – reformator społeczny, właściciel ziemski, twórca Rzeczypospolitej Sztabińskiej, producent maszyn rolniczych oraz konstruktor mechanicznej dojarki pedałowej i młocarni-sieczkarni.

Rafał Krajewski

Rafał Krajewski 6 Rafał Krajewski herbu Jasieńczyk, ps. Wujaszek, August, Helena – dyrektor Wydziału Spraw Wewnętrznych w Rządzie Narodowym w czasie powstania styczniowego.

Daniel Chodowiecki

Daniel Chodowiecki 6 Daniel Niklaus Chodowiecki was a German painter and printmaker of Huguenot and Polish ancestry, who is most famous as an etcher. He spent most of his life in Berlin, and became the director of the Berlin Academy of Art.

Józef Maria Hoene-Wroński

Józef Maria Hoene-Wroński 6 Józef Maria Hoene-Wroński was a Polish messianist philosopher, mathematician, physicist, inventor, lawyer, occultist and economist. He was born as Hoëné to a municipal architect in 1776 but changed his name in 1815 to Józef Wroński. Later in life he changed his name to Józef Maria Hoene-Wroński, without using his family's original French spelling Hoëné. At no point in his life, neither in Polish or French, was he known as Hoëné-Wroński; nor was the common French transliteration, Josef Hoëné-Wronski, ever his official name in his native Poland.

Władysław Bełza

Władysław Bełza 6 Wladyslaw Belza was a Polish poet. He was born in Warsaw.                                           

Johannes Dantiscus

Johannes Dantiscus 6 Johannes Dantiscus, was prince-bishop of Warmia and Bishop of Chełmno (Culm). In recognition of his diplomatic services for Polish kings, the bishop and poet is also known as the "Father of Polish Diplomacy."

Benedict of Nursia

Benedict of Nursia 6 Benedict of Nursia, often known as Saint Benedict, was an Italian Christian monk, writer, and theologian. He is venerated in the Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Oriental Orthodox Churches, the Anglican Communion, and Old Catholic Churches. In 1964 Pope Paul VI declared Benedict a patron saint of Europe.

John of Dukla

John of Dukla 6 John of Dukla is a saint in the Roman Catholic Church. He is one of the patron saints of Poland and Lithuania.

Paweł Pośpiech

Paweł Pośpiech 6 Paweł Pośpiech was a Polish priest, activist and journalist.                                       

Antoni Amilkar Kosiński

Antoni Amilkar Kosiński 6 Antoni Amilkar Kosiński herbu Rawicz – generał polski, uczestnik insurekcji kościuszkowskiej i wojen napoleońskich, współtwórca Legionów Polskich we Włoszech.

Jacek Kuroń

Jacek Kuroń 6 Jacek Jan Kuroń was one of the democratic leaders of opposition in the People's Republic of Poland. He was widely known as the "godfather of the Polish opposition," not unlike Václav Havel in Czechoslovakia. Kuroń was a prominent Polish social and political figure known for his efforts at reforming societies under the control of the Soviet Union. As an educator and historian, he first postulated the concept of a de-centered movement that would question the totalitarian system and its personality cult. Kuroń started out as an activist of the Polish Scouting Association trying to educate young people that would take charge of the future; he later co-founded with Antoni Macierewicz the Workers' Defence Committee or KOR, a major dissident organization that was superseded by Solidarity in August 1980. After the changes in independent Poland, he ran for president supported by the likes of Jan Karski and served twice as Minister of Labour and Social Policy. Kuroń was the father of chef Maciej Kuroń.

Władysław Szpilman

Władysław Szpilman 6 Władysław Szpilman was a Polish-Jewish pianist, classical composer and Holocaust survivor. Szpilman is widely known as the central figure in the 2002 Roman Polanski film The Pianist, which was based on his autobiographical account of how he survived the German occupation of Warsaw. In the film, he is portrayed by American actor Adrien Brody.

Eugeniusz Lokajski

Eugeniusz Lokajski 6 Eugeniusz Zenon Lokajski was a Polish athlete, gymnast and photographer. He is notable as the Champion of Poland in javelin throw and the creator of more than 1000 photos documenting the Warsaw Uprising.

Witold Budryk

Witold Budryk 6 Prof. Witold Budryk – polski inżynier górnictwa, naukowiec, profesor zwyczajny Akademii Górniczej, późniejszej Akademii Górniczo-Hutniczej w Krakowie, dziekan Wydziału Górniczego Akademii (1936–1948), rektor AGH. Współtwórca teorii opisującej wpływ eksploatacji na zachowanie powierzchni terenu. Napisał 120 prac naukowych opracowanych w 4 językach, autor patentów z zakresu przetwarzania węgla i rud metali, pierwsza osoba ze stopniem naukowym doktora górnictwa w Polsce.

Jan Marcin Szancer

Jan Marcin Szancer 6 Jan Marcin Szancer was a Polish illustrator, scenographer and professor at the Academy of Fine Arts in Warsaw.

Zofia Stryjeńska

Zofia Stryjeńska 6 Zofia Stryjeńska was a Polish painter, graphic designer, illustrator, stage designer, a representative of art deco. Along with Olga Boznańska and Tamara de Lempicka, she was one of the best-known Polish women artists of the interwar period. In the 1930s she was nominated for the prestigious Golden Laurel of the Polish Academy of Literature, but declined the offer.

Władysław Biegański

Władysław Biegański 6 Władysław Biegański was a Polish medical doctor, philosopher and social activist. He dealt with almost all fields, especially infectious diseases, disease diagnostics and logic in medicine.

Franciszek Blachnicki

Franciszek Blachnicki 6 Franciszek Blachnicki was a Polish Roman Catholic priest and the founder of the Light-Life movement – also known as the Oasis Movement – and the Secular Institute of the Immaculate Mother of the Church. He founded several other movements and religious congregations that would address a range of social and ethical issues. These issues included anti-alcoholism and human rights. His movements first came about after starting out as simple retreats designed for both altar servers and families that later began to address a series of issues in Poland at the time. His concern for human rights came during the communist era in Poland as well as his experiences as a prisoner of war during World War II in which he was incarcerated in Auschwitz and other concentration camps under the German Nazi regime.

Józef Cygan

Józef Cygan 6 Józef Cygan – major piechoty Wojska Polskiego, kawaler Orderu Virtuti Militari doktor praw, sędzia, prokurator.

August Bebel

August Bebel 6 Ferdinand August Bebel was a German socialist politician, writer, and orator. He is best remembered as one of the founders of the Social Democratic Workers' Party of Germany (SDAP) in 1869, which in 1875 merged with the General German Workers' Association into the Socialist Workers' Party of Germany (SAPD). During the repression under the terms of the Anti-Socialist Laws, Bebel became the leading figure of the social democratic movement in Germany and from 1892 until his death served as chairman of the Social Democratic Party of Germany.

Zenon Zając

Zenon Zając 6 Zenon Zając - ślusarz, pracownik Kopalni Węgla Kamiennego Wujek, ofiara pacyfikacji kopalni w grudniu 1981 roku.

Ludwik Osiński

Ludwik Osiński 6 Ludwik Osiński was a Polish literary critic, historian, literary theorist, translator, poet, playwright and speaker, who also served as a minister in the government of Congress Poland.

Raphael Kalinowski

Raphael Kalinowski 6 Raphael of St. Joseph Kalinowski, OCD, religious name: Raphael of Saint Joseph, was a Polish Discalced Carmelite friar. He was a teacher, engineer, prisoner of war, royal tutor, and priest, who founded many Carmelite convents around Poland after their suppression by the Russians. Kalinowski was canonized by Pope John Paul II in 1991.

Albertus Magnus

Albertus Magnus 6 Albertus Magnus, also known as Saint Albert the Great, Albert of Swabia or Albert of Cologne, was a German Dominican friar, philosopher, scientist, and bishop, considered one of the greatest medieval philosophers and thinkers.

Jan Stapiński

Jan Stapiński 6 Jan Stapiński – polski polityk, jeden z twórców i przywódców polskiego ruchu ludowego, publicysta, poseł do parlamentu austriackiego i na Sejm II RP.

Leon Schiller

Leon Schiller 6 Leon Schiller or Leon Schiller de Schildenfeld was a Polish theatre and film director, as well as critic and theatre theoretician. He also wrote theatre and radio screenplays and composed music. He was born in Kraków under the Austrian rule during the foreign Partitions of Poland, to a family of Austrian origin that had been ennobled by Empress Maria Theresa.

Józef Sebastian Pelczar

Józef Sebastian Pelczar 6 Józef Sebastian Pelczar was a Polish Roman Catholic bishop and was also the co-founder of the Sister Servants of the Most Sacred Heart of Jesus which he had established in 1894 with Ludwika Szczęsna. He also served in several episcopal posts and served as the Bishop of Przemyśl.

Charles Dickens

Charles Dickens 6 Charles John Huffam Dickens was an English novelist and social critic who created some of the world's best-known fictional characters, and is regarded by many as the greatest novelist of the Victorian era. His works enjoyed unprecedented popularity during his lifetime and, by the 20th century, critics and scholars had recognised him as a literary genius. His novels and short stories are widely read today.

John Bosco

John Bosco 6 John Melchior Bosco, SDB, popularly known as Don Bosco, was an Italian Catholic priest, educator and writer of the 19th century. While working in Turin, where the population suffered many of the ill effects of industrialization and urbanization, he dedicated his life to the betterment and education of street children, juvenile delinquents, and other disadvantaged youth. He developed teaching methods based on love rather than punishment, a method that became known as the Salesian Preventive System.

Franciszek Bohomolec

Franciszek Bohomolec 6 Franciszek Bohomolec, S.J., Bogoria Coat of Arms, writing pseudonymously as: Daniel Bobinson, Dzisiejkiewicz, F. B., F. B. S. J., Galantecki, J. U. P. Z., Jeden Zakonnik S. J., Jeden Zakonnik Societatis Jesu, Lubożoński, Ludziolubski, M. Z. S. W., Murmiłowski, N. N., N** N***, Ochotnicki, Odziański, Pokutnicki, Pośrzednicki, Poznajewski, Prożniak nie Tęskniący, Staroświat, Śmiałecki, Szkolnicki, Theosebes, Ucziwski, was a Polish Jesuit teacher, writer, poet, satirist, social commentator, linguist, translator, dramatist and theatrical reformer who was one of the principal playwrights of the Polish Enlightenment. After the Suppression of the Society of Jesus, he continued his usual work and in addition became an editor, publisher and printer.

Saint Cecilia

Saint Cecilia 6 Saint Cecilia, also spelled Cecelia, was a Roman virgin martyr and is venerated in Catholic, Orthodox, Anglican, and some Lutheran churches, such as the Church of Sweden. She became the patroness of music and musicians, it being written that, as the musicians played at her wedding, Cecilia "sang in her heart to the Lord". Musical compositions are dedicated to her, and her feast, on 22 November, is the occasion of concerts and musical festivals. She is also known as Cecilia of Rome.

Zbigniew Wodecki

Zbigniew Wodecki 6 Zbigniew Stanisław Wodecki was a Polish singer, musician, composer, actor and TV presenter.         

Jan Paweł Woronicz

Jan Paweł Woronicz 5 Jan Paweł Woronicz herbu Pawęża, pseud. i krypt.: I. W.; J. W.; Jeden z Synów Ojczyzny – polski duchowny rzymskokatolicki, kaznodzieja, jezuita do 1772, poeta, mówca, dziekan warszawskiej kapituły katedralnej, radca stanu w Radzie Stanu Księstwa Warszawskiego w 1812, opat komendatoryjny lądzki w 1812, biskup diecezjalny krakowski w latach 1816–1829, arcybiskup metropolita warszawski i prymas Królestwa Polskiego w latach 1828–1829.

Wojciech Oczko

Wojciech Oczko 5 Wojciech Oczko – philosopher, doctor, Royal Secretary to King Sigismund II Augustus, and court physician to kings Sigismund II Augustus, Stephen Báthory, and Sigismund III Vasa. One of the founders of Polish medicine, he was a medical writer who studied syphilis and hot springs.

Konrad Prószyński

Konrad Prószyński 5 Konrad Prószyński, pen name Kazimierz Promyk, was a Polish writer and editor from the Russian Empire. He was the author of primers (textbooks), editor-in-chief of Gazeta Świąteczna ; the founder of secret Society for National Education under foreign Partitions, and the author of well received Pictorial Literacy (1879) primer. He was father of a Polish inventor Kazimierz Prószyński.

Saint Sebastian

Saint Sebastian 5 Sebastian was an early Christian saint and martyr. According to traditional belief, he was killed during the Diocletianic Persecution of Christians. He was initially tied to a post or tree and shot with arrows, though this did not kill him. He was, according to tradition, rescued and healed by Irene of Rome, which became a popular subject in 17th-century painting. In all versions of the story, shortly after his recovery he went to Diocletian to warn him about his sins, and as a result was clubbed to death. He is venerated in the Catholic Church and the Orthodox Church.

Józef Bohdan Zaleski

Józef Bohdan Zaleski 5 Józef Bohdan Zaleski was a Polish Romantic poet. A friend of Adam Mickiewicz, Zaleski founded the "Ukrainian poetic school."

Zenon Klemensiewicz

Zenon Klemensiewicz 5 Zenon Klemensiewicz was a Polish linguist, specialist in the Polish language, professor of the Jagiellonian University. He fought in World War I and World War II, and took part in the underground education in WWII occupied Poland. He was one of the founders of the Polish Linguistic Society.

Józef Kostrzewski

Józef Kostrzewski 5 Józef Kostrzewski was a Polish archaeologist.                                                       

Stanisław Brzozowski (philosopher)

Stanisław Brzozowski (philosopher) 5 Stanisław Leopold Brzozowski was a Polish philosopher, writer, publicist, literary and theatre critic. Considered to be an important Polish philosopher, Brzozowski is known for his concept of the philosophy of labour, rooted in Marxism. Besides Karl Marx, among his major inspirations were Georges Sorel, Friedrich Nietzsche, Henri Bergson, Thomas Carlyle, and John Henry Newman. Brzozowski's core idea was based on the concept of a socially engaged intellectual (artist). Although he was in favour of historical materialism, he strongly argued against its deterministic interpretation. In his philosophical approaches, Brzozowski stated his opposition to all concepts that would commodify a human being.

Tadeusz Mazowiecki

Tadeusz Mazowiecki 5 Tadeusz Mazowiecki was a Polish author, journalist, philanthropist and politician, formerly one of the leaders of the Solidarity movement, and the first non-communist Polish prime minister since 1946, having held the post from 1989 to 1991.

Ludwik Czyżewski

Ludwik Czyżewski 5 Ludwik Czyżewski was a Polish General during the Invasion of Poland during World War II. He commanded the 2nd Legions' Infantry Regiment during the Battle of Borowa Góra but was defeated in the battle. He was also a member of the Border Protection Corps as well as the Home Army before being posthumously promoted to Brigadier General in 1972 by the President-in-Exile, Stanisław Ostrowski.

Józef Unrug

Józef Unrug 5 Józef Unrug was a Polish admiral who helped establish Poland's navy after World War I. During the opening stages of World War II, he served as the Polish Navy's commander-in-chief. As a German POW, he refused all German offers to change sides and was incarcerated in several Oflags, including Colditz Castle. He stayed in exile after the war in the United Kingdom, Morocco and France where he died and was buried. In September 2018 he was posthumously promoted in the rank of Admiral of the fleet by the President of Poland. After 45 years his remains, along with those of his wife Zofia, were exhumed from Montrésor and taken in October 2018 to his final resting place in Gdynia, Poland.

Nikolai Gogol

Nikolai Gogol 5 Nikolai Vasilyevich Gogol was a Russian novelist, short story writer, and playwright of Ukrainian origin.

Stanisław Szczepanowski

Stanisław Szczepanowski 5 Stanisław Szczepanowski (1846–1900) was a Polish economist, engineer, businessman, and politician. Deputy to parliaments of Austria and Galicia.

Wacław Berent

Wacław Berent 5 Wacław Berent was a Polish novelist, essayist and literary translator from the Art Nouveau period, publishing under the pen names S.A.M. and Wł. Rawicz. He studied Natural Science in Kraków and Zurich, and obtained a PhD in Munich before returning to Warsaw and embarking on a literary career around the turn of the century. Having devoted himself to writing he was influenced by Nietzsche, whom he translated. Berent became a member of the prestigious Polish Academy of Literature in 1933.

Aleksander Kotsis

Aleksander Kotsis 5 Aleksander Kotsis was a Polish painter. He created landscapes, portraits, and genre scenes in a combination Romantic and Realistic style. Most of his paintings are small. He was born and died in Kraków.

Wacław Gąsiorowski

Wacław Gąsiorowski 5 Wacław Gąsiorowski, ps. Wiesław Sclavus, Jan Mieroszewicz – polski powieściopisarz, dziennikarz, publicysta, a także scenarzysta, działacz polonijny i niepodległościowy. W 1900 wydawca i redaktor periodyku „Strumień”, w latach 1921–1930 redaktor czasopism polonijnych w Stanach Zjednoczonych, autor powieści historycznych nawiązujących głównie do epopei napoleońskiej i powstania listopadowego, powieści w charakterze publicystyki, dramatów i licznych reportaży.

Seweryn Udziela (etnograf)

Seweryn Udziela (etnograf) 5 Seweryn Udziela – etnograf, badacz i popularyzator folkloru i kultury ludowej Małopolski.           

Walery Sławek

Walery Sławek 5 Walery Jan Sławek was a Polish politician, freemason, military officer and activist, who in the early 1930s served three times as Prime Minister of Poland. He was one of the closest aides of Polish leader, Józef Piłsudski.

Stanislav Piętak

Stanislav Piętak 5 Stanislav Piętak is a Czech theologian and pedagogue.                                               

Bolesław Kominek

Bolesław Kominek 5 Bolesław Kominek was a Polish cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church. He served as Archbishop of Wrocław from 1972 until his death, and was elevated to the cardinalate in 1973.

Łukasz Górnicki

Łukasz Górnicki 5 Łukasz Górnicki, was a Polish Renaissance, poet, humanist, political commentator as well as secretary and chancellor of king Sigismund Augustus of Poland. His family used Ogończyk coat of arms.

Henry Probus

Henry Probus 5 Henry Probus was a member of the Silesian branch of the royal Polish Piast dynasty. He was Duke of Silesia at Wrocław from 1266 as well as the ruler of the Seniorate Province of Kraków and High Duke of Poland from 1288 until his death in 1290.

Karol Szajnocha

Karol Szajnocha 5 Karol Szajnocha (1818–1868) was a Polish writer, historian, and independence activist. Self-taught, he would nonetheless become a notable Polish historian of the partitions period.

Stanisław Chudoba

Stanisław Chudoba 5 Stanisław Chudoba ps. Stefan – działacz socjalistyczny. Lider organizacji Polscy Socjaliści a następnie Robotniczej Partii Polskich Socjalistów w okresie okupacji niemieckiej. Schwytany w wyniku ulicznej łapanki, a następnie rozstrzelany przez Niemców.

Mieczysław Boruta-Spiechowicz

Mieczysław Boruta-Spiechowicz 5 Mieczysław Ludwik Boruta-Spiechowicz was a Polish military officer, a general of the Polish Army and a notable member of the post-war anti-communist opposition in Poland.

Leonard of Noblac

Leonard of Noblac 5 Leonard of Noblac, is a Frankish saint closely associated with the town and abbey of Saint-Léonard-de-Noblat, in Haute-Vienne, in the Limousin region of France. He was converted to Christianity along with the king, at Christmas 496. Leonard became a hermit in the forest of Limousin, where he gathered a number of followers. Leonard or Lienard became one of the most venerated saints of the late Middle Ages. His intercession was credited with miracles for the release of prisoners, women in labour and the diseases of cattle.

Jan Nikodem Jaroń

Jan Nikodem Jaroń 5 Jan Nikodem Jaroń, pseudonim Nikodem Arios – poeta i dramatopisarz, walczył w III powstaniu śląskim.

Jan Krzysztof Kluk

Jan Krzysztof Kluk 5 Jan Krzysztof Kluk was a Polish naturalist agronomist and entomologist.                             

Jan Maklakiewicz

Jan Maklakiewicz 5 Jan Adam Maklakiewicz was a Polish composer, conductor, critic, and music educator. His most known compositions belong to the choral music.

Rafał Urban

Rafał Urban 5 Rafał Urban – polski pisarz, gawędziarz śląski, autor dramatu Termin Nyski, czyli sterylizacja naiwnego baranka nieludzka komedia autochtoniczna z epoki Trzeciego Rajchu w 5 aktach biurokratycznych … napisał chłop bezimienny, syn ziemi odzyskanej.

Johannes Gutenberg

Johannes Gutenberg 5 Johannes Gensfleisch zur Laden zum Gutenberg was a German inventor and craftsman who introduced letterpress printing to Europe with his movable-type printing press. Though movable type was already in use in East Asia, Gutenberg invented the printing press, which later spread across the world. His work led to an information revolution and the unprecedented mass-spread of literature throughout Europe. It had a profound impact on the development of the Renaissance, Reformation, and humanist movements.

Wilhelm Pluta

Wilhelm Pluta 5 Wilhelm Pluta – polski duchowny rzymskokatolicki, administrator apostolski w Gorzowie Wielkopolskim w latach 1958–1972, biskup diecezjalny gorzowski w latach 1972–1986, sługa Boży Kościoła katolickiego.

Zenon Przesmycki

Zenon Przesmycki 5 Zenon Przesmycki, was a Polish poet, translator and an art critic of the literary period of Młoda Polska, who studied law in Italy, France and England; in years of 1887 and 1888, he served as the editor-in-chief of the Warsaw magazine Życie (Life), an influential first-ever publication on modernism in Poland.

John of Nepomuk

John of Nepomuk 5 John of Nepomuk was a saint of Bohemia who was drowned in the Vltava river at the behest of King Wenceslaus IV of Bohemia. Later accounts state that he was the confessor of the queen of Bohemia and refused to divulge the secrets of the confessional. On the basis of this account, John of Nepomuk is considered the first martyr of the Seal of the Confessional, a patron against calumnies and, because of the manner of his death, a protector from floods and drowning.

Karol Namysłowski

Karol Namysłowski 5 Karol Namysłowski – kompozytor, dyrygent, skrzypek, twórca Orkiestry Włościańskiej w Zamościu.     

Stanisław Wokulski

Stanisław Wokulski 5 Stanisław Wokulski – postać literacka, protagonista powieści Lalka Bolesława Prusa; postać Wokulskiego stała się w polskiej kulturze masowej symbolem przedsiębiorczości.

Władysław Tatarkiewicz

Władysław Tatarkiewicz 5 Władysław Tatarkiewicz was a Polish philosopher, historian of philosophy, historian of art, esthetician, and ethicist.

Miron Białoszewski

Miron Białoszewski 5 Miron Białoszewski was a Polish poet, novelist, playwright and actor.                               

Stanisław Marusarz

Stanisław Marusarz 5 Stanisław Marusarz ; 18 June 1913 – 29 October 1993) was a Polish Nordic skiing competitor in the 1930s.

Albert Einstein

Albert Einstein 5 Albert Einstein was a German-born theoretical physicist who is widely held to be one of the greatest and most influential scientists of all time. Best known for developing the theory of relativity, Einstein also made important contributions to quantum mechanics, and was thus a central figure in the revolutionary reshaping of the scientific understanding of nature that modern physics accomplished in the first decades of the twentieth century. His mass–energy equivalence formula E = mc2, which arises from relativity theory, has been called "the world's most famous equation". He received the 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics "for his services to theoretical physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect", a pivotal step in the development of quantum theory. His work is also known for its influence on the philosophy of science. In a 1999 poll of 130 leading physicists worldwide by the British journal Physics World, Einstein was ranked the greatest physicist of all time. His intellectual achievements and originality have made the word Einstein broadly synonymous with genius.

Thomas Edison

Thomas Edison 5 Thomas Alva Edison was an American inventor and businessman. He developed many devices in fields such as electric power generation, mass communication, sound recording, and motion pictures. These inventions, which include the phonograph, the motion picture camera, and early versions of the electric light bulb, have had a widespread impact on the modern industrialized world. He was one of the first inventors to apply the principles of organized science and teamwork to the process of invention, working with many researchers and employees. He established the first industrial research laboratory.

Bruno Schulz

Bruno Schulz 5 Bruno Schulz was a Polish Jewish writer, fine artist, literary critic and art teacher. He is regarded as one of the great Polish-language prose stylists of the 20th century. In 1938, he was awarded the Polish Academy of Literature's prestigious Golden Laurel award. Several of Schulz's works were lost in the Holocaust, including short stories from the early 1940s and his final, unfinished novel The Messiah. Schulz was shot and killed by a Gestapo officer in 1942 while walking back home toward Drohobycz Ghetto with a loaf of bread.

Wacław Nałkowski

Wacław Nałkowski 5 Wacław Piotr Nałkowski, ps. „Przewłocki”, „Nerwowy” – polski geograf, pedagog, publicysta i działacz społeczny. Twórca teorii nieokreśloności terytorium Polski. Ojciec Zofii Nałkowskiej i Hanny Nałkowskiej.

Jan Trepczyk

Jan Trepczyk 5 Jan Trepczyk was a Kashubian poet, songwriter, ideologist, lexicographer, and teacher. He was a member of the Regional Kashub Association of Kartuzy, of the "Zrzeszeńcy" ("associationists"), and of the Kashubian-Pomeranian Association. He compiled a Polish-Kashubian dictionary and co-founded the Kashubian-Pomeranian Literature and Music Museum in Wejherowo.

Piotr Dunin

Piotr Dunin 5 Piotr Dunin was a Polish leader. Starost of Malbork 1478–1484, castellan of Sieradz from 1478, voivode of Brześć Kujawski Voivodeship from 1481.

Dobrosława of Pomerania

Dobrosława of Pomerania 5 Dobrosława of Pomerania was a princess from Griffin dynasty. She was Countess of Gützkow and Schlawe. She was most likely the daughter of Bogusław I, duke of Pomerania, and his wife, Walpurga.

Mikołaj Gomółka

Mikołaj Gomółka 5 Mikołaj Gomółka was a Polish Renaissance composer and a member of the royal court of Sigismund II Augustus. At the court, he served as a singer, flutist, and trumpeter.

Władysław Hańcza

Władysław Hańcza 5 Władysław Hańcza was a Polish actor and theatre director.                                           

Władysław Planetorz

Władysław Planetorz 5 Władysław Planetorz – działacz Związku Harcerstwa Polskiego w Niemczech, podharcmistrz.             

Bolesław Orliński

Bolesław Orliński 5 Bolesław Orliński was a Polish aviator, military, sports and test pilot.                           

Kazimierz Jeżewski

Kazimierz Jeżewski 5 Kazimierz Antoni Jeżewski – polski pedagog i działacz oświatowy, twórca i ideolog Gniazd Sierocych i Wiosek Kościuszkowskich.

Jan Drzeżdżon

Jan Drzeżdżon 5 Jan Drzeżdżon – polski pisarz i poeta regionalny, krytyk, badacz, redaktor i wydawca kaszubski, tworzący również w języku polskim. Uważany za jednego z czołowych pisarzy w literaturze kaszubskiej.

Tomasz Rogala

Tomasz Rogala 5 Tomasz Rogala – rzemieślnik (szewc), kaszubski działacz ludowy, społecznik, członek delegacji polskiej na konferencję w Wersalu (1919), lokalny polityk, zasłużony obywatel Kościerzyny, podobnie jak Antoni Abraham zwany "kaszubskim królem".

Jan Nagórski

Jan Nagórski 5 Alfons Jan Nagórski (1888–1976), also known as Ivan Iosifovich Nagurski, was a Polish engineer and pioneer of aviation, the first person to fly an airplane in the Arctic and the first aviator to perform a loop with a flying boat.

Karolina Kózka

Karolina Kózka 5 Karolina Kózka was a sixteen-year old Polish victim of a sex attack and murder. Prior to that she was known locally for her strong faith and her eagerness to catechize her neighbours and children. Kózka is often referred to as the "Polish Maria Goretti" due to the manner of her death.

Edward Szymański (poeta)

Edward Szymański (poeta) 5 Edward Szymański – lewicowy poeta i dziennikarz związany z warszawską Wolą, satyryk, działacz PPS. 

Klemens Bachleda

Klemens Bachleda 5 Klemens "Klimek" Bachleda was a pioneering Polish mountain guide and mountain rescuer in Austria-Hungary. He died during an unsuccessful mountain rescue attempt in the High Tatras.

King Matt the First

King Matt the First 5 King Matt the First is a children's novel published in 1923 by Polish author, pediatrician, and child pedagogue Janusz Korczak. In addition to telling the story of a young king's adventures, it describes many social reforms, particularly targeting children, some of which Korczak enacted in his own orphanage, and is a thinly veiled allegory of contemporary and historical events in Poland. The book has been described as being as popular in Poland as Peter Pan was in the English-speaking world. It was the first of Korczak's novels to be translated into English – several of his pedagogical works have been translated, and more recently his novel Kaytek the Wizard was also published in English.

Cyryl Ratajski

Cyryl Ratajski 5 Cyryl Ratajski was a Polish politician and lawyer.                                                 

Jerzy Giedroyc

Jerzy Giedroyc 5 Jerzy Władysław Giedroyc was a Polish writer, lawyer, publicist and political activist. For many years, he worked as editor of the highly influential Paris-based periodical, Kultura.

Bolesław V the Chaste

Bolesław V the Chaste 5 Bolesław V the Chaste was Duke of Sandomierz in Lesser Poland from 1232 and High Duke of Poland from 1243 until his death, as the last male representative of the Lesser Polish branch of Piasts.

Jerzy Lanc

Jerzy Lanc 5 Jerzy Lanc – polski nauczyciel.                                                                     

Józef Czapski

Józef Czapski 5 Józef Czapski was a Polish artist, author, and critic, as well as an officer of the Polish Army. As a painter, he is notable for his membership in the Kapist movement, which was heavily influenced by Cézanne. Following the Polish Defensive War, he was made a prisoner of war by the Soviets and was among the very few officers to survive the Katyn massacre of 1940. Following the Sikorski-Mayski Agreement, he was an official envoy of the Polish government searching for the missing Polish officers in Russia. After World War II, he remained in exile in the Paris suburb of Maisons-Laffitte, where he was among the founders of Kultura monthly, one of the most influential Polish cultural journals of the 20th century.

Witold Urbanowicz

Witold Urbanowicz 5 Witold Urbanowicz was a Polish fighter ace of the Second World War. According to the official record, Witold Urbanowicz was the second highest-scoring Polish fighter ace, with 17 confirmed wartime kills and 1 probable, not counting his pre-war victory. He was awarded with several decorations, among others the Virtuti Militari and British Distinguished Flying Cross. He also published several books of memoirs.

Gottlieb Daimler

Gottlieb Daimler 5 Gottlieb Wilhelm Daimler was a German engineer, industrial designer and industrialist born in Schorndorf, in what is now Germany. He was a pioneer of internal-combustion engines and automobile development. He invented the high-speed liquid petroleum-fueled engine.

Jan Szczepanik

Jan Szczepanik 5 Jan Szczepanik was a Polish inventor, with several hundred patents and over 50 discoveries to his name, many of which are still applied today, especially in the motion picture industry, as well as in photography and television. Some of his concepts helped the future evolution of TV broadcasting, such as the telectroscope or the wireless telegraph, which greatly affected the development of telecommunications. He died in Tarnów in the Second Polish Republic.

Zbigniew Cybulski

Zbigniew Cybulski 5 Zbigniew Hubert Cybulski was a Polish film and theatre actor, one of the best-known and most popular personalities of the post-World War II history of Poland.

Tadeusz Nalepa

Tadeusz Nalepa 5 Tadeusz Nalepa was a Polish composer, guitar player, vocalist, and lyricist.                       

Stanisław Hadyna

Stanisław Hadyna 5 Stanisław Hadyna – polski kompozytor, dyrygent, muzykolog i pisarz. Założyciel i wieloletni kierownik artystyczny Zespołu Pieśni i Tańca „Śląsk”.

Aleksander Brückner

Aleksander Brückner 4 Aleksander Brückner was a Polish scholar of Slavic languages and literature (Slavistics), philologist, lexicographer, and historian of literature. He is among the most notable Slavicists of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and the first to prepare complete monographs on the history of the Polish language and culture. He published more than 1,500 titles and discovered the oldest extant prose text in Polish.

Karl Marx

Karl Marx 4 Karl Marx was a German-born philosopher, economist, political theorist, historian, sociologist, journalist, and revolutionary socialist. His best-known works are the 1848 pamphlet The Communist Manifesto and the three-volume Das Kapital (1867–1894); the latter employs his critical approach of historical materialism in an analysis of capitalism and is the culmination of his intellectual efforts. Marx's ideas and theories and their subsequent development, collectively known as Marxism, have exerted enormous influence on modern intellectual, economic and political history.

Stanisław Czernik

Stanisław Czernik 4 Stanisław Czernik – polski powieściopisarz, folklorysta i poeta, przedstawiciel kierunku zw. autentyzmem, postulującego wiązanie w sztuce prawdy artystycznej i życiowej.

National Armed Forces

National Armed Forces 4 National Armed Forces was a Polish right-wing underground military organization of the National Democracy operating from 1942. During World War II, NSZ troops fought against Nazi Germany and communist partisans. There were also cases of fights with the Home Army.

Józef Szujski

Józef Szujski 4 Józef Szujski was a Polish politician, historian, poet and professor of the Jagiellonian University.

Cyril and Methodius

Cyril and Methodius 4 Cyril and Methodius (815–885) were brothers, Byzantine Christian theologians and missionaries. For their work evangelizing the Slavs, they are known as the "Apostles to the Slavs".

Konstanty Matyjewicz-Maciejewicz

Konstanty Matyjewicz-Maciejewicz 4 Konstanty Matyjewicz-Maciejewicz, „Kapitan Kapitanów”, „Macaj” – kapitan żeglugi wielkiej, ostatni komendant „Lwowa” i pierwszy komendant „Daru Pomorza”. Wykładowca w szkołach morskich w Tczewie, Gdyni i Szczecinie.

Wilhelm Röntgen

Wilhelm Röntgen 4 Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen was a German mechanical engineer and physicist, who, on 8 November 1895, produced and detected electromagnetic radiation in a wavelength range known as X-rays or Röntgen rays, an achievement that earned him the inaugural Nobel Prize in Physics in 1901. In honour of Röntgen's accomplishments, in 2004 the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) named element 111, roentgenium, a radioactive element with multiple unstable isotopes, after him. The unit of measurement roentgen was also named after him.

Marian Rapacki (trener)

Marian Rapacki (trener) 4 Marian Tadeusz Rapacki – polski trener kajakarstwa, działacz sportowy, twórca i wieloletni kierownik Olsztyńskiego Muzeum Sportu, honorowy obywatel Olsztyna.

Marian Falski

Marian Falski 4 Marian Falski, ps. Rafał Praski, Janka Swajak – polski pedagog i działacz oświatowy, specjalista w dziedzinie ustroju i organizacji szkolnictwa, autor najpopularniejszego polskiego elementarza – elementarza Falskiego.

Józef Mianowski

Józef Mianowski 4 Józef Mianowski (1804–1879) was a Polish medical researcher and practitioner, academic, social and political activist, and rector of the "Main School" incarnation (1862–69) of Warsaw University.

Alfred Sokołowski

Alfred Sokołowski 4 Alfred Marcin Sokołowski was a Polish pulmonologist and professor of the University of Warsaw. He specialised in the field of Phthisiatry and he was one of the pioneers of modern treatment to diseases of the respiratory system.

Stanisław Lentz

Stanisław Lentz 4 Stanisław Lentz was a Polish painter, portraitist, illustrator, and a professor at the Academy of Fine Arts in Warsaw from 1909.

Walery Goetel

Walery Goetel 4 Walery Goetel – polski geolog, ekolog i paleontolog, profesor, działacz społeczny.                 

Bolesław Romanowski

Bolesław Romanowski 4 Bolesław Romanowski was a submarine commander of the Polish Navy during World War II.               

Albert Brudzewski

Albert Brudzewski 4 Albert Brudzewski, also Albert Blar (of Brudzewo), Albert of Brudzewo or Wojciech Brudzewski (in Latin, Albertus de Brudzewo; c.1445–c.1497) was a Polish astronomer, mathematician, philosopher and diplomat.

Taras Shevchenko

Taras Shevchenko 4 Taras Hryhorovych Shevchenko was a Ukrainian poet, writer, artist, public and political figure, folklorist and ethnographer. He was a fellow of the Imperial Academy of Arts and a member of the Brotherhood of Saints Cyril and Methodius. He wrote poetry in Ukrainian and prose in Russian.

John Amos Comenius

John Amos Comenius 4 John Amos Comenius was a Moravian philosopher, pedagogue and theologian who is considered the father of modern education. He served as the last bishop of the Unity of the Brethren before becoming a religious refugee and one of the earliest champions of universal education, a concept eventually set forth in his book Didactica Magna. As an educator and theologian, he led schools and advised governments across Protestant Europe through the middle of the seventeenth century.

Julian Filipowicz

Julian Filipowicz 4 Julian Filipowicz was a major general of the Polish Armed Forces and a commander of the Home Army in the Kraków-Silesia Area. He was also a commander of the Service for Poland's Victory in the Kraków area and inspector of the main headquarters of the Union of Armed Struggle and Home Army.

Edward Abramowski

Edward Abramowski 4 Edward Józef Abramowski was a Polish philosopher, libertarian socialist, anarchist, psychologist, ethician, and supporter of cooperatives. Abramowski is also one of the best known activists of classical anarchism in Poland.

Ignacy Chrzanowski

Ignacy Chrzanowski 4 Ignacy Chrzanowski was a Polish historian of literature, professor of the Jagiellonian University, arrested by the Nazis as part of the Sonderaktion Krakau and killed in the Sachsenhausen concentration camp.

Emil Szramek

Emil Szramek 4 Emil Szramek was a Polish and Roman Catholic priest. He graduated from the University of Wrocław. He died in a Nazi concentration camp at Dachau. He is one of the 108 Martyrs of World War II who were beatified in 1999 by Pope John Paul II.

Richard Wagner

Richard Wagner 4 Wilhelm Richard Wagner was a German composer, theatre director, polemicist, and conductor who is chiefly known for his operas. Unlike most opera composers, Wagner wrote both the libretto and the music for each of his stage works. Initially establishing his reputation as a composer of works in the romantic vein of Carl Maria von Weber and Giacomo Meyerbeer, Wagner revolutionised opera through his concept of the Gesamtkunstwerk, by which he sought to synthesise the poetic, visual, musical and dramatic arts, with music subsidiary to drama. He described this vision in a series of essays published between 1849 and 1852. Wagner realised these ideas most fully in the first half of the four-opera cycle Der Ring des Nibelungen.

Edmund Osmańczyk

Edmund Osmańczyk 4 Edmund Jan Osmańczyk, was a Polish writer, author of Encyclopedia of the United Nations and International Agreements.

Émile Zola

Émile Zola 4 Émile Édouard Charles Antoine Zola was a French novelist, journalist, playwright, the best-known practitioner of the literary school of naturalism, and an important contributor to the development of theatrical naturalism. He was a major figure in the political liberalization of France and in the exoneration of the falsely accused and convicted army officer Alfred Dreyfus, which is encapsulated in his renowned newspaper opinion headlined J'Accuse…!  Zola was nominated for the first and second Nobel Prize in Literature in 1901 and 1902.

Rudolf Weigl

Rudolf Weigl 4 Rudolf Stefan Jan Weigl was a Polish biologist, physician and inventor, known for creating the first effective vaccine against epidemic typhus. He was nominated for the Nobel Prize in Medicine each year between 1930 and 1934, and from 1936 to 1939.

Bolesław Biegas

Bolesław Biegas 4 Bolesław Biegas (1877–1954) was a Polish, surrealist and Symbolist painter and sculptor.           

Lucjan Siemieński

Lucjan Siemieński 4 Lucjan Hipolit Siemieński was a Polish Romantic poet, prose writer, translator and literary critic. 

Augustyn Świder

Augustyn Świder 4 Augustyn Świder, pseud. A. Ś., Kuba z Jagód, Robotnik, Sfinks − polski hutnik, poeta, publicysta, powstaniec oraz działacz społeczny.

Antoni Kocjan

Antoni Kocjan 4 Antoni Kocjan was a renowned Polish glider constructor and a contributor to the intelligence services of the Polish Home Army during World War II.

Tadeusz Reger

Tadeusz Reger 4 Tadeusz Reger – polski działacz socjalistyczny na Śląsku Cieszyńskim, poseł do austriackiej Rady Państwa i na sejm II RP (1919–1935), prezes Rady Narodowej Księstwa Cieszyńskiego.

Jan Samsonowicz (geolog)

Jan Samsonowicz (geolog) 4 Jan Samsonowicz – polski geolog i paleontolog, profesor uniwersytetów we Lwowie i Warszawie, wieloletni kierownik Katedry Geologii Historycznej Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego, członek rzeczywisty Polskiej Akademii Nauk.

Andrzej Galica

Andrzej Galica 4 Andrzej Galica – generał brygady Wojska Polskiego, działacz niepodległościowy, kawaler Orderu Virtuti Militari, twórca formacji strzelców podhalańskich, inżynier, polityk, poseł na Sejm RP, członek Głównego Sądu Koleżeńskiego Związku Legionistów Polskich od 1936 roku, członek Prezydium Rady Naczelnej Obozu Zjednoczenia Narodowego w 1939 roku, działacz regionalny ruchu podhalańskiego, literat.

Jan Piwnik

Jan Piwnik 4 Jan Piwnik was a Polish World War II soldier, a cichociemny and a notable leader of the Home Army in the Świętokrzyskie Mountains. He used the nickname Ponury and Donat.

Wincenty Rapacki

Wincenty Rapacki 4 Wincenty Rapacki was a Polish actor and theatre director.                                           

Adam Jerzy Czartoryski

Adam Jerzy Czartoryski 4 Adam Jerzy Czartoryski, in English known as Adam George Czartoryski, was a Polish nobleman, statesman, diplomat and author.

Stanisław Bareja

Stanisław Bareja 4 Stanisław Sylwester Bareja was a Polish filmmaker. Some of his films have reached cult status in Poland.

Karl Liebknecht

Karl Liebknecht 4 Karl Paul August Friedrich Liebknecht was a German socialist and anti-militarist. A member of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) beginning in 1900, he was one of its deputies in the Reichstag from 1912 to 1916, where he represented the left-revolutionary wing of the party. In 1916 he was expelled from the SPD's parliamentary group for his opposition to the Burgfriedenspolitik, the political truce between all parties in the Reichstag while the war lasted. He twice spent time in prison, first for writing an anti-militarism pamphlet in 1907 and then for his role in a 1916 antiwar demonstration. He was released from the second under a general amnesty three weeks before the end of the First World War.

Stefan Bobrowski

Stefan Bobrowski 4 Stefan Bobrowski was a Polish politician and activist for Polish independence. He participated in the January 1863 Uprising as one of the leaders of its "Red" faction and as a member of that faction's Central National Committee, and of the Provisional National Government.

Marcin Bielski

Marcin Bielski 4 Marcin Bielski was a Polish soldier, historian, chronicler, renaissance satirical poet, writer and translator. His son, Joachim Bielski, royal secretary to king Sigismund III Vasa, was also a historian and poet. He was born of noble parentage on the patrimonial estate of Biała, Pajęczno County, in the Polish province of Sieradz. His alternate surname Wolski derives from his estate at Wola. One of two Polish writers of the same name, he was the first to use the Polish language, hence his designation as the father of Polish prose.

Wacław Sierpiński

Wacław Sierpiński 4 Wacław Franciszek Sierpiński was a Polish mathematician. He was known for contributions to set theory, number theory, theory of functions, and topology. He published over 700 papers and 50 books.

Stefan Bryła

Stefan Bryła 4 Stefan Władysław Bryła was a Polish construction engineer and welding pioneer. He designed and built the first welded road bridge in the world.

Stanisław Bodych

Stanisław Bodych 4 Stanisław Bodych ps. Rawicz – dowódca kompanii w 7. pułku AK Garłuch.                               

Jan Baczewski

Jan Baczewski 4 Jan Baczewski – polski działacz polityczny i oświatowy w Niemczech, w okresie Republiki Weimarskiej poseł do pruskiego Landtagu, poseł do polskiego Sejmu Ustawodawczego (1947–1952).

Roman Żuliński

Roman Żuliński 4 Roman Żuliński - a Polish mathematician and co-commander of the January Uprising.                   


Prometheus 4 In Greek mythology, Prometheus is one of the Titans and a god of fire. Prometheus is best known for defying the Olympian gods by stealing fire from them and giving it to humanity in the form of technology, knowledge, and more generally, civilization.

Walery Przyborowski

Walery Przyborowski 4 Walery Zygmunt Lucjan Przyborowski, ps. „Zygmunt Lucjan Sulima”, „Żelisław Krzywda" oraz "Wanda L." – polski historyk, pisarz, uczestnik powstania styczniowego (1863–1864).

Wiktor Gomulicki

Wiktor Gomulicki 4 Wiktor Teofil Gomulicki was a Polish poet, novelist and essayist. He was also a major advocate of Positivism.

Ivan Michurin (biologist)

Ivan Michurin (biologist) 4 Ivan Vladimirovich Michurin was a Russian practitioner of selection to produce new types of crop plants, Honorable Member of the Soviet Academy of Sciences, and academician of the Lenin All-Union Academy of Agriculture.

Casimir Funk

Casimir Funk 4 Casimir Funk was a Polish biochemist generally credited with being among the first to formulate the concept of vitamins after publishing a landmark medical writing in 1912. He highlighted these "vital amines" as critical in fighting significant diseases such as pellagra and rickets, and his analysis influenced a major shift in scientific thinking. His scientific work involved research in Poland, France and the United Kingdom. In 1920, he became a citizen of the United States where he continued his work.

Paweł Steller

Paweł Steller 4 Paweł Steller – artysta plastyk, uczeń Władysława Skoczylasa.                                       

Walenty Fojkis

Walenty Fojkis 4 Włodzimierz Walenty Fojkis – polski działacz narodowy na Górnym Śląsku.                             

Jędrzej Moraczewski

Jędrzej Moraczewski 4 Jędrzej Edward Moraczewski was a Polish socialist politician who, loyal to Józef Piłsudski and viewed as acceptable by both left- and right-wing Polish political factions, served as the second Prime Minister of the Second Polish Republic between November 1918 and January 1919. He had previously served as Minister of Communications. Subsequently, from 1925 to 1929, he served as Minister of Public Labour.

Dietrich Hrabak

Dietrich Hrabak 4 Dietrich "Dieter" Hrabak was a German Luftwaffe military aviator and wing commander during World War II. Following the war, he became a Generalmajor in the German Air Force of West Germany. As a fighter ace, he claimed 125 enemy aircraft shot down in over 1000 combat missions. The majority of his aerial victories were claimed over the Eastern Front with 16 claims over the Western Allies.

Józef Czempiel

Józef Czempiel 4 Józef Czempiel was a Polish Roman Catholic priest, activist. He was murdered in Dachau concentration camp.

Marian Hemar

Marian Hemar 4 Marian Hemar (1901–1972), born Marian Hescheles, was a Polish poet, journalist, playwright, comedy writer, and songwriter. Hemar himself stated that before the outbreak of World War II he had already written 1,200 songs, including such widely popular hits as Może kiedyś innym razem and Upić się warto . Hemar was a final pen name adopted by Marian in his literary career. It was formed from the first two letters of his last name, Hescheles, and the first three letters of his given name, Marian.

Józef Sierakowski (dyplomata)

Józef Sierakowski (dyplomata) 4 Józef Sierakowski – polski historyk i polityk, radca stanu, członek Komisji Najwyższej Egzaminacyjnej w Królestwie w 1829 roku.

Władysław Bartoszewski

Władysław Bartoszewski 4 Władysław Bartoszewski was a Polish politician, social activist, journalist, writer and historian. A former Auschwitz concentration camp prisoner, he was a World War II resistance fighter as part of the Polish underground and participated in the Warsaw Uprising. After the war he was persecuted and imprisoned by the communist Polish People's Republic due to his membership in the Home Army and opposition activity.

Henryk Sławik

Henryk Sławik 4 Henryk Sławik was a Polish politician in the interwar period, social worker, activist, and diplomat, who during World War II helped save over 30,000 Polish refugees, including 5,000 Polish Jews in Budapest, Hungary, by giving them false Polish passports with Catholic designation. He was executed with some of his fellow Polish activists on order of Reichsführer SS in concentration camp Gusen on 23 August 1944.

Jan Andrzej Morsztyn

Jan Andrzej Morsztyn 4 Jan Andrzej Morsztyn (1621–93) was a Polish poet, member of the landed nobility, and official in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. He was starosta of Zawichost, Tymbark and Kowal. He was also pantler of Sandomierz (1647–58), Royal Secretary, a secular referendary (1658–68), and Deputy Crown Treasurer from 1668. Apart from his career at the Polish court, Morsztyn is famous as a leading poet of the Polish Baroque and a prominent representative of Marinist style in Polish literature. Over his lifetime he accumulated considerable wealth. In 1683 he was accused of treason and was forced to emigrate to France.

Henryk Baron

Henryk Baron 4 Henryk Baron ps. „Smukły”, „Garbarz” – polski działacz socjalistyczny. Członek Organizacji Bojowej PPS. Uczestnik wielu akcji zbrojnych. Stracony na Cytadeli w 1907.

Tadeusz Breza

Tadeusz Breza 4 Tadeusz Breza – powieściopisarz i eseista, a także dyplomata w służbie II Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej oraz Polskiej Rzeczypospolitej Ludowej.

Ursula Ledóchowska

Ursula Ledóchowska 4 Julia Ledóchowska, USAHJ, religious name Maria Ursula of Jesus, was a religious sister and the foundress of the Ursulines of the Agonizing Heart of Jesus. Ledóchowska was a prolific supporter of Polish independence which she often spoke about at conferences across Scandinavia while she settled in Russia for a time to open convents until her expulsion. But she continued to found convents across Scandinavian countries and even translated a Finnish catechism for the faithful there while later founding her own order which she would later manage from Rome at the behest of Pope Benedict XV.

Julian Skokowski

Julian Skokowski 4 Julian Skokowski, ps. „Zaborski”, „Sulima” − generał brygady ludowego Wojska Polskiego. Komendant Polskiej Armii Ludowej podczas powstania warszawskiego. Więzień stalinowski.

Mieczysław Słaby

Mieczysław Słaby 4 Mieczysław Mikołaj Słaby – was an officer and medic in the Polish Army during the Invasion of Poland, notably during the Battle of Westerplatte. He was posthumously awarded the Order of Virtuti Militari.

Józef Czyżewski (działacz narodowy)

Józef Czyżewski (działacz narodowy) 4 Józef Czyżewski – polski drukarz, działacz narodowy w Gdańsku.                                     

Gregory of Sanok

Gregory of Sanok 4 Gregory of Sanok was a Polish bishop, a professor at the Kraków Academy, metropolitan archbishop of Lwów, scholar, philosopher and a major figure of Polish humanism.

Stanisława Walasiewicz

Stanisława Walasiewicz 4 Stanisława Walasiewicz, also known as Stefania Walasiewicz, and Stella Walsh, was a Polish-American track and field athlete, who became a women's Olympic champion in the 100 metres. Born in Poland and raised in the United States, she became an American citizen in 1947.

Józef Łukaszewicz (matematyk)

Józef Łukaszewicz (matematyk) 4 Józef Łukaszewicz – polski matematyk, żołnierz Armii Krajowej, profesor i rektor Uniwersytetu Wrocławskiego w latach 1981–1982, działacz katolicki.

Leon Frankowski

Leon Frankowski 4 Leon Frankowski, komisarz Rządu Narodowego w województwie lubelskim do lutego 1863 roku, dowódca oddziału w powstaniu styczniowym.

Jan Wantuła

Jan Wantuła 4 Jan Wantuła, ps. Jan Gojański – polski ślusarz hutniczy, sadownik, pisarz ludowy i bibliofil.       

Stefan Skoczylas

Stefan Skoczylas 4 Stefan Skoczylas, ps. Piotr Giela, Piotr Konar – polski wydawca i redaktor prasy podziemnej, komendant podokręgu Siedlce Okręgu Lublin Batalionów Chłopskich, pośmiertnie awansowany do stopnia podpułkownika.

Alexander Jagiellon

Alexander Jagiellon 4 Alexander Jagiellon of the House of Jagiellon was Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1492 and King of Poland from 1501 until his death in 1506. He was the fourth son of Casimir IV Jagiellon. He was elected grand duke of Lithuania upon the death of his father and king of Poland upon the death of his brother John I Albert.

Ludwika Wawrzyńska

Ludwika Wawrzyńska 4 Ludwika Wawrzyńska was a Polish teacher who worked at an elementary school in Warsaw. On February 8, 1955 she rescued four children from a burning house where they had been locked by their parents as they were leaving for work. She died ten days later, on February 18, from severe burns.

Władysław Zamoyski

Władysław Zamoyski 4 Count Władysław Zamoyski (1853–1924) was a French-born Polish nobleman (szlachcic), diplomat and heir of Kórnik, Głuchów, Janusz, Babin and Bargów. Having acquired estates on the Polish side of the Tatra Mountains and in Zakopane, he was an early ecologist and philanthropist. He was mentor to Józef Retinger, who was to become an international political activist during the two world wars and beyond, following the death of the latter's father.

Ivan Krylov

Ivan Krylov 4 Ivan Andreyevich Krylov is Russia's best-known fabulist and probably the most epigrammatic of all Russian authors. Formerly a dramatist and journalist, he only discovered his true genre at the age of 40. While many of his earlier fables were loosely based on Aesop's and La Fontaine's, later fables were original work, often with a satirical bent.

Józef Sarna

Józef Sarna 4 Józef Sarna – podporucznik rezerwy piechoty Wojska Polskiego, dowódca obrony przeprawy przez Wisłę w pobliżu Tarnobrzega, w czasie kampanii wrześniowej 1939.

Antoni Dobrowolski

Antoni Dobrowolski 4 Antoni Dobrowolski was a Polish educator, teacher and Holocaust survivor. At the time of his death in 2012, Dobrowolski was the oldest known survivor of the Auschwitz concentration camp.

Teodora Gulgowska

Teodora Gulgowska 4 Teodora Gulgowska – malarka, aktywistka społeczna, animatorka kaszubskiej kultury i sztuki ludowej. Współzałożycielka pierwszego na terenie Polski skansenu – muzeum na świeżym powietrzu we Wdzydzach Kiszewskich k. Kościerzyny, który zajmuje 22 ha nad brzegiem jeziora Gołuń.

Marian Mokwa

Marian Mokwa 4 Marian Mokwa – polski malarz, podróżnik i działacz społeczny.                                       

Józef Wysocki (general)

Józef Wysocki (general) 4 Józef Wysocki was a Polish general, soldier in the November Uprising of 1830, the Hungarian Revolution of 1848 and the January Uprising of 1863.

Dominic Savio

Dominic Savio 4 Dominic Savio was an Italian student of John Bosco. He was studying to be a priest when he became ill and died at the age of 14, possibly from pleurisy. He was noted for his piety and devotion to the Catholic faith, and was canonized a saint by Pope Pius XII in 1954.

Marcin Rożek

Marcin Rożek 4 Marcin Rożek was a Polish sculptor and painter and co-founder and professor at the School of Decorative Arts in Poznań. Rożek is most closely associated with the region of Greater Poland and the city of Poznań, in particular, although he was a well-established and highly regarded artist throughout Poland during the 1920s and 1930s.

Samuel C. Lind

Samuel C. Lind 4 Samuel Colville Lind was a radiation chemist, referred to as "the father of modern radiation chemistry".

Zbigniew Burzyński

Zbigniew Burzyński 4 Zbigniew Jan Władysław Antoni Burzyński, was a Polish balloonist and constructor of balloons, pioneer of Polish balloons, who twice won the Gordon Bennett Cup in ballooning, also beat the world record.

Czesław Wycech

Czesław Wycech 4 Czesław Wycech (1899–1977) was a Polish activist, politician and historian. He was a member of the Polish peasant's parties: the Polish People's Party "Wyzwolenie", the People's Party, the Polish People's Party, and the United People's Party. During World War II he was a member of the Polish Underground State, responsible for organizing underground education. He was the Minister of Education in the Council of National Unity (1945–1947). Within the People's Republic of Poland, he was a member of the Polish parliament (Sejm) and also held other governmental posts.

Adam Rapacki

Adam Rapacki 4 Adam Rapacki was a leading Polish Communist politician and diplomat from 1947 to 1968. He started in the socialist movement but in 1948 joined the Central Committee of the new Polish United Workers' Party (PZPR), and became a member of its Politburo. It had very close ties to the Kremlin. He is best known for his 1957 proposal for the creation of nuclear-free zones in Europe; it was never adopted. He maintained good relations with East Germany while warning against West German expansionism. Piotr Wandycz considers that he was well educated, cosmopolitan, pragmatic, liberal and ambitious, and imbued with a sense of patriotism and belief in cooperation with the left in Western Europe.

Karol Adwentowicz

Karol Adwentowicz 4 Karol Adwentowicz was a Polish actor and theater director. Adwentowicz fought in the Polish Legions in World War I, and upon the return of Poland's sovereignty, embarked on a hugely successful touring career across the country. During the Nazi occupation of Poland he was imprisoned in Pawiak. He died in Warsaw, two years after the Polish October.

Rajmund Rembieliński

Rajmund Rembieliński 4 Rajmund Rembieliński (1774–1841) was a Polish nobleman (szlachcic), political activist, and landowner.

Tytus Czyżewski

Tytus Czyżewski 4 Tytus Czyżewski was a Polish painter, art theoretician, Futurist poet, playwright, member of the Polish Formists and a Colorist.

Nicholas von Renys

Nicholas von Renys 4 Nicholas von Renys (1360–1411) was a secular member of the Teutonic Knights and a participant in the Polish–Lithuanian–Teutonic War (1409–1411). The Knights blamed him as a scapegoat for their defeat in the Battle of Grunwald, and he was beheaded without trial in 1411.

Marian Żelazek

Marian Żelazek 4 Marian Żelazek (1918–2006) was a Polish Roman Catholic priest of the Society of the Divine Word (SVD) who lived in India and served amongst the people of Orissa. He is remembered for his service and care towards the lepers in the region. He was the last foreign missionary of the SVD congregation in India. He was declared Servant of God on 25 August 2018.

Julian Goslar

Julian Goslar 4 Julian Maciej Goslar – polski działacz rewolucyjny, uczestnik Wiosny Ludów, autor broszur politycznych i poezji więziennej. Uczestniczył w przygotowaniach do rewolucji 1846 w Rzeszowskiem i na Podhalu.

Bernard Wapowski

Bernard Wapowski 4 Bernard Wapowski (1475-1535) was one of the earliest Polish cartographers and is credited for making the first detailed map of Poland in 1526. Wapowski is considered to be the "Father of Polish Cartography". Wapowski served as the secretary of King Sigismund the Old and made several advancements in Polish cartography by creating several maps of Eastern Europe including Poland, Sarmatia, Scandinavia, Warmia (Ermland), and Pomerania with some assistance from Nicolaus Copernicus.

Jadwiga Smosarska

Jadwiga Smosarska 4 Jadwiga Smosarska was a Polish film actress. She appeared in more than 25 films between 1919 and 1937, as well as various stage productions.

Józef Kapuściński

Józef Kapuściński 4 Józef Kapuściński – emisariusz Towarzystwa Demokratycznego Polskiego. Prowadził w okręgu Pilzno w Galicji przygotowania powstańcze, kierował m.in. atakiem na burmistrza Pilzna. Został ujęty, skazany na śmierć i powieszony wraz z Teofilem Wiśniowskim na Górze Stracenia w Kleparowie pod Lwowem.

Andrzej Samulowski (poeta)

Andrzej Samulowski (poeta) 4 Andrzej Samulowski – warmiński poeta ludowy, działacz oświatowy i społeczny, nauczyciel, żył i pracował w Gietrzwałdzie, gdzie założył w 1878 r. pierwszą polską księgarnię na Warmii. Budynek ten zachował się do dzisiaj.

Ludwig van Beethoven

Ludwig van Beethoven 4 Ludwig van Beethoven was a German composer and pianist. He is one of the most revered figures in the history of Western music; his works rank among the most performed of the classical music repertoire and span the transition from the Classical period to the Romantic era in classical music. Beethoven's career has conventionally been divided into early, middle, and late periods. His early period, during which he forged his craft, is typically considered to have lasted until 1802. From 1802 to around 1812, his middle period showed an individual development from the styles of Joseph Haydn and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, and is sometimes characterized as heroic. During this time, he began to grow increasingly deaf. In his late period, from 1812 to 1827, he extended his innovations in musical form and expression.

Charles de Gaulle

Charles de Gaulle 4 Charles André Joseph Marie de Gaulle was a French army officer and statesman who led the Free French Forces against Nazi Germany in World War II and chaired the Provisional Government of the French Republic from 1944 to 1946 to restore democracy in France. In 1958, amid the Algerian War, he came out of retirement when appointed Prime Minister by President René Coty. He rewrote the Constitution of France and founded the Fifth Republic after approval by referendum. He was elected President of France later that year, a position he held until his resignation in 1969.

Kazimierz Bogdanowicz (powstaniec)

Kazimierz Bogdanowicz (powstaniec) 4 Kazimierz Józef Bogdanowicz herbu Łada – polski szlachcic, dowódca oddziału wojsk polskich w czasie powstania styczniowego.

Jan Bytnar

Jan Bytnar 4 Jan Roman Bytnar, nom de guerre "Rudy" (Ginger) was a Polish scoutmaster, a member of Polish scouting anti-Nazi resistance, and a lieutenant in the Home Army during the Second World War.

Karol Małłek

Karol Małłek 4 Karol Małłek – działacz mazurski, pisarz, folklorysta, publicysta i nauczyciel. Pochodził z rodziny polskiej.

Saint Isidora

Saint Isidora 4 Saint Isidora, or Saint Isidore, was a Christian nun and saint of the 4th century AD. She is considered among the earliest fools for Christ. While very little is known of Isidora's life, she is remembered for her exemplification of the writing of St. Paul that “Whosoever of you believes that he is wise by the measure of this world, may he become a fool, so as to become truly wise.” The story of Isidora effectively highlights the Christian ideal that recognition or glory from man is second to one's actions being seen by God, even if that means one's actions or even one's self remains unknown or misunderstood. This ideal was extremely important to the early Desert Fathers and Mothers who recorded Isidora's story.

Luke the Evangelist

Luke the Evangelist 4 Luke the Evangelist is one of the Four Evangelists—the four traditionally ascribed authors of the canonical gospels. The Early Church Fathers ascribed to him authorship of both the Gospel of Luke and the Acts of the Apostles. Prominent figures in early Christianity such as Jerome and Eusebius later reaffirmed his authorship, although a lack of conclusive evidence as to the identity of the author of the works has led to discussion in scholarly circles, both secular and religious.

Mahatma Gandhi

Mahatma Gandhi 4 Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was an Indian lawyer, anti-colonial nationalist and political ethicist who employed nonviolent resistance to lead the successful campaign for India's independence from British rule. He inspired movements for civil rights and freedom across the world. The honorific Mahātmā, first applied to him in South Africa in 1914, is now used throughout the world.

Joanna Chmielewska

Joanna Chmielewska 4 Joanna Chmielewska, was the pen name of Irena Kühn, a Polish novelist and screenwriter. Her work is often described as "ironic detective stories". Her novels, which have been translated into at least eleven languages, have sold more than 6 million copies in Poland and over 10 million copies in Russia.

Mieczysław Fogg

Mieczysław Fogg 4 Mieczysław Fogg was a Polish singer and artist. His popularity started well before World War II and continued well into the 1980s. He had a characteristic way of staying very serious yet slightly emotional on stage when singing. Fogg had a lyric baritone voice and can be compared to French Tino Rossi in style.

Mamert Stankiewicz

Mamert Stankiewicz 4 Mamert Stankiewicz was a Polish naval officer of the merchant marine, the commander of Lwów, Polonia and finally captain of the Polish ocean liner Piłsudski, which was incorporated into the UK Royal Navy and converted into the ship transporting British and Polish soldiers during World War II. On 26 November 1939, Pilsudski was torpedoed by German U-boat, and Stankiewicz, after inspecting the entire sinking ship to ensure that there were no sailors and soldiers left behind, and after rescuing sailors and soldiers from the ice-cold Northern Atlantic, died of exhaustion. Stankiewicz's life was immortalized by Karol Olgierd Borchardt, whose series of books on Stankiewicz became a best-seller among Polish maritime books.

Bogumił Kobiela

Bogumił Kobiela 4 Bogumił Kobiela was a Polish stage and film actor. He is best known for his performances as Drewnowski in Andrzej Wajda's 1958 drama film Ashes and Diamonds and as Jan Piszczyk in Andrzej Munk's black comedy film Bad Luck (1960).


Homer 4 Homer was a Greek poet who is credited as the author of the Iliad and the Odyssey, two epic poems that are foundational works of ancient Greek literature. Homer is considered one of the most revered and influential authors in history.

Andrzej Grubba

Andrzej Grubba 4 Andrzej Stanisław Grubba was a Polish table tennis player.                                         

Anna Dorota Chrzanowska

Anna Dorota Chrzanowska 4 Anna Dorota Chrzanowska née von Fresen, was a Polish heroine of the Polish–Ottoman War (1672–76), known for her acts during the Battle of Trembowla in 1675.

Michał Marian Siedlecki

Michał Marian Siedlecki 4 Michał Marian Siedlecki was a Polish zoologist.                                                     

Franciszek Morawski

Franciszek Morawski 4 Franciszek Dzierżykraj Morawski was a divisional general in the Polish army, a minister of war during the November Uprising, poet, literary critic, translator, and playwright.

Maćko z Bogdańca

Maćko z Bogdańca 4 Maćko z Bogdańca – fikcyjna postać z powieści Krzyżacy H. Sienkiewicza; rycerz, stryj i opiekun Zbyszka, marzący o odbudowie rodowej posiadłości w Bogdańcu.

Włodzimierz Perzyński

Włodzimierz Perzyński 3 Włodzimierz Perzyński was a Polish writer and dramatist, who was a member of the Young Poland movement. His most famous plays include Lekkomyślna siostra (1907), Aszantka (1906), and Szczęście Frania (1906).

Stanisław Henryk Józef Więckowski

Stanisław Henryk Józef Więckowski 3 Stanisław Henryk Józef Więckowski – pułkownik artylerii Wojska Polskiego.                           

Ludwik Michał Pac

Ludwik Michał Pac 3 Count Ludwik Michał Pac was a France-born commander in the Grande Armée, the Army of the Duchy of Warsaw and the Uprising of 1831. Depending on the source, he is called Lithuanian or Polish. He was one of the last representatives of the noble Pac family.

Roald Amundsen

Roald Amundsen 3 Roald Engelbregt Gravning Amundsen was a Norwegian explorer of polar regions. He was a key figure of the period known as the Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration.

Icchok Malmed

Icchok Malmed 3 Icchok Malmed was a Polish Jew and fighter of the Białystok Ghetto during the German occupation of Poland in World War II.

Rosa Luxemburg

Rosa Luxemburg 3 Rosa Luxemburg was a Polish and naturalised-German revolutionary socialist, orthodox Marxist, and anti-War activist during the First World War. She became a key figure of the revolutionary socialist movements of Poland and Germany during the late 19th and early 20th century, particularly the Spartacist uprising.

Tadeusz Romanowicz

Tadeusz Romanowicz 3 Tadeusz Romanowicz – polski literat, polityk demokratyczny, poseł na galicyjski Sejm Krajowy i do austriackiej Rady Państwa, członek stowarzyszeń konspiracyjnych w Galicji, powstaniec styczniowy, więzień Ołomuńca.

Ludomił Rayski

Ludomił Rayski 3 Ludomił Antoni Rayski was a Polish engineer, pilot, military officer and aviator. He served as the commander of the Polish Air Force between 1926 and 1939, being responsible for modernization of Polish military aviation. Throughout his life he also served in the Austro-Hungarian Army, Polish Legions, Turkish Army, Turkish Air Force, French Air Force, French Foreign Legion and Royal Air Force. He was also known as one of the most colourful personalities of inter-war Poland - and one of its least submissive officers.

Zygmunt Moczyński

Zygmunt Moczyński 3 Zygmunt Moczyński – pedagog muzyczny, kompozytor, dyrygent, przywódca pomorskiej organizacji konspiracyjnej Batalion Śmierci za Wolność w latach 1939–1940.

Jan Konstanty Żupański

Jan Konstanty Żupański 3 Jan Konstanty Żupański – polski księgarz i wydawca.                                                 

Józef Pukowiec

Józef Pukowiec 3 Józef Pukowiec codename: Chmura, Pukoc was a Polish teacher, scoutmaster, and Polish resistance activist during the Second World War.

Władysław Nehring

Władysław Nehring 3 Władysław Nehring – polski językoznawca i historyk, badacz języka starosłowiańskiego, autor prac naukowych i popularnonaukowych z dziedziny historii Słowian i gramatyki języków słowiańskich.

Józef Dietl

Józef Dietl 3 Józef Dietl was an Austro-Polish physician born to an Austrian father and Polish mother. He studied medicine in Lviv and Vienna. He was a pioneer in balneology, and a professor of Jagiellonian University, elected as its rector in 1861. Dietl described the kidney ailment known as "Dietl's crisis" as well as its treatment.

Franciszek Jan Smolka

Franciszek Jan Smolka 3 Franciszek Jan Smolka – polski prawnik, działacz tajnych organizacji niepodległościowych, polityk demokratyczny i liberalny, działacz społeczny, prezydent Sejmu Ustawodawczego w Kromieryżu i austriackiej Rady Państwa, poseł do Sejmu Krajowego Galicji, twórca Kopca Unii Lubelskiej we Lwowie.

Władysław Umiński

Władysław Umiński 3 Władysław Jan Umiński – polski pisarz i eseista tworzący w nurcie powieści przygodowej oraz fantastyki naukowej, popularnie nazywany „polskim Juliuszem Verne’em”, przyrodnik. Jego twórczość zawierała czesto akcenty patriotyczno-wolnościowe.

Edward Wittig

Edward Wittig 3 Edward Wittig was a Polish sculptor and university professor, notable for designing many monuments in Warsaw.

Leon Wetmański

Leon Wetmański 3 Leon Wetmański was a Polish Catholic auxiliary Bishop of the Płock diocese who was killed in Soldau concentration camp. He was beatified in 1999 as one of the 108 Blessed Polish Martyrs.

Zygmunt Działowski

Zygmunt Działowski 3 Zygmunt Działowski herbu Prawdzic albo Zygmunt Prawdzic – polski ziemianin, polityk, archeolog, pochodzący z Działowa, mieszkający w Mgowie; działający w Toruniu. Przedstawiciel znanej rodziny Działowskich, brat Antoniny Działowskiej. Poseł do Reichstagu z okręgu Kartuzy-Wejherowo. Patron ulicy w Gdyni, Toruniu, Wałyczu oraz Liceum Ogólnokształcącego w Wąbrzeźnie.

Clara Zetkin

Clara Zetkin 3 Clara Zetkin was a German Marxist theorist, communist activist, and advocate for women's rights.   

Stanisław Dygat

Stanisław Dygat 3 Stanisław Dygat was a Polish writer. His most famous novel, "Jezioro Bodeńskie", was written during World War II and published in 1946. All of his works are partly autobiographical.

Helena Boguszewska

Helena Boguszewska 3 Helena Boguszewska, née Radlińska (1883–1978) was a Polish writer, columnist and a social activist. 

Zenon Kosidowski

Zenon Kosidowski 3 Zenon Alojzy Kosidowski – polski pisarz, eseista, poeta.                                           

Leopold Tyrmand

Leopold Tyrmand 3 Leopold Tyrmand was a Polish novelist, writer, and editor. Tyrmand emigrated from Poland to the United States in 1966 and five years later married an American, Mary Ellen Fox. He served as editor of an anti-communist monthly Chronicles of Culture with John A. Howard. Tyrmand died of a heart attack at the age of 64 in Florida.

Władysław Anczyc

Władysław Anczyc 3 Władysław Marceli Anczyc – polski współwłaściciel drukarni, filolog, muzykolog, pianista, geolog oraz taternik, działacz sportowy i kapitan Wojska Polskiego.

Teodor Parnicki

Teodor Parnicki 3 Teodor Parnicki (1908–1988) was a Polish writer, notable for his historical novels. He is especially renowned for works related to the early medieval Middle East, the late Roman and the Byzantine Empires.

Honoré de Balzac

Honoré de Balzac 3 Honoré de Balzac was a French novelist and playwright. The novel sequence La Comédie humaine, which presents a panorama of post-Napoleonic French life, is generally viewed as his magnum opus.

Roman Zmorski

Roman Zmorski 3 Roman Zmorski, piszący również pod pseudonimami Roman Mazur oraz Roman Zamarski – polski poeta, tłumacz i folklorysta epoki romantyzmu, najwybitniejszy przedstawiciel tzw. Cyganerii Warszawskiej; autor liryki ludowej silnie związanej z tradycją Mazowsza.

Witold Wojtkiewicz

Witold Wojtkiewicz 3 Witold Wojtkiewicz was a Polish painter, illustrator and printmaker. Although generally considered an Expressionist, some of his works are precursors of Surrealism.

Leonardo da Vinci

Leonardo da Vinci 3 Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci was an Italian polymath of the High Renaissance who was active as a painter, draughtsman, engineer, scientist, theorist, sculptor, and architect. While his fame initially rested on his achievements as a painter, he has also become known for his notebooks, in which he made drawings and notes on a variety of subjects, including anatomy, astronomy, botany, cartography, painting, and paleontology. Leonardo is widely regarded to have been a genius who epitomized the Renaissance humanist ideal, and his collective works comprise a contribution to later generations of artists matched only by that of his younger contemporary Michelangelo.

Tadeusz Miciński

Tadeusz Miciński 3 Tadeusz Miciński was an influential Polish poet, gnostic and playwright, and was a forerunner of Expressionism and Surrealism. He is one of the writers of the Young Poland period. His writings are strong influenced by Dark Romanticism and Romantic gothic fiction, with a focus on moral battles between good and evil. He was called by many a wizard poet and a worshipper of mysteries.

Franciszek Juszczak

Franciszek Juszczak 3 Franciszek Juszczak – działacz polonijny związany z Wrocławiem i Dolnym Śląskiem, w latach 1922–1939 kierownik wrocławskiego oddziału Związku Polaków w Niemczech.

Jean-Pierre Norblin de La Gourdaine

Jean-Pierre Norblin de La Gourdaine 3 Jean-Pierre Norblin de La Gourdaine was a French painter, draughtsman, engraver and caricaturist. Born in France, from 1774 to 1796 he resided in Poland.

Czesław Klimas

Czesław Klimas 3 Czesław Klimas – ksiądz i działacz polski na Śląsku, poseł do sejmu pruskiego Republiki Weimarskiej.

Ivan Pavlov

Ivan Pavlov 3 Ivan Petrovich Pavlov was a Russian and Soviet experimental neurologist and physiologist known for his discovery of classical conditioning through his experiments with dogs.

Frédéric Joliot-Curie

Frédéric Joliot-Curie 3 Jean Frédéric Joliot-Curie was a French physicist and husband of Irène Joliot-Curie, with whom he was jointly awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1935 for their discovery of induced radioactivity. They were the second ever married couple, after his wife's parents, to win the Nobel Prize, adding to the Curie family legacy of five Nobel Prizes. Joliot-Curie and his wife also founded the Orsay Faculty of Sciences, part of the Paris-Saclay University.

Mieczysław Halka-Ledóchowski

Mieczysław Halka-Ledóchowski 3 Mieczysław Halka-Ledóchowski, was born in Górki in Russian-controlled Congress Poland to Count Josef Ledóchowski and Maria Zakrzewska. He was uncle to Saint Ursula Ledóchowska, the Blessed Maria Teresia (Theresa) Ledóchowska and Father Włodzimierz Ledóchowski, General Superior of the Society of Jesus.

Kazimierz Bartel

Kazimierz Bartel 3 Kazimierz Władysław Bartel was a Polish mathematician, freemason, scholar, diplomat and politician who served as 15th, 17th and 19th Prime Minister of Poland three times between 1926 and 1930 and the Senator of Poland from 1937 until the outbreak of World War II.

Artur Oppman

Artur Oppman 3 Artur Franciszek Oppman was a Young Poland poet who wrote under the pen name "Or-Ot".               

Maciej Miechowita

Maciej Miechowita 3 Maciej Miechowita was a Polish renaissance scholar, professor of Jagiellonian University, historian, chronicler, geographer, medical doctor, alchemist, astrologer and canon in Kraków.

Jan Styczyński (lekarz)

Jan Styczyński (lekarz) 3 Jan Roman Styczyński – lekarz, nauczyciel akademicki, dr hab. nauk medycznych, profesor zwyczajny Wydziału Lekarskiego i Katedry Pediatrii, Hematologii i Onkologii Collegium Medicum im. Ludwika Rydygiera w Bydgoszczy Uniwersytetu Mikołaja Kopernika w Toruniu. W latach 2012-2016 pełnił funkcję prorektora ds. Collegium Medicum UMK. Konsultant Krajowy w dziedzinie onkologii i hematologii dziecięcej od 2017r. Redaktor Naczelny „Acta Haematologica Polonica”.

Danuta Szaflarska

Danuta Szaflarska 3 Danuta Szaflarska was a Polish film and stage actress. In 2008 she was awarded the Złota Kaczka for the best Polish actress of the century. Szaflarska participated in the Warsaw Uprising as a liaison. Szaflarska was awarded the Order of Polonia Restituta, Commander's Cross and Commander's Cross with Star, one of Poland's highest Orders and Gold Medal of Gloria Artis (2007).

Giuseppe Garibaldi

Giuseppe Garibaldi 3 Giuseppe Maria Garibaldi was an Italian general, patriot, revolutionary and republican. He contributed to Italian unification (Risorgimento) and the creation of the Kingdom of Italy. He is considered to be one of Italy's "fathers of the fatherland", along with Camillo Benso, Count of Cavour, Victor Emmanuel II of Italy and Giuseppe Mazzini. Garibaldi is also known as the "Hero of the Two Worlds" because of his military enterprises in South America and Europe.

Czesław Witoszyński

Czesław Witoszyński 3 Czesław Maciej Witoszyński – polski inżynier mechanik, konstruktor maszyn, profesor aerodynamiki, nazywany ojcem polskiego lotnictwa.

Tadeusz Pełczyński

Tadeusz Pełczyński 3 Tadeusz Walenty Pełczyński was a Polish Army major general, intelligence officer and chief of the General Staff's Section II.

Jerzy Żuławski

Jerzy Żuławski 3 Jerzy Żuławski was a Polish literary figure, philosopher, translator, alpinist and patriot whose best-known work is the science-fiction epic, Trylogia Księżycowa, written between 1901 and 1911.

Jan Kowalczyk

Jan Kowalczyk 3 Jan Kowalczyk was a Polish show jumping competitor. He competed in the 1968, 1972 and 1980 Olympics and won an individual gold and a team silver medal in 1980.

Mikhail Lermontov

Mikhail Lermontov 3 Mikhail Yuryevich Lermontov was a Russian Romantic writer, poet and painter, sometimes called "the poet of the Caucasus", the most important Russian poet after Alexander Pushkin's death in 1837 and the greatest figure in Russian Romanticism. His influence on later Russian literature is still felt in modern times, not only through his poetry, but also through his prose, which founded the tradition of the Russian psychological novel.

Konrad Guderski

Konrad Guderski 3 Konrad Guderski, ps. „Konrad” – polski inżynier wodny, dowódca obrony Poczty Polskiej w Wolnym Mieście Gdańsku, podporucznik rezerwy piechoty Wojska Polskiego.

Bolesław Czerwieński

Bolesław Czerwieński 3 Bolesław Czerwieński – polski poeta i dramatopisarz, publicysta, działacz socjalistyczny, autor słów pieśni Czerwony sztandar (1881).

Józef Grzegorzek

Józef Grzegorzek 3 Józef Grzegorzek – polski działacz narodowy, przywódca peowiacki, uczestnik akcji plebiscytowej i III powstania śląskiego.

Karl Godulla

Karl Godulla 3 Karl Godulla, Carolus Godulla, in Polish spelled Karol Godula was a Silesian self-made industrialist, and one of the best-known pioneers in the industrial development of Prussian Silesia.

Barnim I, Duke of Pomerania

Barnim I, Duke of Pomerania 3 Barnim I the Good from the Griffin dynasty was a Duke of Pomerania from 1220 until his death.       

Mikołaj Zyblikiewicz

Mikołaj Zyblikiewicz 3 Mikołaj Zyblikiewicz was a Polish politician and lawyer of Ruthenian origin. He was the two-term Mayor of Kraków – in the then Austrian sector of Partitioned Poland. A street in Kraków's Old Town is named in his memory, while his monument stands in front of the City Hall.

Mikołaj Wierzynek (młodszy)

Mikołaj Wierzynek (młodszy) 3 Mikołaj Wierzynek (młodszy) – średniowieczny kupiec, patrycjusz i bankier, syn Mikołaja Wierzynka (starszego).

Stanisław Dębicki

Stanisław Dębicki 3 Stanisław Mieczysław Dębicki, was a Polish painter and illustrator.                                 

Biernat of Lublin

Biernat of Lublin 3 Biernat of Lublin was a Polish poet, fabulist, translator, and physician. He was one of the first Polish-language writers known by name, and the most interesting of the earliest ones. He expressed plebeian, Renaissance, and religiously liberal opinions.

Wawrzyniec Hajda

Wawrzyniec Hajda 3 Wawrzyniec Bartłomiej Hajda – polski działacz ludowy i poeta, z zawodu górnik.                     

Stefan Pogonowski

Stefan Pogonowski 3 Stefan Pogonowski was a Polish professional soldier and military officer. He served in the Imperial Russian Army during World War I and then the newly recreated Polish Army during the Polish-Bolshevist War of 1920. He was killed when leading a charge of a battalion he commanded during the battle of Radzymin. He was posthumously awarded the Silver Cross of Virtuti Militari and promoted to the rank of captain. There are streets named after him in Łódź and Warsaw.

Wacław Seweryn Rzewuski

Wacław Seweryn Rzewuski 3 Wacław Seweryn Rzewuski was a Polish explorer, poet, orientalist and horse expert.                 

Henryk Wiercieński

Henryk Wiercieński 3 Henryk Wojciech Jakub Wiercieński – uczestnik powstania styczniowego, sybirak, publicysta. Zaznaczył się jako obrońca ziemi chełmskiej. Mieszkał w Nałęczowie, Lublinie. Był społecznikiem na terenie Lubelszczyzny.

Kazimierz Szpotański

Kazimierz Szpotański 3 Kazimierz Tadeusz Szpotański – polski inżynier elektryk, pionier przemysłu aparatów elektrycznych. 

Jan Nepomucen Umiński

Jan Nepomucen Umiński 3 Jan Nepomucen Umiński of Cholewa (1778–1851) was a Polish military officer and a brigadier general of the Army of the Duchy of Warsaw. A veteran of the Kościuszko Uprising, Napoleonic Wars and the November Uprising, he died in exile in Wiesbaden.

Stanisław Smolka

Stanisław Smolka 3 Stanisław Smolka was a Polish historian and publicist, professor at the Jagiellonian University and the Catholic University of Lublin, Secretary General of the Polish Academy of Arts and Sciences.

Jerzy Duda-Gracz

Jerzy Duda-Gracz 3 Jerzy Duda-Gracz was a Polish painter.                                                             

Karol Pomianowski

Karol Pomianowski 3 Karol Pomianowski – polski profesor hydrotechniki, inicjator budowy zapory na Dunajcu w Rożnowie, pierwszy dziekan Wydziału Inżynierii Lądowej na polskiej Politechnice Gdańskiej.

Hanna Januszewska

Hanna Januszewska 3 Hanna Januszewska-Moszyńska – polska prozaiczka, poetka, tłumaczka, autorka sztuk teatralnych i słuchowisk.

Józef Weyssenhoff

Józef Weyssenhoff 3 Józef Weyssenhoff was a Polish novelist, poet, literary critic, publisher. Close to the National Democracy political movement after 1905, he paid tribute to the tradition of the Polish landed gentry in the Eastern Borderlands. He lived several years in Bydgoszcz in the 1920s.

Adam Napieralski

Adam Napieralski 3 Adam Napieralski ps. Marian Firlej – polski redaktor, polityk, poeta, powieściopisarz, działacz narodowy i społeczny. Wydawca pierwszej „gadzinówki”.

Michał Oczapowski

Michał Oczapowski 3 Michał Oczapowski – polski agronom, profesor Cesarskiego Uniwersytetu Wileńskiego, pionier doświadczalnictwa rolniczego, teoretyk rolnictwa.

Franciszek Ksawery Drucki-Lubecki

Franciszek Ksawery Drucki-Lubecki 3 Prince Franciszek Ksawery Drucki-Lubecki was an important Polish politician, freemason and diplomat of the first half of the 19th century. He served as the minister of the treasury in the Congress Kingdom of Poland. He was nicknamed "Small Prince" because of his short height.

Feliks Konarski

Feliks Konarski 3 Feliks Konarski was a Polish poet, songwriter, and cabaret performer.                               

Kazimierz Michałowski

Kazimierz Michałowski 3 Kazimierz Józef Marian Michałowski was a Polish archaeologist and Egyptologist, art historian, member of the Polish Academy of Sciences, professor ordinarius of the University of Warsaw as well as the founder of the Polish Centre of Mediterranean Archaeology. He coined the term "Nubiology" to refer to the study of ancient Nubia.

Juliusz Rómmel

Juliusz Rómmel 3 Juliusz Karol Wilhelm Józef Rómmel was a Polish military commander, a general of the Polish Armed Forces.

Stanisław Barcewicz

Stanisław Barcewicz 3 Stanisław Barcewicz was a Polish violinist, conductor and teacher. Although his repertoire included almost all of the classical and romantic violin literature, he was valued primarily for his interpretations of works by Henryk Wieniawski and Felix Mendelssohn. He also premiered works by his teacher Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky, including the Polish premiere of the Violin Concerto in D. He played on a Guadagnini violin.

Pablo Picasso

Pablo Picasso 3 Pablo Ruiz Picasso was a Spanish painter, sculptor, printmaker, ceramicist, and theatre designer who spent most of his adult life in France. One of the most influential artists of the 20th century, he is known for co-founding the Cubist movement, the invention of constructed sculpture, the co-invention of collage, and for the wide variety of styles that he helped develop and explore. Among his most famous works are the proto-Cubist Les Demoiselles d'Avignon (1907) and the anti-war painting Guernica (1937), a dramatic portrayal of the bombing of Guernica by German and Italian air forces during the Spanish Civil War.

Ferdynand Ruszczyc

Ferdynand Ruszczyc 3 Ferdynand Ruszczyc (1870–1936) was Polish painter, printmaker, and stage designer. He was a member of the aristocratic Ruszczyc de Lis family.

Adam Bień

Adam Bień 3 Adam Bień – polski polityk ruchu ludowego, adwokat, sędzia, członek władz Polskiego Państwa Podziemnego. Kawaler Orderu Orła Białego.

Władysław Sebyła

Władysław Sebyła 3 Władysław Sebyła (1902–1940) was a Polish poet, a member of the Kwadryga (Four-in-Hand) literary group, which also included Konstanty Ildefons Gałczyński and Stefan Flukowski. He was executed in Kharkiv.

Jerzy Iwanow-Szajnowicz

Jerzy Iwanow-Szajnowicz 3 Jerzy Iwanow-Szajnowicz was a Polish-Greek athlete who fought as a saboteur in the Greek Resistance during World War II and was executed by the Germans.

Aleksander Czekanowski

Aleksander Czekanowski 3 Aleksander Piotr Czekanowski, or Aleksandr Lavrentyevich Chekanovsky was a Polish geologist and explorer of Siberia during his exile after participating in the January Uprising. He took part in and later led several expeditions, surveying and mapping the geology of Eastern Siberia. He was released from exile in 1875, and in 1876 took up the post of custodian in the Mineralogical Museum of the Academy of Sciences.

Eugeniusz Paukszta

Eugeniusz Paukszta 3 Eugeniusz Paukszta – polski powieściopisarz i publicysta.                                           

Zbigniew Religa

Zbigniew Religa 3 Zbigniew Eugeniusz Religa was a Polish cardiac surgeon and politician.                             

Louis Braille

Louis Braille 3 Louis Braille was a French educator and the inventor of a reading and writing system named after him, braille, intended for use by visually impaired people. His system is used worldwide and remains virtually unchanged to this day.

Antoni Stabik

Antoni Stabik 3 Antoni Stabik – polski ksiądz katolicki, poeta, autor polskich wierszy zamieszczanych na łamach prasy oraz zebranych w tomie Żarty nieżarty wydanym w 1848 roku w Raciborzu. Autor pierwszego kalendarza polskiego na Górnym Śląsku wydawanego w Gliwicach w latach 1845-1850.

Franciszek Żymirski

Franciszek Żymirski 3 Franciszek Żymirski herbu Jastrzębiec – generał polski, dowódca 2 dywizji piechoty, kawaler orderu Virtuti Militari.

Wacław Aleksander Lachman

Wacław Aleksander Lachman 3 Wacław Aleksander Lachman – kompozytor, dyrygent, pedagog, autor podręczników i śpiewników, animator życia muzycznego, zasłużony dla muzyki chóralnej w Polsce, także bardzo aktywny społecznik i patriota.

Franciszek Salezy Jezierski

Franciszek Salezy Jezierski 3 Franciszek Salezy Jezierski (1740–1791) was a Polish writer, social and political activist of the Enlightenment period. A Catholic priest, he was involved with the creation of the Commission of National Education. Member of the Hugo Kołłątaj's Forge. Librarian of the Jagiellonian University. Supporter of the radical reforms, he attacked the privileges of the nobility and supporter the causes of burghers and peasants.

Jan Rekowski-Styp

Jan Rekowski-Styp 3 Jan Rekowski-Styp, również Jan Styp-Rekowski – włościanin kaszubski, działacz Związku Polaków w Niemczech, więzień niemieckiego obozu koncentracyjnego.

Jerzy Waldorff

Jerzy Waldorff 3 Jerzy Waldorff-Preyss of the Nabram coat of arms was a Polish media personality, public intellectual, socialite, music critic and music aficionado. He wrote over twenty books, mostly on the subject of classical music and society. Waldorff is known as "the last baron of the Polish People's Republic".

Izydor Gulgowski

Izydor Gulgowski 3 Izydor Gulgowski, także Ernst Seefried-Gulgowski – nauczyciel, współzałożyciel Kaszubskiego Towarzystwa Ludoznawczego w Kartuzach, poeta kaszubski, dziennikarz, publicysta, porucznik Wojska Polskiego, współtwórca wraz z żoną Teodorą pierwszego skansenu na ziemiach polskich we Wdzydzach.


Archimedes 3 Archimedes of Syracuse was an Ancient Greek mathematician, physicist, engineer, astronomer, and inventor from the ancient city of Syracuse in Sicily. Although few details of his life are known, he is regarded as one of the leading scientists in classical antiquity. Considered the greatest mathematician of ancient history, and one of the greatest of all time, Archimedes anticipated modern calculus and analysis by applying the concept of the infinitely small and the method of exhaustion to derive and rigorously prove a range of geometrical theorems. These include the area of a circle, the surface area and volume of a sphere, the area of an ellipse, the area under a parabola, the volume of a segment of a paraboloid of revolution, the volume of a segment of a hyperboloid of revolution, and the area of a spiral.

Czesław Janczarski

Czesław Janczarski 3 Czeslaw Janczarski was a Polish writer of children's books as well as a translator from the Russian language.

Zbigniew Przybyszewski

Zbigniew Przybyszewski 3 Zbigniew Przybyszewski (1907–1952) was a Polish military officer and a Commander in the Polish Navy. During the early stages of World War II he served with distinction as the commanding officer of the coastal artillery station at Hel Peninsula. After the war he returned to Poland from a prisoner of war camp and resumed his service, rising to the post of CO Coastal Artillery and deputy commander of the Naval Branch of the General Staff. Arrested by Stalinist authorities under false charges of espionage, he was sentenced to death in a show trial and executed.

Józef Toczyski

Józef Toczyski 3 Józef Toczyski – naczelnik Wydziału Skarbu Rządu Narodowego.                                       

Władysław Odonic

Władysław Odonic 3 Władysław Odonic, nicknamed Plwacz or the Spitter, was a duke of Kalisz 1207–1217, duke of Poznań 1216–1217, ruler of Ujście in 1223, ruler of Nakło from 1225, and duke of all Greater Poland 1229–1234; from 1234 until his death he was ruler over only the north and east of the Warta river.

Augustyn Szamarzewski

Augustyn Szamarzewski 3 Augustyn Szamarzewski – polski działacz społeczny i ksiądz związany z Wielkopolską.                 

Bernard Chrzanowski

Bernard Chrzanowski 3 Bernard Chrzanowski was a Polish social and political activist, president of the Union of the Greater Poland Falcons "Sokół".

Walerian Czuma

Walerian Czuma 3 Walerian Czuma was a Polish general and military commander. He is notable for his command over a Polish unit in Siberia during the Russian Civil War, and the commander of the defence of Warsaw during the siege in 1939.

Władysław Raczkiewicz

Władysław Raczkiewicz 3 Władysław Raczkiewicz was a Polish politician, lawyer, diplomat and President of Poland-in-exile from 1939 until his death in 1947. Until 1945, he was the internationally recognized Polish head of state, and the Polish government-in-exile was recognized as the continuation of the Polish government of 1939.

Stanisław Trembecki

Stanisław Trembecki 3 Stanisław Trembecki was a Polish Enlightenment poet and translator, well known for his poems Na dzień siódmy września and Nadgrobek hajduka that are said to have started a new trend in Polish political lyric poetry. He was also the poet laureate in the court of Tulchyn, now in Ukraine.

Jan Piotr Szturmowski

Jan Piotr Szturmowski 3 Jan Piotr Szturmowski – polski rolnik, polityk i działacz społeczny, poseł na Sejm I,II i III kadencji w II RP z ramienia Związku Ludowo-Narodowego oraz Stronnictwa Narodowego.

Оксинский, Юзеф

Оксинский, Юзеф 3 Юзеф Оксинский — польский националист, революционер. Активный участник Польского восстания 1863 года. Майор повстанческих войск.

Juliusz Kraziewicz

Juliusz Kraziewicz 3 Juliusz Bernard Kraziewicz – polski działacz oświatowo-gospodarczy.                                 

Alexander Herzen

Alexander Herzen 3 Alexander Ivanovich Herzen was a Russian writer and thinker known as the precursor of Russian socialism and one of the main precursors of agrarian populism. With his writings, many composed while exiled in London, he attempted to influence the situation in Russia, contributing to a political climate that led to the emancipation of the serfs in 1861. He published the important social novel Who is to Blame? (1845–46). His autobiography, My Past and Thoughts, is often considered one of the best examples of that genre in Russian literature.

Krzysztof Żegocki

Krzysztof Żegocki 3 Krzysztof Jan Żegocki was a commander of partisan units which fought with Sweden during 1655–1659. He was also a voivod of Inowrocław, bishop of Chełm, starosta of Babimost and Konin, supporter of Michał Korybut Wiśniowiecki.

Pan Kleks

Pan Kleks 3 Professor Ambroży Kleks, commonly referred to as Pan Kleks, is a fictional character in the Pan Kleks series, a trilogy of books written by Polish author Jan Brzechwa. He is depicted as the founder and headmaster of a magical academy for wizards that is attended by boys whose names begin with the letter "A". Kleks is depicted as a tall and eccentric man with a bushy beard, who wears a velvet frock coat over a waistcoat with numerous pockets. Among his magical abilities is his ability to change his size.

Jerzy Różycki

Jerzy Różycki 3 Jerzy Witold Różycki was a Polish mathematician and cryptologist who worked at breaking German Enigma-machine ciphers before and during World War II.

Paweł Cyms

Paweł Cyms 3 Paweł Cyms was a soldier of the Imperial German Army and captain of infantry in the Second Polish Republic. He fought in World War I, Greater Poland Uprising (1918–19), Silesian Uprisings, Invasion of Poland, and in the Home Army during World War II.

Onufry Kopczyński

Onufry Kopczyński 3 Onufry Kopczyński was an important educator and grammarian of the Polish language during the Polish Enlightenment.

Władysław Strzemiński

Władysław Strzemiński 3 Władysław Strzemiński was a Polish painter, art theoretician and pedagogue. He is regarded as a pioneer of Constructivist avant-garde of the 1920s and 1930s and the developer of the theory of unism.

Hieronim Dekutowski

Hieronim Dekutowski 3 Hieronim Dekutowski was a Polish boy scout and soldier, who fought in Polish September Campaign, was a member of the elite forces Cichociemni, fought in the Home Army and after World War II, fought the communist regime as one of commanders of Wolność i Niezawisłość.

Jakub Świnka

Jakub Świnka 3 Jakub Świnka was a Polish Catholic priest, the Archbishop of Gniezno and a notable politician and statesman, supporter of the idea of unification of all Polish lands under the rule of Władysław I the Elbow-high. His coat of arms was Świnka.

Wiktor Czajewski

Wiktor Czajewski 3 Wiktor Czajewski – literat, dziennikarz, historyk, wydawca gazet i właściciel drukarni prasowej; badacz kurpiowskiej Puszczy Zielonej.

Eugeniusz Bodo

Eugeniusz Bodo 3 Eugeniusz Bodo was a film director, producer, and one of the most popular Polish actors and comedians of the interwar period. He starred in some of the most popular Polish film productions of the 1930s, including His Excellency, The Shop Assistant, Czy Lucyna to dziewczyna?, and Pieśniarz Warszawy.

Andrzej Niemojewski

Andrzej Niemojewski 3 Andrzej Niemojewski was a Polish social and political activist, poet, rationalist and writer of the Young Poland period.

Oddział Antoniego Jeziorańskiego

Oddział Antoniego Jeziorańskiego 3 Oddział Antoniego Jeziorańskiego – partia powstańcza okresu powstania styczniowego, operująca w Łódzkiem a potem w Małopolsce.

Julian Korsak

Julian Korsak 3 Julian Korsak – polski poeta i tłumacz, przedstawiciel romantyzmu krajowego.                       

Karol Bohdanowicz

Karol Bohdanowicz 3 Karol Bohdanowicz was a Polish geologist, an expert in mining geology and physical geography. Bohdanowicz' research contributed to the construction of the Caspian railway line and enabled the estimation of oil deposits in the desert areas of the Caspian Depression. He also discovered substantial gold deposits in Siberia. He was the author of about 200 scientific papers, including a number of textbooks on geology of deposits and two monographs: 'Mineral raw materials of the world' and 'Iron ores'.

Vladislaus II of Opole

Vladislaus II of Opole 3 Vladislaus II of Opole, nicknamed Naderspan, was Duke of Opole from 1356, Count palatine of Hungary (1367–1372), Duke of Wieluń (1370–1392), Governor of Ruthenia (1372–1378), Count palatine of Poland (1378) as well as Duke of Dobrzyń, Inowrocław (1378–1392), Krnov and Kuyavia (1385–1392).

Stefan Myczkowski

Stefan Myczkowski 3 Stefan Myczkowski – profesor botaniki leśnej i ekologii lasu na Wydziale Leśnym Akademii Rolniczej w Krakowie oraz w Zakładzie Ochrony Przyrody Polskiej Akademii Nauk, wicedyrektor Instytutu Hodowli Lasu Akademii Rolniczej w Krakowie, przewodniczący Wojewódzkiego Komitetu Ochrony Przyrody, wiceprzewodniczący Komitetu Nauk Leśnych PAN i Ośrodka Dokumentacji Fizjograficznej w Krakowie.

Józef Zieliński (działacz robotniczy)

Józef Zieliński (działacz robotniczy) 3 Józef Zieliński, pseud. dr Józef Zielczak, krypt. J. Z. – jeden z pierwszych polskich lekarzy-higienistów, społecznik, działacz anarchistyczny i socjalistyczny, publicysta i wydawca prasy społeczno-politycznej, w późniejszych latach urzędnik w Ministerstwie Pracy, inicjator wielu ustaw i zarządzeń z dziedziny higieny pracy.

Jan Czerski

Jan Czerski 3 Jan Stanisław Franciszek Czerski, also Ivan Dementievich Chersky or Yan Dominikovich Chersky was a Russian and Polish paleontologist, osteologist, geologist, geographer and explorer of Siberia.

Jan Klemens Branicki

Jan Klemens Branicki 3 Count Jan Klemens Branicki was a Polish nobleman, magnate and Hetman, Field Crown Hetman of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth between 1735 and 1752, and Great Crown Hetman between 1752 and 1771. One of the wealthiest Polish magnates in the 18th century, owner of 12 towns, 257 villages and 17 palaces. He was the last male representative of the Branicki family.

Maurice Ravel

Maurice Ravel 3 Joseph Maurice Ravel was a French composer, pianist and conductor. He is often associated with Impressionism along with his elder contemporary Claude Debussy, although both composers rejected the term. In the 1920s and 1930s Ravel was internationally regarded as France's greatest living composer.

Błażej Stolarski

Błażej Stolarski 3 Błażej Stolarski – polski działacz społeczny i polityczny, jeden z przywódców ruchu ludowego, etnograf i publicysta, członek Zarządu Koła Parlamentarnego Obozu Zjednoczenia Narodowego w 1938 roku, członek Prezydium Rady Naczelnej OZN w 1939 roku.

Henryk Czeczott

Henryk Czeczott 3 Henryk Czeczott – polski inżynier, profesor Akademii Górniczej w Krakowie, kierownik Katedry Górnictwa.

Pius Weloński

Pius Weloński 3 Pius Weloński – polski rzeźbiarz, malarz.                                                           

Władysław Pytlasiński

Władysław Pytlasiński 3 Władysław Pytlasiński – polski zapaśnik, mistrz świata i trener, oficer Policji Państwowej. Ze względu na swój wkład w rozwój polskiego zapaśnictwa jest nazywany „ojcem polskich zapasów”.

Wilhelm Mach

Wilhelm Mach 3 Wilhelm Mach, pen names il., Quidam, s., S., Współpracownik was a Polish writer, essayist, poet and literary critic.

Władysław Bortnowski

Władysław Bortnowski 3 Władysław Bortnowski was a Polish historian, military commander and one of the highest ranking generals of the Polish Army. He is most famous for commanding the Pomorze Army in the Battle of Bzura during the invasion of Poland in 1939. He is also notable for serving as president of the Józef Piłsudski Institute of America between 1961 and 1962.

Helena Mniszek

Helena Mniszek 3 Helena Mniszek was a Polish novelist. She was born in Volhynia and died in Sabnie. Her debut novel Trędowata written in 1909 brought her to prominence.

Wojciech Weiss

Wojciech Weiss 3 Wojciech Weiss was a prominent Polish painter and draughtsman of the Young Poland movement.         

Władysław Gurgacz

Władysław Gurgacz 3 Władysław Gurgacz was a Polish Catholic priest, member of the Society of Jesus, and chaplain of the anti-communist underground.

Władysław Wiewiórowski

Władysław Wiewiórowski 3 Władysław Wiewiórowski – nadleśniczy, działacz niepodległościowy, podporucznik i dowódca wrzesińskiego batalionu powstańczego w powstaniu wielkopolskim.

Fryderyk Leyk

Fryderyk Leyk 3 Fryderyk Leyk lub Lejk ps. Mirosław Różyński, Grom – mazurski działacz ludowy, publicysta, poeta.   

Josef Božek

Josef Božek 3 Josef Božek was an engineer and inventor from Cieszyn Silesia. The area was part of the Austrian Empire during much of his life. He is considered one of founders of Czech mechanics. He put into operation one of the first steam engines in the Czech lands. His sons, František and Romuald, also became accomplished engineers.

Stanisław Miłkowski (literat)

Stanisław Miłkowski (literat) 3 Stanisław Miłkowski – polski literat ; powstaniec styczniowy. Autor powieści współczesnych, wspomnień i licznych przekładów.

Tadeusz Kulisiewicz

Tadeusz Kulisiewicz 3 Tadeusz Kulisiewicz – polski grafik i rysownik.                                                     

Philip Neri

Philip Neri 3 Philip Romolo Neri, known as the "Second Apostle of Rome" after Saint Peter, was an Italian Catholic priest noted for founding the Congregation of the Oratory, a society of secular clergy.

Maria Piotrowiczowa

Maria Piotrowiczowa 3 Maria Piotrowiczowa was a Polish January insurgent and a participant of the battle of Dobra. She was born in 1839 and killed on 24 February 1863.

Włodzimierz Steyer

Włodzimierz Steyer 3 Kontradmirał Włodzimierz Steyer was a Polish naval officer before and during the Second World War. During the Invasion of Poland in 1939 he commanded the Polish land forces defending the Hel Peninsula in what became known as the Battle of Hel, the longest-lasting battle of the campaign. After the war he briefly served as the commanding officer of the entire Polish Navy. Steyer was also an author of novels under the pen-name "Brunon Dzimicz".

Stanisław Pruszyński (generał)

Stanisław Pruszyński (generał) 3 Stanisław Napoleon Ursyn-Pruszyński herbu Rawicz – cesarski i królewski szambelan, Feldmarschalleutnant cesarskiej i królewskiej armii, generał dywizji Wojska Polskiego.

Augustine of Hippo

Augustine of Hippo 3 Augustine of Hippo, also known as Saint Augustine, was a theologian and philosopher of Berber origin and the bishop of Hippo Regius in Numidia, Roman North Africa. His writings influenced the development of Western philosophy and Western Christianity, and he is viewed as one of the most important Church Fathers of the Latin Church in the Patristic Period. His many important works include The City of God, On Christian Doctrine, and Confessions.

Józef Szermentowski

Józef Szermentowski 3 Józef Szermentowski, or Szermętowski, was a Polish landscape painter, influenced by the Barbizon School.

Heliodor Święcicki

Heliodor Święcicki 3 Heliodor Święcicki – lekarz ginekolog, społecznik, filantrop, założyciel i pierwszy rektor Wszechnicy Piastowskiej.

Ernest Malinowski

Ernest Malinowski 3 Adam Stanisław Hipolit Ernest Nepomucen Malinowski was a Polish civil engineer best known for constructing the world's highest railway at the time, the Ferrovias Central, in the Peruvian Andes between 1871–1876. He participated in the Battle of Callao in 1866 and was also a corresponding member of the Polish Museum in Rapperswil Society in Switzerland.

Wespazjan Kochowski

Wespazjan Kochowski 3 Wespazjan (Vespasian) Kochowski was one of the most noted historians and poets of Polish Baroque, the most typical representative of the philosophy and literature of Sarmatism.

Maria Sawicka

Maria Sawicka 3 Maria Elżbieta Sawicka – polska działaczka społeczna, adwokat.                                     

Zygmunt Kaczkowski

Zygmunt Kaczkowski 3 Zygmunt Kaczkowski (1825–1896) was a Polish writer, independence activist, and an Austrian spy. He was convicted in 1864 of espionage by an underground court in the January Uprising. There is a consensus that this accomplished writer is today a forgotten figure of Polish literature, virtually erased from national consciousness.

Janusz I the Old

Janusz I the Old 3 Janusz I of Warsaw, also known as Janusz I the Old, was a Polish prince member of the House of Piast in the Masovian branch, from 1373/74 Duke of Warsaw and after the division of the paternal inheritance between him and his brother in 1381, ruler over Nur, Łomża, Liw, Ciechanów, Wyszogród and Zakroczym. In addition, he was a vassal of the Polish Kingdom since 1391 for the fief of Podlachia.

Johann Gottfried Herder

Johann Gottfried Herder 3 Johann Gottfried von Herder was a German philosopher, theologian, poet, and literary critic. He is associated with the Enlightenment, Sturm und Drang, and Weimar Classicism. He was a Romantic philosopher and poet who argued that true German culture was to be discovered among the common people. He also stated that it was through folk songs, folk poetry, and folk dances that the true spirit of the nation was popularized. He is credited with establishing or advancing a number of important disciplines: hermeneutics, linguistics, anthropology, and "a secular philosophy of history."

Saints Faith, Hope and Charity

Saints Faith, Hope and Charity 3 Saints Faith, Hope, and Charity, are a group of Christian martyred saints who are venerated together with their mother, Sophia ("Wisdom").

Ignacy Busza

Ignacy Busza 3 Ignacy Busza – oficer armii niemieckiej, powstaniec wielkopolski, porucznik Wojska Polskiego w II Rzeczypospolitej. Kawaler Orderu Virtuti Militari. Pośmiertnie mianowany kapitanem.

Nikodem Sulik-Sarnowski

Nikodem Sulik-Sarnowski 3 Nikodem Sulik-Sarnowski was an officer of the Russian Imperial Army, and Generał brygady of the Polish Army.

Matthew the Apostle

Matthew the Apostle 3 Matthew the Apostle is named in the New Testament as one of the twelve apostles of Jesus. According to Christian traditions, he was also one of the four Evangelists as author of the Gospel of Matthew, and thus is also known as Matthew the Evangelist.

Jude the Apostle

Jude the Apostle 3 Jude was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus according to the New Testament. He is generally identified as Thaddeus and is also variously called Judas Thaddaeus, Jude Thaddaeus, Jude of James, or Lebbaeus. He is sometimes identified with Jude, the brother of Jesus, but is clearly distinguished from Judas Iscariot, the disciple who betrayed Jesus prior to his crucifixion. Catholic writer Michal Hunt suggests that Judas Thaddaeus became known as Jude after early translators of the New Testament from Greek into English sought to distinguish him from Judas Iscariot and subsequently abbreviated his forename. Most versions of the New Testament in languages other than English and French refer to Judas and Jude by the same name.

Władysław Gębik

Władysław Gębik 3 Władysław Gębik – doktor nauk filozoficznych, pedagog, pisarz, literat, działacz społeczno-kulturalny spod znaku Rodła, członek Związku Polaków w Niemczech, etnograf.

Michał Spisak

Michał Spisak 3 Michał Spisak – polski kompozytor głównie utworów instrumentalnych, stanowiących przykład neoklasycyzmu.

Józef Patelski

Józef Patelski 3 Józef Patelski – polski szlachcic i wojskowy, uczestnik powstania listopadowego odznaczony orderem Virtuti Militari oraz uczestnik powstania styczniowego.

Stanisław Betlej

Stanisław Betlej 3 Stanisław Ludwik Betlej ps. „Lampart” – polski żołnierz, kapitan piechoty Wojska Polskiego.         


Orpheus 3 In Greek mythology, Orpheus was a Thracian bard, legendary musician and prophet. He was also a renowned poet and, according to the legend, travelled with Jason and the Argonauts in search of the Golden Fleece, and even descended into the underworld of Hades, to recover his lost wife Eurydice.

Tony Halik

Tony Halik 3 Tony Halik, born Mieczysław Antoni Sędzimir Halik was a Polish film operator, documentary film-maker, author of travel books, traveller, explorer, and polyglot.

Maria Danilewicz-Zielińska

Maria Danilewicz-Zielińska 3 Maria Danilewicz-Zielińska, z d. Markowska – polska pisarka, prozaiczka, krytyk literacki, bibliotekarka.

John Lennon

John Lennon 3 John Winston Ono Lennon was an English singer, songwriter and musician. He gained worldwide fame as the founder, co-songwriter, co-lead vocalist and rhythm guitarist of the Beatles. His work included music, writing, drawings and film. His songwriting partnership with Paul McCartney remains the most successful in history.

Adam Stefan Sapieha

Adam Stefan Sapieha 3 Prince Adam Stefan Stanisław Bonifacy Józef Cardinal Sapieha was a senior-ranking Polish prelate of the Catholic Church who served as Archbishop of Kraków from 1911 to 1951. Between 1922 and 1923, he was a senator of the Second Polish Republic. In 1946, Pope Pius XII created him a Cardinal.

Jan Czochralski

Jan Czochralski 3 Jan Czochralski was a Polish chemist who invented the Czochralski method, which is used for growing single crystals and in the production of semiconductor wafers. It is still used in over 90 percent of all electronics in the world that use semiconductors. He is the most cited Polish scholar.

Ludwik Musioł

Ludwik Musioł 3 Ludwik Musioł – nauczyciel, wizytator, archiwista, historyk górnośląski, prekursor krajoznawstwa, historyk kultury oraz Kościoła katolickiego, lingwista, etnograf. Autor ponad 300 prac naukowych.

Karol Świerczewski

Karol Świerczewski 3 Karol Wacław Świerczewski was a Polish and Soviet Red Army general and statesman. He was a Bolshevik Party member during the Russian Civil War and a Soviet officer in the wars fought abroad by the Soviet Union including the one against Polish as well as Ukrainian Republics and in Republican Spain. In 1939 he participated in the Soviet invasion of Poland again. At the end of World War II in Europe he was installed as one of leaders of the Soviet-sponsored Polish Provisional Government of National Unity. Soon later, Świerczewski died in a country-road ambush shot by the militants from OUN-UPA. He was an icon of communist propaganda for the following several decades.

Stanisław Herbst

Stanisław Herbst 3 Stanisław Herbst was a Polish historian, researcher of modern history, and military historian. He was a professor at the University of Warsaw and the Dzerzhinsky Political-Military Academy in Warsaw, and was also the president of the Polish Historical Society. Pupils of his included Zdzisław Spieralski and Tomasz Strzembosz.

Kazimierz Grudzielski

Kazimierz Grudzielski 3 Kazimierz Grudzielski – generał porucznik Wojska Polskiego, działacz niepodległościowy, kawaler Orderu Virtuti Militari.

Krzysztof Kieślowski

Krzysztof Kieślowski 3 Krzysztof Kieślowski was a Polish film director and screenwriter. He is known internationally for Dekalog (1989), The Double Life of Veronique (1991), and the Three Colours trilogy (1993 –1994). Kieślowski received numerous awards during his career, including the Cannes Film Festival Jury Prize (1988), FIPRESCI Prize, and Prize of the Ecumenical Jury (1991); the Venice Film Festival FIPRESCI Prize (1989), Golden Lion (1993), and OCIC Award (1993); and the Berlin International Film Festival Silver Bear (1994). In 1995, he received Academy Award nominations for Best Director and Best Original Screenplay.

Anne of Green Gables

Anne of Green Gables 3 Anne of Green Gables is a 1908 novel by Canadian author Lucy Maud Montgomery. Written for all ages, it has been considered a classic children's novel since the mid-20th century. Set in the late 19th century, the novel recounts the adventures of 11-year-old orphan girl Anne Shirley sent by mistake to two middle-aged siblings, Matthew and Marilla Cuthbert, who had originally intended to adopt a boy to help them on their farm in the fictional town of Avonlea in Prince Edward Island, Canada. The novel recounts how Anne makes her way through life with the Cuthberts, in school, and within the town.

Kazimierz Drewnowski

Kazimierz Drewnowski 3 Kazimierz Bolesław Drewnowski – polski profesor, inżynier, rektor Politechniki Warszawskiej, pułkownik łączności Wojska Polskiego.

Teresa Remiszewska

Teresa Remiszewska 3 Teresa Remiszewska-Damsz – polska żeglarka, jachtowy kapitan żeglugi wielkiej, instruktorka żeglarstwa, harcmistrz Związku Harcerstwa Polskiego i członkini Rady Harcerskiego Kręgu Morskiego, prekursorka samotnego kobiecego żeglarstwa w Polsce.

Józef Kałuża

Józef Kałuża 3 Józef Ignacy Kałuża was a Polish footballer and later coach, was one of the legends of Polish sports.

Ryszard Riedel

Ryszard Riedel 3 Ryszard Henryk Riedel was the original lead singer of blues-rock band Dżem. He is often regarded as one of the most popular and well known Silesian vocalist, along with an occasional collaborator Czesław Niemen. Riedel's legacy is remembered by an annual festival, bearing his name, held in his home town of Chorzów, which was moved from Tychy in 2009. He has become one of the most powerful vocalist of Polish music just after Czesław Niemen.

Gerhart Hauptmann

Gerhart Hauptmann 3 Gerhart Johann Robert Hauptmann was a German dramatist and novelist. He is counted among the most important promoters of literary naturalism, though he integrated other styles into his work as well. He received the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1912.

Irena Szewińska

Irena Szewińska 3 Irena Szewińska was a Polish sprinter who was one of the world's foremost track athletes for nearly two decades, in multiple events. She is the only athlete in history, male or female, to have held the world record in the 100 m, the 200 m and the 400 m.

Kazimierz Wiłkomirski

Kazimierz Wiłkomirski 3 Kazimierz Wiłkomirski; was a Polish cellist, composer and conductor. Son of Alfred Wiłkomirski, brother of Maria Wiłkomirska, Wanda Wiłkomirska and violinist Michael Wilkomirski. Graduate of the Moscow Conservatory.

Nikola Tesla

Nikola Tesla 3 Nikola Tesla was a Serbian-American inventor, electrical engineer, mechanical engineer, and futurist. He is known for his contributions to the design of the modern alternating current (AC) electricity supply system.

Jan Łaski

Jan Łaski 3 Jan Łaski or Johannes à Lasco was a Polish Calvinist reformer. Owing to his influential work in England (1548–1553) during the English Reformation, he is known to the English-speaking world by the Anglicised form John à Lasco.

Jan Žižka

Jan Žižka 3 Jan Žižka z Trocnova a Kalicha was a Czech general who was a contemporary and follower of Jan Hus and a Radical Hussite and led the Taborites. Žižka was a successful military leader and is now a Czech national hero. He was nicknamed "One-eyed Žižka", having lost one and then both eyes. Jan Žižka led Hussite forces against three crusades and never lost a single battle although he was completely blind in his last stages of life.

Maciej Kazimierz Sarbiewski

Maciej Kazimierz Sarbiewski 3 Maciej Kazimierz Sarbiewski, was Europe's most prominent Latin poet of the 17th century, and a renowned theoretician of poetics.

Aleksander Bednarczyk

Aleksander Bednarczyk 3 Aleksander Bednarczyk, ps. „Adam” – żołnierz wojny obronnej 1939, członek Armii Krajowej, Zrzeszenia Wolność i Niezawisłość.

Antonio Vivaldi

Antonio Vivaldi 3 Antonio Lucio Vivaldi was an Italian composer, virtuoso violinist and impresario of Baroque music. Along with Johann Sebastian Bach and George Frideric Handel, Vivaldi ranks amongst the greatest Baroque composers and his influence during his lifetime was widespread across Europe, giving origin to many imitators and admirers. He pioneered many developments in orchestration, violin technique and programmatic music. He consolidated the emerging concerto form into a widely accepted and followed idiom.

Anna of Masovia

Anna of Masovia 3 Anna of Masovia was a Polish princess, Titular Duchess of Masovia and the last representative of the Masovian branch of the Piast dynasty.

Antoni Serbeński

Antoni Serbeński 3 Antoni Serbeński – polski malarz, grafik, pedagog.                                                 

Artur Malawski

Artur Malawski 3 Artur Malawski – polski kompozytor, pedagog i dyrygent.                                             

Marian Kukiel

Marian Kukiel 3 Marian Włodzimierz Kukiel was a Polish major general, historian, social and political activist.     

Józef Węgrzyn

Józef Węgrzyn 3 Józef Wegrzyn (1884–1952) was a Polish film actor.                                                 


Gandalf 3 Gandalf is a protagonist in J. R. R. Tolkien's novels The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings. He is a wizard, one of the Istari order, and the leader of the Fellowship of the Ring. Tolkien took the name "Gandalf" from the Old Norse "Catalogue of Dwarves" (Dvergatal) in the Völuspá.

Jacek Woszczerowicz

Jacek Woszczerowicz 3 Marian Jacek Woszczerowicz (1904–1970) was a Polish actor.                                         

Stanisław Szeptycki

Stanisław Szeptycki 3 Stanisław Maria Jan Teofil Szeptycki was a Polish count, general and military commander.           

Olga Drahonowska-Małkowska

Olga Drahonowska-Małkowska 3 Olga Drahonowska-Małkowska, with her husband, founded scouting in Poland.                           

Stanisław Mastalerz

Stanisław Mastalerz 3 Stanisław Mastalerz, ps. Karol Gorczek, Wiktor Gans − kapitan piechoty Wojska Polskiego, działacz niepodległościowy, kawaler Orderu Virtuti Militari, uczestnik powstań śląskich.

Jan Łangowski

Jan Łangowski 3 Jan Łangowski – dziennikarz, działacz Związku Polaków w Niemczech, autor głośnego "Memoriału dotyczącego praw ludności polskiej w Niemczech" z 1929 roku.
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